TECHNOLOGY OF FOOD
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13-10-2010, 11:10 AM
425-1_Introduction.ppt (Size: 597 KB / Downloads: 102)
CHE 425 TECHNOLOGY OF FOOD
WHY IS FOOD A DIFFERENT FIELD?
Products of food Industry are consumed by human beings Foods are living systems
FACTORS OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE (competing)!
SAFETY : Since foods are living systems, biochemical and microbiological changes take place continuously.
NUTRITIVE VALUE: Composition; carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin, mineral etc. contents. Changes in these components during processing, storage and other phases of food chain.
* Flavor (smell and taste)
* Texture (perceived mouth feel)
Joined: Apr 2012
25-05-2012, 04:31 PM
TECHNOLOGY OF FOOD
FOOD TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 1.16 MB / Downloads: 55)
INTRODUCTION TO FOOD TECHNOLOGY
The study of food science emphasizes on the composition of foods and the changes that occur when they subjected to food processing. Functional foods are foods that promote health beyond providing basic nutrition. Our nutritional status, health, physical and mental faculties depend on the food we eat and how we eat it. Access to good quality food has been man's main Endeavour from the earliest days of human existence. Safety of food is a basic requirement of food quality. "Food safety" implies absence or acceptable and safe levels of contaminants, adulterants, naturally occurring toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an acute or chronic basis. Food quality can be considered as a complex characteristic of food that determines its value or acceptability to consumers. Besides safety, quality attributes include: nutritional value; organoleptic properties such as appearance, color, texture, taste; and functional properties. Food systems in developing countries are not always as well organized and developed as in the industrialized world. Moreover, problems of growing population, urbanization, lack of resources to deal with pre- and post- harvest losses in food, and problems of environmental and food hygiene mean that food systems in developing countries continueto be stressed, adversely affecting quality and safety of food supplies. People in developing countries are therefore exposed to a wide range of potential food quality and safety risks. In 2020, the world population will most likely reach 7.6 billion, an increase of 31% over the mid-1996 population of 5.8 billion. Approximately 98% of the project and implimentationed population growth over this period will take place in developing countries. It has also been estimated that between the years 1995 and 2020 the developing world's urban population will double, reaching 3.4 billion. This overall increase in population and in the urban population in particular, poses great challenges to food systems. Intensification of agriculture and animal husbandry; more efficient food handling, processing and distribution systems; introduction of newer technologies increase food availability to meet the needs of growing populations. Some of these practices and technologies may also pose potential problems of food safety and nutritional quality and call for special attention in order to ensure consumer protection.
Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products. Similar processes are used to produce animal feed. Extreme examples of food processing include the delicate preparation of deadly fugu fish or preparing space food for consumption under zero gravity.
Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated slaughtering, fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, and various types of cooking (such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven baking). Salt-preservation was especially common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets, up until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods exists in the writings of the ancient Greek , Chaldean, Egyptian and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe, North and South America and Asia. These tried and tested processing techniques remained essentially the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals also exist from preindustrial revolution times such as the Cornish pasty and the Haggis Modern food processing technology in the 19th and 20th century was largely developed to serve military needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a vacuum bottling technique that would supply food for French troops, and this contributed to the development of tinning and then canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although initially expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would later become a staple around the world. Pasteurization, discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1862, was a significant advance in ensuring the micro-biological safety of food. In the 20th century, World War II, the space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries (including the United States) contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray drying, juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, and preservatives such as sodium benzoate. In the late 20th century products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience, food processors especially marketed their products to middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods (often credited to Clarence Birdseye) found their success in sales of juice concentrates and "TV dinners". Processors utilised the perceived value of time to appeal to the postwar population, and this same appeal contributes to the success of convenience foods today.
Mass production of food is much cheaper overall than individual production of meals from raw ingredients. Therefore, a large profit potential exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products. Individuals may see a benefit in convenience, but rarely see any direct financial cost benefit in using processed food as compared to home preparation. Poor quality ingredients and sometimes questionable processing and preservation methods detract greatly from the overall benefit gained by individual consumers. More and more people live in the cities far away from where food is grown and produced. In many families the adults are working away from home and therefore there is little time for the preparation of food based on fresh ingredients. The food industry offers products that fulfill many different needs: From peeled potatoes that only have to be boiled at home to fully prepared ready meals that can be heated up in the microwave oven within a few minutes. Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases seasonal availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances, and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms. Modern supermarkets would not be feasible without modern food processing techniques, long voyages would not be possible, and military campaigns would be significantly more difficult and costly to execute. Modern food processing also improves the quality of life for people with allergies, diabetics, and other people who cannot consume some common food elements. Food processing can also add extra nutrients such as vitamins. Processed foods are often less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods, and are better suited for long distance transportation from the source to the consumer. Fresh materials, such as fresh produce and raw meats, are more likely to harbour pathogenic micro-organisms (e.g. Salmonella) capable of causing serious illnesses.
In general, fresh food that has not been processed other than by washing and simple kitchen preparation, may be expected to contain a higher proportion of naturally-occurring vitamins, fiber and minerals than an equivalent product processed by the food industry. Vitamin C, for example, is destroyed by heat and therefore canned fruits have a lower content of vitamin C than fresh ones. Food processing can lower the nutritional value of foods, and introduce hazards not encountered with naturally-occurring products. Processed foods often include food additives, such as flavourings and texture-enhancing agents, which may have little or no nutritive value, or be unhealthy. Preservatives added or created during processing to extend the 'shelf-life' of commercially-available products, such as nitrites or sulphites, may cause adverse health effects. Use of low-cost ingredients that mimic the properties of natural ingredients (e.g. cheap chemically-hardened vegetable oils in place of more-expensive natural saturated fats or cold-pressed oils) have been shown to cause severe health problems, but are still in widespread use because of cost concerns and lack of consumer knowledge about the effects of substitute ingredients. Processed foods often have a higher ratio of calories to other essential nutrients than unprocessed foods, a phenomenon referred to as "empty calories". So-called junk food, produced to satisfy consumer demand for convenience and low cost, are most often mass-produced processed food products. Because processed food ingredients are often produced in high quantities and distributed widely amongst value-added food manufacturers, failures in hygiene standards in 'low-level' manufacturing facilities that produce a widely-distributed basic ingredient can have serious consequences for many final products. The addition of these many chemicals for preservation and flavor have been known to cause human and animal cells to grow rapidly, without going into Apoptosis.
Performance parameters for food processing
When designing processes for the food industry the following performance parameters may be taken into account:
• Hygiene, e.g. measured by number of micro-organisms per ml of finished product
• Energy consumption, measured e.g. by “ton of steam per ton of sugar produced”
• Minimization of waste, measured e.g. by “percentage of peeling loss during the peeling of potatoes'
• Labour used, measured e.g. by ”number of working hours per ton of finished product”
• Minimization of cleaning stops measured e.g. by “number of hours between cleaning stops”
• Profit Incentive drives most of the factors behind any industry; the food industry not least of all. Health concerns are generally subservient to profit potential, leading the food processing industry to often ignore major health concerns raised by the use of industrially-produced ingredients (partially-hydrogenated vegetable oils, for example, a well-known and well-researched cause of heart disease, that is still commonly used in processed food to increase profit margin.) Consumer pressure has led to a reduction in the use of industrially-produced ingredients in processed food, but the (often slight) potential for increased profits has barred widespread acceptance by the industry of recognized health problems caused by over-consumption of processed foods.
• Often farmers take most of the burden in cost reduction because they're usually submitted to a monopsony by food processing industries.
• Reduction of fat content in final product e.g. by using baking instead of deep-frying in the production of potato chips, another processed food
• Maintaining the natural taste of the product e.g. by using less artificial sweetener than they used before.
The rigorous application of industry and government endorsed standards to minimise possible risk and hazards. In the USA the standard adopted is HACCP.
• Rising energy costs lead to increasing usage of energy-saving technologies, e.g. frequency converters on electrical drives, heat insulation of factory buildings and heated vessels, energy recovery systems, keeping a single fish frozen all the way from China to Switzerland.
• Factory automation systems (often Distributed control systems) reduce personnel costs and may lead to more stable production results.
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07-10-2012, 06:43 PM
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