Seminar Report on Study of Viruses and Worms
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06-01-2011, 12:53 PM





H.Shravan Kumar
KReSIT,
I.I.T. Bombay.

Guide: Prof. Bernard Menezes

Abstract—
One of the most high profie threats to information integrity is the computer virus. In this paper, I am presenting what are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses and their differences, different strategies of virus spreading and case studies of Slammer and Blaster worms.


INTRODUCTION
The internet consists of hundreds of millions of computers distributed around the world. Millions of people use the internet daily, taking full advantage of the available services at both personal and professional levels. The internet connectivity among computers on which the World Wide Web relies, however renders its nodes on easy target for malicious users who attempt to exhaust their resources or damage the data or create a havoc in the network.
Computer Viruses, especially in recent years, have increased dramatically in number. One of the most highprofile threats to information integrity is the Computer Virus. Surprisingly, PC viruses have been around for two-thirds of the IBM PC’s lifetime, appearing in 1986. With global computing on the rise, computer viruses have had more visibility in the past few years. In fact, the entertainment industry has helped by illustrating the effects of viruses in movies such as ”Independence Day”, ”The Net”, and ”Sneakers”. Along with computer viruses, computer worms are also increasing day by day. So, there is a need to immunise the internet by creating awareness in the people about these in detail. In this paper I have explained the basic concepts of viruses and worms and how they spread.
The basic organisation of the paper is as follows. In section 2, give some preliminaries: the definitions of computer virus, worms, trojan horses, as well as some other malicious programs and also basic characteristics of a virus. In section 3, detailed description: describe Malicious Code Environments where virus can propagate, Virus/Worm types overview where different types have been explained, and Categories of worm where the different forms of worm is explained in broad sense. In section 4, File Infection Techniques which describe the various methods of infection mechanisms of a virus. In section 5, Steps in Worm Propagation describe the basic steps that a normal worm will follow for propagation. In section 6 Case studies: two case studies of Slammer worm and blaster worm are discussed.


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04-05-2011, 12:58 PM

Abstract
One of the most high profie threats to informationintegrity is the computer virus. In this paper, I am presentingwhat are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses and their differences,different strategies of virus spreading and case studies ofSlammer and Blaster worms.
I. INTRODUCTION
The internet consists of hundreds of millionsof computers distributed around the world. Millions of peopleuse the internet daily, taking full advantage of the availableservices at both personal and professional levels. The internetconnectivity among computers on which the World Wide Webrelies, however renders its nodes on easy target for malicioususers who attempt to exhaust their resources or damage thedata or create a havoc in the network.Computer Viruses, especially in recent years,have increased dramatically in number. One of the most highprofilethreats to information integrity is the Computer Virus.Surprisingly, PC viruses have been around for two-thirds of theIBM PC’s lifetime, appearing in 1986. With global computingon the rise, computer viruses have had more visibility inthe past few years. In fact, the entertainment industry hashelped by illustrating the effects of viruses in movies such as”Independence Day”, ”The Net”, and ”Sneakers”. Along withcomputer viruses, computer worms are also increasing day byday. So, there is a need to immunise the internet by creatingawareness in the people about these in detail. In this paper Ihave explained the basic concepts of viruses and worms andhow they spread.The basic organisation of the paper is as follows.In section 2, give some preliminaries: the definitions ofcomputer virus, worms, trojan horses, as well as some othermalicious programs and also basic characteristics of a virus.In section 3, detailed description: describe Malicious CodeEnvironments where virus can propagate, Virus/Worm typesoverview where different types have been explained, and Categoriesof worm where the different forms of worm is explainedin broad sense. In section 4, File Infection Techniques whichdescribe the various methods of infection mechanisms of avirus. In section 5, Steps in Worm Propagation describe thebasic steps that a normal worm will follow for propagation.In section 6 Case studies: two case studies of Slammer wormand blaster worm are discussed.
II. PRELIMINARIES
A. Virus:A self-replicating program. Some definitionsalso add the constraint saying that it has to attach itself to ahost program to be able to replicate. Often Viruses require ahost, and their goal is to infect other files so that the virus canlive longer. Some viruses perform destructive actions althoughthis is not necessarily the case.Many viruses attempt to hidefrom being discovered.A virus might rapidly infect every file on individualcomputer or slowly infect the documents on thecomputer, but it does not intentionally try to spread itselffrom that computer (infected computer) to other. In mostcases, that’s where humans come in. We send e-mail documentattachments, trade programs on diskettes, or copy files to fileservers. When the next unsuspecting user receives the infectedfile or disk, they spread the virus to their computers, and soon.
B. Worms:Worms are insiduos because they rely less (ornot at all) upon human behaviour in order to spread themselvesfrom one computer to others. The computer worm is a programthat is designed to copy itself from one computer to another,leveraging some network medium: e-mail, TCP/IP, etc. Theworm is more interested in infecting as many machines aspossible on the network, and less interested in spreading manycopies of itself on a single computer (like a computer virus).The prototypical worm infects (or causes its code to run on)target system only once; after the initial infection, the wormattempts to spread to other machines on the network.Some researchers define worms as a sub-typeof Viruses. In early years the worms are considered as theproblem of Mainframes only. But this has changed after theInternet become wide spread; worms quickly accustomed towindows and started to send themselves through networkfunctions.Some categories that come under worms are_Mailers and Mass-Mailer worms_Octopus_Rabbits
C. Trojan Horses:A Trojan Horse is a one which pretend to beuseful programs but do some unwanted action. Most trojansactivate when they are run and sometimes destroy the structureof the current drive (FATs, directories, etc.) obliteratingthemselves in the process. These does not require a host anddoes not replicate.A special type is the backdoor trojan, whichdoes not do anything overtly destructive, but sets your computeropen for remote control and unauthorised access.
D. Others:There are other types of malicious programsapart from Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses. Some of themare described below.
1) Logic Bombs:: A logic bomb is a programmed malfunctionof a legitimate application. These are intentionally insertedin otherwise good code. They remains hidden with only theireffects are being visible. These are not replicated. Bugs doeverything except make more bugs.
2) Germs:: These are first-generation viruses in a form thatthe virus cannot generate to its usual infection process. Whenthe virus is compiled for the first time, it exists in a specialform and normally does not have a host program attached toit. Germs will not have the usual marks that the most virusesuse in second-generation form to flag infected files to avoidreinfecting an already infected object.
3) Exploits:: Exploit is specific to single vulnerability or setof vulnerabilities. Its goal is to run a program (possibly remote,networked) system automatically or provide some other formof more highly previliged access to the target system.
E. Characteristics:The following are some of the characteristicsof Viruses:
1) Size - The sizes of the program code required forcomputer viruses are very small.
2) Versatility - Computer viruses have appeared with theability to generically attack a wide variety of applications.
3) Propagation - Once a computer virus has infected aprogram, while this program is running, the virus is ableto spread to other programs and files accessible to thecomputer system.
4) Effectiveness - Many of the computer viruses havefar-reaching and catastrophic effects on their victims,including total loss of data, programs, and even theoperating systems.
5) Functionality - A wide variety of functions has beendemonstrated in virus programs. Some virus programsmerely spread themselves to applications without attackingdata files, program functions, or operating systemactivities. Other viruses are programmed to damage ordelete files, and even to destroy systems.
6) Persistence - In many cases, especially networked operations,eradication of viruses has been complicated by theability of virus program to repeatedly spread and reoccurthrough the networked system from a single copy.
III. DETAILED DESCRIPTION
A. Malicious Code EnvironmentsIt is important to know about the particularexecution environments to understand about ComputerViruses. A successful penetration of the system by a viralcode occurs only if the various dependencies of malicious codematch a potential environment. The following are some of thevarious malicious code environments

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20-03-2012, 01:16 PM

Study of Viruses and Worms


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I. INTRODUCTION
The internet consists of hundreds of millions
of computers distributed around the world. Millions of people
use the internet daily, taking full advantage of the available
services at both personal and professional levels. The internet
connectivity among computers on which the World Wide Web
relies, however renders its nodes on easy target for malicious
users who attempt to exhaust their resources or damage the
data or create a havoc in the network.
Computer Viruses, especially in recent years,
have increased dramatically in number. One of the most highprofile
threats to information integrity is the Computer Virus.
Surprisingly, PC viruses have been around for two-thirds of the
IBM PC’s lifetime, appearing in 1986. With global computing
on the rise, computer viruses have had more visibility in
the past few years. In fact, the entertainment industry has
helped by illustrating the effects of viruses in movies such as
”Independence Day”, ”The Net”, and ”Sneakers”. Along with
computer viruses, computer worms are also increasing day by
day. So, there is a need to immunise the internet by creating
awareness in the people about these in detail. In this paper I
have explained the basic concepts of viruses and worms and
how they spread.



PRELIMINARIES
A. Virus:

A self-replicating program. Some definitions
also add the constraint saying that it has to attach itself to a
host program to be able to replicate. Often Viruses require a
host, and their goal is to infect other files so that the virus can
live longer. Some viruses perform destructive actions although
this is not necessarily the case.Many viruses attempt to hide
from being discovered.


The following are some of the characteristics
of Viruses:


1) Size - The sizes of the program code required for
computer viruses are very small.
2) Versatility - Computer viruses have appeared with the
ability to generically attack a wide variety of applications.
3) Propagation - Once a computer virus has infected a
program, while this program is running, the virus is able
to spread to other programs and files accessible to the
computer system.
4) Effectiveness - Many of the computer viruses have
far-reaching and catastrophic effects on their victims,
including total loss of data, programs, and even the
operating systems.
5) Functionality - A wide variety of functions has been
demonstrated in virus programs. Some virus programs
merely spread themselves to applications without attacking
data files, program functions, or operating system
activities. Other viruses are programmed to damage or
delete files, and even to destroy systems.
6) Persistence - In many cases, especially networked operations,
eradication of viruses has been complicated by the
ability of virus program to repeatedly spread and reoccur
through the networked system from a single copy.

III. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A. Malicious Code Environments
It is important to know about the particular
execution environments to understand about Computer
Viruses. A successful penetration of the system by a viral
code occurs only if the various dependencies of malicious code
match a potential environment. The following are some of the

various malicious code environments

1) Computer Architecture Dependency
2) CPU Dependency
3) Operating System Dependency and Operating System
version Dependency
4) File System Dependency
5) File Form Dependency
6) Interpreted Environment Dependency
7) Vulnerability Dependency
8) Date and Time Dependency
9) Just-In-Time Dependency
10) Achieve Format Dependency






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