Soft Computing
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02-10-2010, 03:03 PM



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Introduction
The basic ideas underlying soft computing in its current incarnation have links to many earlier influences, among them Prof. Zadeh’s 1965 paper on fuzzy sets; the 1973 paper on the analysis of complex systems and decision processes; and the 1979 report (1981 paper) on possibility theory and soft data analysis.

The principal constituents of soft computing (SC) are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory.
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23-02-2011, 11:57 AM


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ABSTRACT
Soft computing is a term applied to a field within computer science which is characterized by the use of inexact solutions to computationally-hard tasks such as the solution of NP-complete problems, for which an exact solution cannot be derived in polynomial time.
Soft Computing became a formal Computer Science area of study in the early 1990's. Earlier computational approaches could model and precisely analyze only relatively simple systems. More complex systems arising in biology, medicine, the humanities, management sciences, and similar fields often remained intractable to conventional mathematical and analytical methods. That said, it should be pointed out that simplicity and complexity of systems are relative, and many conventional mathematical models have been both challenging and very productive. Soft computing deals with imprecision, uncertainty, partial truth, and approximation to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost.
Introduction:
 The idea of soft computing was initiated in 1981 when Lotfi A. Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis “What is Soft Computing”, Soft Computing. Springer-Verlag Germany/USA 1997.].
 Zadeh, defined Soft Computing into one multidisciplinary system as the fusion of the fields of Fuzzy Logic, Neuro-Computing, Evolutionary and Genetic Computing, and Probabilistic Computing.
 Soft Computing is the fusion of methodologies designed to model and enable solutions to real world problems, which are not modeled or too difficult to model mathematically.
 The aim of Soft Computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, approximate reasoning, and partial truth in order to achieve close resemblance with human like decision making.
Definition of Soft Computing (SC)
Lotfi A. Zadeh, 1992 : “Soft Computing is an emerging approach to computing which parallel the remarkable ability of the human mind to reason and learn in a environment of uncertainty and imprecision”.
Soft Computing is still growing and developing. Hence, a clear definite agreement on what comprises Soft Computing has not yet been reached. More new sciences are still merging into Soft Computing.
The Soft Computing consists of several computing paradigms mainly:
Fuzzy Systems, Neural Networks, and Genetic Algorithms.
• Fuzzy set: for knowledge representation via fuzzy. If – Then rules.
• Neural Networks: for learning and adaptation
• Genetic Algorithms: for evolutionary computation
Generally speaking, soft computing techniques resemble biological processes more closely than traditional techniques, which are largely based on formal logical systems, such as sentential logic and predicate logic, or rely heavily on computer-aided numerical analysis (as in finite element analysis). Soft computing techniques are intended to complement each other.
Unlike hard computing schemes, which strive for exactness and full truth, soft computing techniques exploit the given tolerance of imprecision, partial truth, and uncertainty for a particular problem. Another common contrast comes from the observation that inductive reasoning plays a larger role in soft computing than in hard computing
Goals of Soft Computing:
Soft Computing is a new multidisciplinary field, to construct new generation of Artificial Intelligence, known as Computational Intelligence.
 The main goal of Soft Computing is to develop intelligent machines to provide solutions to real world problems, which are not modeled or too difficult to model mathematically.
 Its aim is to exploit the tolerance for Approximation, Uncertainty, Imprecision and Partial Truth in order to achieve close resemblance with human like decision making.
Neural Network:
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus the term has two distinct usages:
1. Biological neural networks are made up of real biological neurons that are connected or functionally related in the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. In the field of neuroscience, they are often identified as groups of neurons that perform a specific physiological function in laboratory analysis.
2. Artificial neural networks are made up of interconnecting artificial neurons (programming constructs that mimic the properties of biological neurons). Artificial neural networks may either be used to gain an understanding of biological neural networks, or for solving artificial intelligence problems without necessarily creating a model of a real biological system. The real, biological nervous system is highly complex and includes some features that may seem superfluous based on an understanding of artificial networks.
In general, a biological neural network is composed of a group or groups of chemically connected or functionally associated neurons. A single neuron may be connected to many other neurons and the total number of neurons and connections in a network may be extensive. Connections, called synapses, are usually formed from axons to dendrites, though dendrodendritic microcircuits and other connections are possible. Apart from the electrical signaling, there are other forms of signaling that arise from neurotransmitter diffusion, which have an effect on electrical signaling. As such, neural networks are extremely complex. Artificial intelligence and cognitive modeling try to simulate some properties of neural networks. While similar in their techniques, the former has the aim of solving particular tasks, while the latter aims to build mathematical models of biological neural systems.
In the artificial intelligence field, artificial neural networks have been applied successfully to speech recognition, image analysis and adaptive control, in order to construct software agents (in computer and video games) or autonomous robots. Most of the currently employed artificial neural networks for artificial intelligence are based on statistical estimation, optimization and control theory.
Applications of natural and of artificial neural networks
The tasks to which artificial neural networks are applied tend to fall within the following broad categories:
• Function approximation, or regression analysis, including time series prediction and modeling.
• Classification, including pattern and sequence recognition, novelty detection and sequential decision making.
• Data processing, including filtering, clustering, blind signal separation and compression.
Application areas of ANNs include system identification and control (vehicle control, process control), game-playing and decision making (backgammon, chess, racing), pattern recognition (radar systems, face identification, object recognition, etc.), sequence recognition (gesture, speech, handwritten text recognition), medical diagnosis, financial applications, data mining (or knowledge discovery in databases, "KDD"), visualization and e-mail spam filtering.
Moreover, some brain diseases, e.g. Alzheimer, are apparently, and essentially, diseases of the brain's natural NN by damaging necessary prerequisites for the functioning of the mutual interconnections between neurons and/or glia.
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04-04-2012, 03:41 PM

Soft Computing


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Introduction:
The idea of soft computing was initiated in 1981 when Lotfi A. Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis “What is Soft Computing”, Soft Computing. Springer-Verlag Germany/USA 1997.].
Zadeh, defined Soft Computing into one multidisciplinary system as the fusion of the fields of Fuzzy Logic, Neuro-Computing, Evolutionary and Genetic Computing, and Probabilistic Computing.
Soft Computing is the fusion of methodologies designed to model and enable solutions to real world problems, which are not modeled or too difficult to model mathematically.



Definition of Soft Computing (SC)
Lotfi A. Zadeh, 1992 : “Soft Computing is an emerging approach to computing which parallel the remarkable ability of the human mind to reason and learn in a environment of uncertainty and imprecision”.
Soft Computing is still growing and developing. Hence, a clear definite agreement on what comprises Soft Computing has not yet been reached. More new sciences are still merging into Soft Computing.
The Soft Computing consists of several computing paradigms mainly:

Fuzzy Systems, Neural Networks, and Genetic Algorithms.

• Fuzzy set: for knowledge representation via fuzzy. If – Then rules.
• Neural Networks: for learning and adaptation
• Genetic Algorithms: for evolutionary computation


Goals of Soft Computing:
Soft Computing is a new multidisciplinary field, to construct new generation of Artificial Intelligence, known as Computational Intelligence.
The main goal of Soft Computing is to develop intelligent machines to provide solutions to real world problems, which are not modeled or too difficult to model mathematically.
Its aim is to exploit the tolerance for Approximation, Uncertainty, Imprecision and Partial Truth in order to achieve close resemblance with human like decision making.



Neural Network:
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus the term has two distinct usages:
1. Biological neural networks are made up of real biological neurons that are connected or functionally related in the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. In the field of neuroscience, they are often identified as groups of neurons that perform a specific physiological function in laboratory analysis.



Fuzzy control system
A fuzzy control system is a control system based on fuzzy logic—a mathematical system that analyzes analog input values in terms of logical variables that take on continuous values between 0 and 1, in contrast to classical or digital logic, which operates on discrete values of either 0 or 1 (true or false).



Conclusion:
The concept of fuzzy set has been and is a paradigm in the scientific-technological world with important repercussions in all social sectors because of the diversity of its applications, of the ease of its technological transference, and of the economic saving that its use supposes. Although when the first article on the subject was published about 40 years ago it was met with resistance from certain academic sectors, time has shown that fuzzy sets constitute the nucleus of a doctrinal body of indubitable solidness, dynamism and international recognition which is known as soft computing.




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