Supercavitation
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#1
03-04-2010, 07:57 PM


INTRODUCTION



CAVITATION

Cavitation is the process of formation of vapour bubbles of flowing fluid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and the sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in region of high pressure. At first small vapour filled bubbles are formed that gradually increase in size. As the pressure of the surrounding liquid increases, the cavity suddenly collapses-a centimeter sized cavity collapses in milliseconds. Cavities implode violently and create shock waves that dig pits in exposed metal surfaces.
Water limits even nature's strategies, and the fastest bird moves twice as quickly as the fastest fish. The phenomenon holding back the fish is the tremendous resistance that water offers to a moving object, called drag. The same drag acts on the bird as well, but the magnitude is considerably less owing to the lesser density of air. The human being has crossed the sound barrier in air and land, what about underwater? Water is the most challenging environment for an Engineer. Being 1000 times denser than air, it offers resistance roughly 1000 times as high as that in air. Supersonic under Water Travel is the dream of scientists working on a bizarre technology called SUPERCAVITATION. Supercavitation is the state of the art technology that may revolutionize underwater propulsion systems
At first, the physical characteristics of boiling and cavitation are almost identical. Both involve the formation of small vapour-filled spherical bubbles that gradually increase in size. However, the bubbles produced by the two processes end in very different manners. In boiling, bubbles are stable: the hot gas inside either escapes to the surface or releases its heat to the surrounding liquid. In the latter case, the bubble does not collapse, but instead fills with fluid as the gas inside condenses.

When it acts upon propellers, cavitation not only causes damage but also decreases efficiency. The same decrease in water pressure that causes cavitation also reduces the force that the water can exert against the boat, causing the propeller blades to "race" and spin ineffectively. When a propeller induces significant cavitation, it is pushing against a combination of liquid water and water vapor. Since water vapor is much less dense than liquid water, the propeller can exert much less force against the water vapor bubbles. With the problems it causes, it is no wonder maritime engineers try to avoid cavitation.

SUPERCAVITATION

The scientists and the engineers have developed an entirely new solution to the cavitation problem. Cavitation becomes a blessing under a condition called supercavitation, i.e., when a single cavity called supercavity is formed enveloping the moving object almost completely. In Supercavitation, the small gas bubbles produced by cavitation expand and combine to form one large, stable, and predictable bubble around the supercavitating object.

Supercavities are classified as one of two types: vapor or ventilated. Vapor cavities are the pure type of supercavity, formed only by the combination of a number of smaller cavities. In a ventilated cavity, however, gases are released into the bubble by the supercavitating object or a nearby water surface
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amit7391
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#2
07-04-2010, 05:35 AM

sir i want some informations (basics+ advantages+ disadvantages) on SUPERCAVITATION very urgent.
hope u can help me.
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reports-crawler
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#3
08-04-2010, 11:37 AM

Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a large bubble of gas inside a liquid, allowing an object to travel at great speed through the liquid by being wholly enveloped by the bubble.Current applications are mainly limited to very fast torpedoes.

basics
Cavitation happens when water pressure is lowered below its vapor pressure or vapor pressure is increased to water pressure. The pressure of the fluid can drop due to its high speed (Bernoulli's principle) and when the pressure drops below the vapor pressure of the water or the temperature increases thus vapor pressure increases reaching water pressure, it vaporizes “ typically forming small bubbles of water vapour (water in its gas phase).

applications
used for very high performance propellers and also for control surfaces such as rudders.
In 2004, German weapons manufacturer Diehl BGT Defence announced their own supercavitating torpedo, Barracuda
RAMICS (Rapid Airborne MIne Clearance System), based on a supercavitating project and implimentationile stable in both air and water.
Iran has claimed to have successfully tested its first supercavitation torpedo.
The Kursk submarine accident is rumored to have been due to a faulty Shkval torpedo

advantages
Comparing the efficiency of the different methods of the hydrodynamic drag reduction with efficiency
of the artificial and vapor supercavitation, one can see its advantage.

Reduction of water adhesion to the surface or slippage;
-Effect of the movable surface (the gas flow velocity in the clearance may be equal to the water flow
velocity);
- Change of the physical constants of BL (here, the medium density reduction);
- Gas blowing into the boundary layer (BL).
Here, - in the case of the artificial cavitation, the gas is blown through the solid surface of the object.

for details visit:
en.wikipediawiki/Supercavitation


for details visit:
en.wikipediawiki/Supercavitation


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.pdf   Supercavitating Object Propulsion.pdf (Size: 358.73 KB / Downloads: 438)
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mudassir
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#4
09-05-2010, 08:21 PM

Supercavitation seminar and presentation report i needed
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Sidewinder
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#5
14-05-2010, 07:47 AM

It can be taken from the previous posts in this thread.
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projectsofme
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#6
28-09-2010, 10:10 AM


.doc   supercavitation.doc (Size: 397.5 KB / Downloads: 247)
This article is presented by:
AMIT KUMAR
T.E (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ARMY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DIGHI HILLS, PUNE-411015


ABSTRACT

Supercavitation is the state of the art technology that may revolutionize underwater propulsion systems. Cavitation is a problem for most of the engineering application where as supercavitation is the booming scientific discovery for underwater automobiles, torpedo and propellers.
ABOUT CAVITATION

Cavitation is the process of formation of vapour bubbles of flowing fluid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and the sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in region of high pressure. At first small vapour filled bubbles are formed that gradually increase in size.
As the pressure of the surrounding liquid increases, the cavity suddenly collapses-a centimetre sized cavity collapses in milliseconds.
These Cavities implode violently and create shock waves that dig pits in exposed metal surfaces thus causing damage to the material.
“ Water limits even nature's strategies, and the fastest bird moves twice as quickly as the fastest fish”.
The phenomenon holding back the fish is the tremendous resistance that water offers to a moving object, called drag. The same drag acts on the bird as well, but the magnitude is considerably less owing to the lesser density of air. The human being has crossed the sound barrier in air and land, what about underwater.
Water is the most challenging environment for an Engineer. Being 1000 times denser than air, it offers resistance roughly 1000 times as high as that in air. Supersonic under Water Travel is the dream of scientists working on a bizarre technology called SUPERCAVITATION.
Supercavitation is the state of the art technology that may revolutionize underwater propulsion systems.
DIFFRENCE BETWEEN BOILING AND CAVITATION

At first, the physical characteristics of boiling and cavitation are almost identical. Both involve the formation of small vapour-filled spherical bubbles that gradually increase in size.
However, the bubbles produced by the two processes end in very different manners. In boiling, bubbles are stable: the hot gas inside either escapes to the surface or releases its heat to the surrounding liquid. In the latter case, the bubble does not collapse, but instead fills with fluid as the gas inside condenses.
Boiling takes place mostly when heat is given to the liquid. While in the process of cavitation pressure drop is the main reason for the production of vapour of the liquid.

When it acts upon propellers, cavitation not only causes damage but also decreases efficiency. The same decrease in water pressure that causes cavitation also reduces the force that the water can exert against the boat, causing the propeller blades to "race" and spin ineffectively. When a propeller induces significant cavitation, it is pushing against a combination of liquid water and water vapour. Since water vapours is much less dense than liquid water, the propeller can exert much less force against the water vapour bubbles. With the problems it causes, it is no wonder maritime engineers try to avoid cavitation.
Cavitation is a problem for most of the engineering application where as supercavitation is the booming scientific discovery for underwater automobiles, torpedo and propellers.
Whereas boiling does not create much problems in engineering applications and can be easily controlled.

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summer project pal
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#7
08-01-2011, 11:58 PM

ABSTRACT


The human being has crossed the sound barrier in air and land, what about underwater? Water is the most challenging environment for an Engineer. Supersonic under Water Travel is the dream of scientists working on a bizarre technology called SUPERCAVITATION. This report is a paper presentation on supersonic under-water propulsion technique. For now supercavitation is largely concentrated around military developments and applications. But far from now this simple cavitating theory could bring us the ultimate fighting machines like supersonic subfighters, massive subfighter carriers, supersonic fighters etc.


.doc   Supercavitation Report.DOC (Size: 142.5 KB / Downloads: 87)
passwordConfusedeminar and presentationproject and implimentations

CONTENTS


CHAPTERS PAGE NO.

1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. DISADVANTAGES OF CONVENTIONAL
UNDER-WATER PROPULSION SYSTEM 2
3. HISTORY 3
4. CAVITATION 4
5. SUPERCAVITATION 5
6. SUPERCAVITATING PROJECTILE 6
7. MAKING A SUPERCAVITATING
PROJECTILE 8
8. OTHER CHALLENGES 10
9. EXISTING SUPERCAVITING WEAPONS 13
10. THE FUTURE 15
11. CONCLUSION 16

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



Water limits even nature’s strategies, and the fastest bird moves twice as quickly as the fastest fish. The phenomenon holding back the fish is the tremendous resistance that water offers to a moving object, called drag. The same drag acts on the bird as well, but the magnitude is considerably less owing to the lesser density of air. The human being has crossed the sound barrier in air and land, what about underwater? Water is the most challenging environment for an Engineer. Being 1000 times denser than air, it offers resistance roughly 1000 times as high as that in air. Supersonic under Water Travel is the dream of scientists working on a bizarre technology called SUPERCAVITATION. Supercavitation is the state of the art technology that may revolutionize underwater propulsion systems.


CHAPTER 2
DISADVANTAGES OF CONVENTIONAL UNDER-WATER PROPULSION SYSTEM


The problem holding back conventional propulsion systems from high speeds is drag. No matter how streamlined an object is, it suffers resistance as it moves through a fluid. One source of friction is skin friction, the force that is required to shear the thin layers of fluid lying against the moving body’s surface. This happens in air too, but water being a thousand times as dense as air generates a thousand times as much drag. Moreover the power required to overcome drag is proportional to the cube of its velocity. So each incremental improvement in propulsion technology produces only a meagre increase in speed.


Torpedoes are mostly the fastest propelled objects moving under water. It is drag which is the main factor that limits the speed of conventional torpedoes. At high speeds drag is so enormous that efficiency of propulsion is so low. Modern torpedoes can reach speeds below 180 km/hr. As is the case of most bizarre ideas, the idea of an entirely new under water propulsion system owes its birth to the cold war. In the early 60’s Russian torpedoes were inferior to those of Americans in speed. Rather than push conventional technology, the Russians decided to try to leapfrog the Americans with a radical solution.


CHAPTER 3
HISTORY


In the early 1960’s, Mikhail Merkulov at the Hydrodynamics Institute in Kiev realized that the solution lies in a phenomenon called cavitation. It was a daring idea because naval architects usually see cavitation as a menace, rather than something that works to their advantage.


CHAPTER 4
CAVITATION


Cavitation is the process of formation of vapour bubbles of flowing fluid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and the sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in region of high pressure. At first small vapour filled bubbles are formed that gradually increase in size. As the pressure of the surrounding liquid increases, the cavity suddenly collapses-a centimeter sized cavity collapses in milliseconds. Cavities implode violently and create shock waves that dig pits in exposed metal surfaces.

At first, the physical characteristics of boiling and cavitation are almost identical. Both involve the formation of small vapour-filled spherical bubbles that gradually increase in size. However, the bubbles produced by the two processes end in very different manners. In boiling, bubbles are stable: the hot gas inside either escapes to the surface or releases its heat to the surrounding liquid. In the latter case, the bubble does not collapse, but instead fills with fluid as the gas inside condenses.

When it acts upon propellers, cavitation not only causes damage but also decreases efficiency. The same decrease in water pressure that causes cavitation also reduces the force that the water can exert against the boat, causing the propeller blades to “race” and spin ineffectively. When a propeller induces significant cavitation, it is pushing against a combination of liquid water and water vapor. Since water vapor is much less dense than liquid water, the propeller can exert much less force against the water vapor bubbles. With the problems it causes, it is no wonder maritime engineers try to avoid cavitation.


CHAPTER 5
SUPERCAVITATION


The scientists and the engineers have developed an entirely new solution to the cavitation problem. Cavitation becomes a blessing under a condition called supercavitation, i.e., when a single cavity called supercavity is formed enveloping the moving object almost completely. In Supercavitation, the small gas bubbles produced by cavitation expand and combine to form one large, stable, and predictable bubble around the supercavitating object.

Supercavities are classified as one of two types: vapor or ventilated. Vapor cavities are the pure type of supercavity, formed only by the combination of a number of smaller cavities. In a ventilated cavity, however, gases are released into the bubble by the supercavitating object or a nearby water surface


CHAPTER 6
A SUPERCAVITATING PROJECTILE



For a start the body has to be cruising very fast at least 180km/hr, which is far faster than ordinary torpedoes. The nose rather than being streamlined should be flat. Thus at high speeds water is forced to flow off the edge of the nose at such an angle that it cannot wrap around the surface of the body. As it passes over the edge it vaporizes due to high velocity. Thus a big cavity is formed which encloses the front part of the object.


If we could make this cavity enclose the entire body most of the drag could be eliminated. This is possible by two ways. If the body is fast enough so that the entire length of the body passes through before the cavity collapses, it will appear as if the cavity is traveling along with the body. If the object is not fast enough to travel through the vapour cavity before it collapses, then artificial ventilation into the cavity can keep it open until the object moves past. Once a super cavity is formed which completely encloses the object, the drag force is nearly eliminated as the only portion in contact with liquid is the nose. Only the leading edge of the object actually contacts liquid water. The rest of the object is surrounded by low-pressure water vapor, significantly lowering the drag on the supercavitating object.








With an appropriate nose shape and a speed over 180 km per hour, the entire project and implimentationile may reside in a vapor cavity. Since drag is proportional to the density of the surrounding fluid, the drag on a supercavitating project and implimentationile is dramatically reduced, allowing supercavitating project and implimentationiles to attain higher speeds than conventional project and implimentationiles. In water, a rough approximation predicts that a supercavitating project and implimentationile has 200,000 times less skin friction than a normal project and implimentationile. The potential applications are impressive.











CHAPTER 7
MAKING A SUPERCAVITATING PROJECTILE


Although the idea may seem simple, making a supercavitating project and implimentationile is a daring challenge. The technological hurdles to be overcome are many. The most important question is how to propel the body if no other part except the nose is in contact with the surrounding fluid. Also the enormous drag exerted on the blunt nose would literally crush any material.


(I) PROPELLING THE OBJECT
When a supercavitating project and implimentationile is enclosed by a cavity conventional propulsion techniques cannot be used. A rocket engine is a solution. As the cavity encloses the vessel it is similar as flying in the air. Therefore by using a rocket engine high speeds can be attained which in turn helps for retaining the cavity.
When the project and implimentationile is fired from above water it pulls along with it a ventilated cavity which is unstable but as supercavitation starts this ventilated cavity is converted to vapor cavity. Then the rocket motor is fired and using the exhaust the cavity can be stabilized. A rocket motor also provides an immensely powerful thrust, enabling the object to achieve high velocities. The overall drag reduces enormously once you reach the supercaviting regime and then increases only linearly with speed.

An aluminium burning rocket is an answer to a compact and efficient propulsion system. It would use water as its oxidiser and so would not need to carry oxygen. The problem with aluminium has been that unreacted fuel quickly becomes coated with aluminium oxide, inhibiting any further reaction. To avoid this, powdered aluminium can be injected to a vortex of water, which keeps the molten drops apart.



Using a rocket motor has another advantage. The exhaust from the motor can be used to ventilate the cavity and stabilize it. The exhaust can be ducted round from just behind the nose which strengthens the existing cavity and expands it to a bigger one. Thus the cavity can be retained much longer.


(II) THE NOSE

The nose being the only part in contact with water it is subjected to extremely high stresses. Ordinary materials under these conditions will buckle and eventually crush. So inorder to withstand such high stresses nose must be made of materials hard as well as light weight. Light weight materials like carbon composites in honey comb structure can be used.






Unlike conventional noses, a supercavitating body has a rather blunt nose. Water is forced to flow off the edge of the nose at such an angle that it cannot wrap around the surface of the body.

If the project and implimentationile is of the correct shape, a bubble of air starts to form around the object... This extends to cover the entire project and implimentationile, and hence the cavitating object is no longer moving through water, but through air which creates but a fraction of the friction! Hence supercavitating project and implimentationiles can travel as fast as above the surface.




CHAPTER 8
OTHER CHALLENGES

At the present time only supercavitating weapons are under development. Supercavitation occurs when an object moving though water reaches speeds in excess of 100 knots. The speed at the initial state is currently unattainable using the conventional methods. For firing the missile from above the water a mechanical catapult offers a simple solution. A Mechanical catapult is the one which is used in the aircraft carrier for launching aircrafts airborne. It is powered with the pressure exerted by the compressed fluid in two long cylinders. It will take the aircraft to about 250 km/hr through less than 50 m path. Using a modified version of this type of catapult we can attain the initial velocity for the project and implimentationile. By this same type of catapult we can attain a higher initial velocity underwater for the project and implimentationiles firing from submarines etc.

The major challenges in the implementation of this technology are the following. Inside the cavity the project and implimentationile is very unstable. A project and implimentationile dropped into water draws a column of air down with it, creating a temporarily ventilated cavity that reduces drag on the torpedo. The air eventually leaks out, but if the torpedo is moving fast enough the collapsing ventilated cavity is replaced by a vapor cavity.

However, the behavior of the cavity’s tail end becomes a problem. The supercavity’s tail end may splash violently around the project and implimentationile’s rear, causing significant structural damage to control and propulsive surfaces.





The splashing tail of a sphere dropped into water.

This splashing tail problem can be solved by making the cavity by ventilating it by the exhaust of the rocket engine from just behind the nose at the front and from the rear. But my making the cavity bigger we are increasing the instability. Since only the nose touches the water the maneuvering is so tough.

Another big challenge is how to steer a supercavitating vehicle. Specially designed retractable control fins that come in contact with water only when required to steer are a solution. However there are technological hurdles yet to be overcome, towards realizing this. The advanced thrust vectoring technology is another possible solution at the present time. The pressure that the nose has to withstand at high speeds will be very high. So the right selection of the material is another challenge. The use of composite light weight materials like graphite epoxy or aluminum honeycomb will be effective.




CHAPTER 9
EXISTING SUPERCAVITATING WEAPONS


Now that a fundamental idea about supercavitation is obtained we can go further by analyzing the Shkval Torpedo. The Shkval Torpedo of the Russians is equipped with the Supercavitation technology. The original VA111 Shkval is capable of cruising at 500 km/h which is about 5 times faster than the existing fastest torpedo. It is launched from the Akula and Oscar class submarines. The Shkval is propelled forward by a solid rocket motor. Traveling at over 300 mph (500km/h) the Shkval is so fast that (despite being equipped with one) it does not even require a warhead! Its sheer mass and velocity is enough to sink an opposing submarine.




Shkval torpedo (not realistic)



Other than the Shkval torpedo U S Navel undersea warfare centre was successful in firing a supercavitating bullet at 5800 km/h (mach 5) to destroy the underwater mines. The bullet fired from a helicopter-mounted with standard Gatling gun supercavitates through the water and detonates the mines with little cost and even less risk of human life. Unpowered bullets have already broken the sound barrier underwater.

Very little is known about the Russians advancements in supercavitating torpedoes project and implimentation. May be in the future there may be a supercavitating torpedo/rocket which would race towards a target underwater and then become airborne once nearing a coastline would render any kind of anti ballistic missile shield useless.


CHAPTER 10
THE FUTURE


Far from now this simple cavitating theory could bring us the ultimate fighting machines. Subfighters racing around beneath the waves at thousands of kilometers per hour... Massive underwater subfighter carriers silently gliding through the deep blue... It may seem like fantasy, but it's the future...

Future doesn’t ends with underwater sub fighters there will be supersonic fighters cruising underwater at thousands of kilometers per hour maneuvering like aircrafts performing dogfights and when nearing land they can be airborne and be a fighter aircrafts and can again be back to the water. They can be launched either from a subcarrier or from land. They rules air, land and water. They are the ultimate future.


CHAPTER 11
CONCLUSION


As is the case of most cutting edge technologies, supercavitation is largely concentrated around military developments and applications. Very little is known outside about the recent advancements in detail, as they are closely guarded military affairs. However this technology is sure to revolutionize underwater weaponry and travel. Under water bullets have already broken the sound barrier in water. The day is not far away when pencil shaped, rocket powered vehicles break the sound barrier underwater.


REFERENCES

1. “Faster than a speeding bullet”, by Graham Rowe.
The New Scientist July 2000
2. “Studies on dynamics of Supercavitating project and implimentationile”
by S.Kilkarni, R.Pratap, Applied Mathematical Modelling
3. “Warp drive under water”, by S.Ashley
Scientific American, May 2001
4. onr.navy.mill

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dinu7272
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#8
14-07-2011, 10:41 PM

sir...i will be thankfull if you provide me with the power point presentation of supercavitation
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