Superconductor Ceramics and SiliconeComposite Dc Engine
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21-02-2011, 10:01 AM

Superconductor Ceramics and SiliconeComposite Dc Engine

This paper gives a new approach to the use of compositematerials in dc engines for efficient power development.Composite materials are manufactured from two or morematerials with different properties. By means ofexamining the property of superconductor, it is found thatthey are perfect diamagnetic repellers and they arecapable of producing work. Such superconductingproperty can be achieved in the composite materialsconsisting of superconductor ceramics and metal or metaloxide or halogen element. The advantage of usingcomposite material is because it provides high efficiencyand low loss. The work is derived from the piston whichis a diamagnet, by means of crank.
I. Construction
A. Alignment of Engine

This engine consists of a superconductorcomposite cylindrical bar at the top of the cylinder. In thecylinder, the piston is placed and it is connected to thecrank by means of the connecting rod. The piston itself isa soft magnetic composite material. Two brushes areavailable at the top of the cylinder. These brushes may bemade up of carbon or any other conducting material. Thecircuit connections are given in such a way that thematerials are energized only when the piston is at the topof the cylinder.
B. Circuit connection
One of the terminals of the battery is connectedto brush1. The windings are wound on the soft magneticmaterial. The coil is wound in such a way that when thepiston comes to the top dead centre, the coil connectsbrush1 and brush2. Brush2 is also connected to thesuperconductor ceramic material. Another terminal of thebattery is connected to brush2. Thus the circuit getsclosed when the piston is at the top dead centre.
II. Working
A. Principle

Consider the piston at the top of the cylinder.The circuit gets closed so that the superconductorcomposite and the soft magnetic composite material getsenergized. Since the distance between the superconductorcomposite and the piston material is very small, therepulsive force is very large. Thus the piston is pusheddown by means of repulsing force produced by thesuperconductor composite bar. Then the piston reachesthe bottom dead centre of the cylinder. Once the pistonleaves the top dead centre, the circuit becomes open andthe soft composite material losses its magnetic property.After that due to inertia force the piston starts to moveupwards. Thus the piston reciprocates and one revolutiongets completed in the crank. As soon as the pistonreaches the top dead centre, it gets energized again andthe circuit gets closed. Thus the piston continuouslyreciprocates. The engine can be started by giving theinitial motion either by the manual kicking or the electricstarters
III. Manufacturing
A. Raw material

A raw material composition for superconductortape produced on a conveyor line includes: asuperconductor ceramic powder YBa2Cu3O7—93.5weight parts;organo-silicate elastomer or silicone rubberHO—[—Si(CH3)2O—]—H—5 weight parts; silverpowder—1.5 weight parts; all in a toluene solution.
B. Manufacturing method
A method of producing a superconductor compositematerial, comprising the steps of providingsuperconductor ceramics and silicone material; andtreating the superconductor ceramics and siliconematerial so as to produce sintering products of interactionof the superconductor ceramics with residuals of theburnt silicone material. Then compression has to becarried out with the said silicone rubber. Furthercomprising using at least one dope or additive elementselected from the group consisting of metal elements, Ag,Au, Pt, Cs, and Ni, alkaline earth elements, Ca, Sr, metaloxide compounds, Al2O3, halogen elements, Br, rareearth elements and sintering products of interaction ofsaid dope elements or compounds with saidsuperconductor ceramics, silicone and its burnt residualsin an amount of 0.1%-30% weight of total materialweight. Comprising mixing said superconductor ceramicsand dope or additive in a silicone emulsion in toluene oracetone solvent resulting in a workable homogeneoussuspension or slurry. Further comprising condensing saidsuspension into a ceramic-plastic mass to extrude orprovide injection molding of an element selected from thegroup consisting of a long bulk-shaped structure, a rod, abeam, a tube, and a rail.
IV. Properties
A. General Properties of composite material
lSilicone additive provides formability ofsuperconductor material composition helpingintermixture homogenization and working as a plasticbinder. The silicone binder also help adhesion andprotects coating layer or a film or a shape of the bulkproduct in a stable form up to the time of thepolymerization and sintering processes that provide finalhardening and shaping of the products. Silicone residualsand products of their high temperature reactions andmetal dopes play the role of such especially usefulimpurities, which actually are additives. The siliconecomponent in the raw material suspension can bepresented in an amount of 0.1%-12% weights of thesuperconductor ceramics while the most workable rangeis 1%-6%.weight percentages of dope-content residualsand compounds in sintered SCC materials can be in therange 0.01%-30%
B. Superconductor composite material properties
A superconductor composite material consists ofsintering products of interaction of superconductorceramics with silicone material. The superconductorcomposite material can also include at least one metal,metal oxide or halogen element dope that interacts withsuperconductor ceramics and silicone residuals atsintering high temperature. The suspension or slurry ofsuperconductor ceramics, silicone and dope powders canbe used for coating of the particular substrate.
C. Electrical and mechanical properties
Superconductor composite material withsignificantly improved and increased electrical-magneticand structural properties, such as strain tolerance andductility, which has practical acceptable reliability anddurability in the air and in working conditions attemperatures about 77 K. Silicone residuals and productsof their reactions with HTS ceramics inhibit degradationof superconductor properties of the superconductorcomposite material under impact of the naturalatmospheric CO2 and H2O gases and nitrogen or oxygencoolants. The high temperature superconductor compositematerial is a material which works at liquid nitrogen andhigher temperatures K>77 with critical current densityJc>104A/cm2 and value of critical magnetic field Hcwithin the range of 0.1-30 Tesla. In particular, it canwork with the critical current density Jc of 103A/cm2-106A/cm2. The specific impact strength is within the rangeof 0.5-2, and it is having a long-timedurability compatible with a conventional metal.
D. Soft magnetic material (piston)
Soft magnetic composites (SMC) are being developed toprovide materials with competitive magnetic properties(good relative permeability and magnetic saturation) butwith high electrical resistivity. The high resistivityachieved is a major factor in making these materialsattractive in low loss applications, particularly at highfrequenciesTable 1Relation between resistivity and temperatureThe above graph shows the relation between thetemperature and resistance of the superconductorcomposite. At 77k the resistance suddenly decreases to0k and the material starts to conduct heavily. The valueof the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) iscalculated from a linear temperature dependence ofresistivity above superconducting transition temperature.Moreover in the superconductivity state, the particle ofsilver is greater than the ybco particles. Thus as the silvercontent increases, the conductivity also increases. On theother hand, the fine YBCO particles tend to surround thesilver particle and form a three-dimensional densenetwork. This explains well both superconducting andmechanical properties in the YBCO-Ag compositesystem. The present results also provided the idea that thepoor mechanical property inherent in ceramicsuperconductors can be substantially improved byforming composites with silver powders, while keepingor even improving superconducting properties requiredfor practical application. Further efforts should be madeto optimize the size and shape of silver particles and its

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