Smart Bombs
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computer science crazy
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07-04-2009, 09:30 PM


Smart bombs are weapons capable of destroying enemy targets with out the need for a launch aircraft to penetrate the envelops of the air defense systems. These essentially comprise a terminal guidance unit that guides them in the last phase to achieve pinpoint accuracy. Increased accuracy means that a single, moderate-size bomb can give a better result than multiple strikes with larger, non-guided bombs.

Smart bombs are desirable both from ethical and tactical standpoints. On ethical grounds, the military desires that each warhead deployed should strike only its indented target so that innocent civilians are not harmed by misfire. From tactical standpoint, it wants weapons with pinpoint accuracy to inflict maximum damage on valid military targets and minimize the number of strikes necessary to achieve mission objectives. Gravity bombs with laser or GPS/INS guidance are smart bombs that have changed the face of modern warfare

Laser-Guided Bombs

Laser-guided bombs have an internal semi-active guidance system that detects laser energy and guides the weapon to the target illuminated by an external laser designator.Laser designators radiate a narrow beam of pulsed energy in the near infrared wavelength spectrum. These are semi active illuminators used to tag the desired spot. These can be aimed such that laser energy precisely designates the chosen spot on the target. Laser designator can be located in the delivery aircraft, another aircraft or on a ground source.

Typical LGB seekers comprise an array of photo diodes to decode the laser pulsed repetition frequency (PRF) and derive target position signals. Laser designators and seekers use a pulse coding system to ensure that a specific seeker and designator combination work in harmony. By setting the same code in both the designator and the seeker will track only the target designated by the chosen designator.

Laser designators provide precision target marking for air support. LGBs with TV or infrared seeker in their nose show the target to the attacking pilot on a screen in the cockpit. The pilot fixes cross hairs on the target and marks it for the weapon to aim at. The target scatters the received laser energy in all the directions. LGB seeker having a limited field of view receives a small part of the scattered energy and decodes it. If the received PRF code matches the preprogrammed code, the pilot fires the bomb. It then horns onto the reflected laser energy to attack the target

Some LGBs require laser target illumination before launch or release and/ or during the terminal portion of flight. The LGB flight path can be divided into three phases: ballistic, transition, and terminal guidance.

During the ballistic phase, the weapon continues on the unguided trajectory established by the flight path of the delivery aircraft at the moment of release. In this phase, the delivery altitude takes on additional importance, since maneuverability of the unguided bomb is related to the weapon velocity during terminal guidance. Therefore, airspeed lost during the ballistic phase equated to a proportional loss of maneuverability. So the closer to the target the release of the bomb, the more the accuracy of the bomb

The transition phase is where initial acquisition of the designating laser takes place. During this phase, the weapon attempts to align its velocity vector with the line of sight vector to the target. Once a lock has been achieved, the guidance system uses the canards to try and keep the bomb within the cone of the reflected laser energy.

The terminal phase is when the reflected laser centers on the seeker causing the bomb to dive to the target. LGBs are excellent performers in dive deliveries initiated from medium altitude. A steep, fast dive attack increases LGB maneuvering potential and flight ability. Medium-altitude attacks generally reduce target acquisition problems and more readily allow for target designation by either ground or airborne designation platforms. Medium-altitude LGB dive delivery tactics are normally used in areas of low to medium threat.

LGBs miss the target if the laser is turned on too early: During certain delivery profiles where the LGB sees laser energy as soon as it is released, it can turn from its delivery profile too soon and miss by failing short of the target. To prevent this, the laser designator must be turned on at the time that will preclude the bomb from turning down toward the target prematurely. Normally, the pilot knows the proper moment for laser 'on'. The specific LGB and the delivery tactics of the attacking aircraft dictate the minimum designation time required to guide the weapon to the intended target.

The four basic requirements for effective use of laser designators with LGBs are:
1. The PRF code of the laser designator and the LGB must be compatible
2. A direction of attack must be determined because the LGB must be able to sense sufficient laser energy reflecting from the target being designated.
3. The laser designator must designate the target at the correct time.
4. The delivery system must release the weapon within the specific weapon's delivery envelope.
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21-07-2009, 06:11 PM

i want to know more
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01-08-2009, 02:08 PM

hi i am an mechanical eng student .... i am trying to put up an seminar and presentation on smart bombs i would like to have more information and pictures on this topic ..... pls help ........
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28-08-2009, 05:14 AM

read Precision-guided munitions (PGMs, smart munitions, smart bombs, guided bomb units or GBUs) are guided weapons intended to precisely hit a specific target, and to minimize damage to things other than the target A guided bomb differs from a guided missile in that a bomb relies on the speed and height of the launch aircraft for propulsion, whilst a missile has an onboard engine.

Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon fall off with distance according to a power law, even modest improvements in accuracy (and hence reduction in miss distance) enable a target to be effectively attacked with fewer or smaller bombs. Thus, even if some bombs miss, fewer air crews are put at risk and the harm to civilians and the amount of collateral damage may be somewhat reduced.
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03-03-2011, 11:22 AM

.ppt   smart bomb.ppt (Size: 1.49 MB / Downloads: 228)

 What are Smart Bombs?
 History
 World war I
 World war II
LASER Guided Bombs
Operating Principle of LGBs
Flight Path of an LGB
LASER Designators

 Requirements for effective use:
 The PRF code of the laser designator and the LGB must be compatible.
 A direction of attack must be determined.
 The laser designator must designate the target at the correct time.
 The delivery system must release the weapon within the specific weapon's delivery envelope.
Important Modules of LGBs
Commercially Available LGBs

 Paveway LGBs
 Paveway I
 Paveway II
 Paveway III
 Bombe a Guided Laser( BGL )
 Griffin
Commercially Available LASER Designator Systems
 Lantirn
 Litening
Joint Directive Attack Munition( JDAM )
Operating Principle of JDAMs
 Combat Availability
 Weapons Carried
 Aircraft Vulnerability
 Weapon Range
 Cost
Smart weapons have made bombing truly strategic. No longer a country needs to send hundreds of bombers to destroy one target.
 As technology continues to advance, the face of warfare will continue to change.

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30-03-2011, 03:05 PM

Presented by:

.ppt   Smart Bomb.ppt (Size: 456.5 KB / Downloads: 145)
fuze time-delay system
target-proximity sensor
impact sensor
dumb bomb smart bomb
simply falls to the ground
dozens for a single target
control their fall
hit a designated target
• smart bomb = bomb
• +
• electronic sensor system
• +
a built-in control system
• +
set of adjustable flight fins
• +
a battery
• sensor system feeds the control system the relative
position of the target
control system processes information and figures
out how the bomb should turn to
steer toward the target
• to turn the bomb the control system sends a message to actuators that adjust the flight fins
fins work the same basic way as the various flaps on an airplane
the adjustment process continues until the smart bomb reaches its target and the fuze mechanism sets off the explosive
TV / IR - guided
laser - guided
satellite - guided
TV/IR guided bomb
» conventional television video camera or an infrared camera
» relays information through radio signals
manual and automatic
Laser guided bomb
» laser seeker - an array of photo diodes
» has to "paint" the designated target with a high-intensity laser beam
» laser designator has its own unique pulse pattern
» laser beam reflects off the target, and the laser seeker picks it up
» control system's basic goal is to steer the bomb so that the reflected laser beam is hitting near the center of the seeker
major drawback
maintain visual contact with the target
• Satellite guided bomb
» adjustable tail fins
» a control computer
» inertial guidance system
» GPS receiver
» GPS receiver figures out its position by interpreting GPS satellite signals
» inertial guidance system monitors the bomb's movements, tracking its path from its launch position
» feeds the bomb's computer its current position and the GPS coordinates of the target
» accurate
» visual contact not required, hence can be used during bad weather
• advantages of smart bombs
target to be effectively attacked fewer or smaller bombs less harm to civilians minimize damage
• disadvantages of smart bombs
they require smarter, complex software human errors always present design must be bug free
cost too much
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04-04-2011, 10:51 AM

i suggest you must read following threads for getting more idea about the topic electromagnetic bomb or Ebomb
topicideashow-to-e-bomb-seminar and presentation-report
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