Ubiquitous Computing
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Computer Science Clay
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01-03-2009, 01:24 PM

Ubiquitous Computing

Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives. Alan Kay of Apple calls this Third Paradigm computing.

Mark Weiser is the father of ubiquitous computing. This paper explains what is new and different about the computer science in ubiquitous computing and some idea about ubiquitous networks.

Ubiquitous computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people. aVirtual reality is primarily a horse power problem; ubiquitous computing is a very difficult integration of human factors, computer science, engineering, and social sciences.
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28-03-2011, 04:17 PM

.doc   UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING.doc (Size: 352 KB / Downloads: 121)

One is happy when one’s desires are fulfilled.
The highest ideal of ubicomp is to make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it. Pervasive computing is referred as Ubiquitous computing through out the paper.
One of the goals of ubiquitous computing is to enable devices to sense changes in their environment and to automatically adapt and act based on these changes based on user needs and preferences. The technology required for ubiquitous computing comes in three parts: cheap, low- power computers that include equally convenient displays, a network that ties them all together, and software systems implementing ubiquitous applications. Current trends suggest that the first requirement will easily be met.
Our preliminary approach: Activate the world. Provide hundreds of wireless computing devices per person per office, of all scales. This has required network in operating systems, user interfaces, networks, wireless, displays, and many other areas. We call our work “ubiquitous computing”. This is different from PDA’s, dynabooks, or information at your fingertips. It is invisible; everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere.
Single-room networks based on infrared or newer electromagnetic technologies have enough channel capacity for ubiquitous computers, but they can only work indoors.
Cryptographic techniques already exist to secure messages from one ubiquitous computer to another and to safeguard private information stored in networked systems.
We suggest using cell phone device available in the market for ubicomp also i.e., the handheld device will be used for both ubicomp and also as a cell phone.
How Ubiquitous Networking will work
Ubicomp integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers,
Which are distinct objects. Another term for this ubicomp is PERVASIVE COMPUTING.
This Ubicomp is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people
inside a computer-generated world, i.e., it forces the computer to live out here in the world
with people. Ubiquitous computing encompasses a wide range of research topics, including distributed computing, mobile computing, sensor networks, human-computer interaction, and artificial intelligence.
By using a small radio transmitters and a building full of special sensors, your desktop can be anywhere you are. At the press of a button, the computer closest to you in any room becomes your computer for long as you need it.
In the Zone
In order for a computer program to track its user a system should be developed that could locate both people and devices i.e., ultrasonic location system. This location tracking system has three parts:
Bats: - small ultrasonic transmitters wore by users.
Receivers: - ultrasonic signal detectors embedded in ceiling.
Central Controller: - coordinates the bats and receiver chains.
The figure of a Bat.
Users within the system will wear a bat, a small device that transmits a 48-bit code to the receivers in the ceiling. Bats also have an embedded transmitter, which allows it to communicate with the central controller using a bi-directional 433-MHz radio link.
Bats are about the size of a paper. These small devices are powered by a single 3.6-volt lithium thionyl chloride battery, which has a lifetime of six months. The devices also contain two buttons, two light-emitting diodes and a piezoelectric speaker, allowing them to be used as ubiquitous input and output devices, and a voltage monitor to check the battery status.
A bat will transmit an ultrasonic signal, which will be detected by receivers located in the ceiling approximately 4 feet apart in a square grid. If a bat needs to be located, the central controller sends the bats ID over a radio link to the bat. The bat will detect its ID and send out an ultrasonic pulse. The central controller measures the time it looks for that pulse to reach the receiver. Since the speed of sound at which the ultrasonic pulse reached three other sensors.
By finding the position of two or more bats, the system can determine the orientation of a bat. The central controller can also determine which way a person is facing by analyzing the pattern of receivers that detected the ultrasonic signal and the strength of the signal.
The central controller crates a zone around every person and object within the location system. The computer uses a spatial monitor to detect if a user’s zone overlaps with the zone of a device. Computer desktops can be created that actually follow their owners anywhere with in the system just by approaching any computer display in the building, the bat can enable the virtual network computing desktop to appear on that display.
Here, in contrast, Ubi-Finger is the gesture-i/p device, which is simple, compact and optimized for mobile use.
Using our systems, a user can detect a target device by pointing with his/her index finger, and then control it flexibly by performing natural gestures of fingers (Fig. 1).
As shown in Fig. 2, Ubi-Finger consists of three sensors to detect gestures of fingers, an infrared transmitter to select a target device in real world and a microcomputer to control these sensors and communicate with a host computer. Each sensor generates the information of motions as follows: (1) a bending degree of the index finger, (2) tilt angles of the wrist, (3) operations of touch sensors by a thumb. We use (1) and (2) for recognition of gestures, and use (3) for the trigger mechanism to start and stop gesture recognition.
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21-03-2013, 02:30 PM

please upload a seminar and presentation report on "Ubiquitous computing".
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21-03-2013, 04:09 PM

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