Ultra Sonic Motor
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21-09-2008, 09:54 AM

ULTRA SONIC motor is a newly developed motor, and it has excellent performance and many useful features, e.g.: high-torque density, low speed, compactness in size, no electromagnetic interferences, and so on. USM is a kind of piezo motor. The proposed speed control scheme is assumed for these applications because they require quick and precise speed control of actuators for various load conditions. A speed control method of USM using adaptive control is proposed.
Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which follows the biological neural cells in brain, consists of a number of neurons and weighted links, and it has a good potential for control applications because it can approximate the non-linear input-output mapping of the plant. Accordingly, ANN has been applied widely in the field of power electronics control. In this paper a three layer neural network for speed controller is adopted, and the weights of the links are updated using the general back propagation in order to reduce the speed error at each sampling period. In general, the speed of USM can be controlled by driving frequency, applied voltage, and phase difference of applied voltages. This paper adopts the driving frequency as control input in order to simplify the drive system.
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20-06-2010, 05:13 PM

ultrasonic motor is a type of electric motor powered by the ultrasonic vibration of a component, the stator, placed against another component, the rotor or slider depending on the scheme of operation (rotation or linear translation) .in ultrasonic motor Dry friction is often used in contact, and the ultrasonic vibration induced in the stator is used both to impart motion to the rotor and to modulate the frictional forces present at the interface. The friction modulation allows bulk motion of the rotor and without this modulation, ultrasonic motors would fail to operate...and two different ways are generally available to control the friction along the stator-rotor contact interface, "traveling-wave vibration" and "standing-wave vibration".

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22-08-2012, 11:48 AM

Ultra Sonic Motor

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An ultrasonic motor is a type of electric motor powered by the ultrasonic vibration of a component, the stator, placed against another component, the rotor or slider depending on the scheme of operation (rotation or linear translation). Ultrasonic motors differ from piezoelectric actuators in several ways, though both typically use some form of piezoelectric material, most often lead zirconate titanate and occasionally lithium niobate or other single-crystal materials. The most obvious difference is the use of resonance to amplify the vibration of the stator in contact with the rotor in ultrasonic motors. Ultrasonic motors also offer arbitrarily large rotation or sliding distances, while piezoelectric actuators are limited by the static strain that may be induced in the piezoelectric element. One common application of ultrasonic motors is in camera lenses where it, as part of the autofocus system, is used to move lens elements. It's replacing the noisier and often slower conventional micro-motor. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. The ultrasonic motor is characterized by a “low speed and high torque”, contrary to the “high speed and low torque” of the electromagnetic motors. Two categories of ultrasonic motors are developed at our laboratory: the standing wave type and the traveling wave type.


Kenji Uchino, presents reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.
K. Spanner presents a paper on piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been known for more than 30 years. In recent years especially, a large number of different designs have been developed, both for rotation and linear drives. This talk will provide a definition of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors and classify their operating principles. The operation of each type will then explained, commercially available implementations described and the advantages and disadvantages of each discussed. The goal is to provide an international perspective on the current state of developments of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors.


A key observation in the study of ultrasonic motors is that the peak vibration that may be induced in structures occurs at a relatively constant vibration velocity regardless of frequency. The vibration velocity is simply the time derivative of the vibration displacement in a structure, and is not (directly) related to the speed of the wave propagation within a structure. Many engineering materials suitable for vibration permit a peak vibration velocity of around 1 m/s. At low frequencies — 50 Hz, say — a vibration velocity of 1 m/s in a woofer would give displacements of about 10 mm, which is visible. As the frequency is increased, the displacement decreases, and the acceleration increases. As the vibration becomes inaudible at 20 kHz or so, the vibration displacements are in the tens of micrometers, and motors have been built that operate using 50 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) that have vibrations of only a few nanometers in magnitude.Such devices require care in construction to meet the necessary precision to make use of these motions within the stator.


Electromagnetic motors were invented more than a hundred years ago. While these motors still dominate the industry, a drastic improvement cannot be expected except through new discoveries in magnetic or superconducting materials. Regarding conventional electromagnetic motors, tiny motors smaller than 1 cm3 are rather difficult to produce
with sufficient energy efficiency. Therefore, a new class of motors using high power ultrasonic energy—ultrasonic motors—is gaining widespread attention. Ultrasonic motors made with piezo ceramics whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the mini-motor area. Fig no.6 shows the basic construction of ultrasonic motors, which consist of a high-frequency power supply, a vibrator and a slider. Further, the vibrator is composed of a piezoelectric driving component and an elastic vibratory part, and the slider is composed of an elastic moving part and a friction coat


The standing-wave type, in general, is low in cost (one vibration source) and has high efficiency (up to 98% theoretically), but lack of control in both clockwise and counter clockwise directions is a problem. By comparison, the propagating-wave type combines two standing waves with a 90 degree phase difference both in time and in space. This type requires, in general, two vibration sources to generate one propagating wave, leading to low efficiency (not more than 50%), but is controllable in both rotational directions. Table 1 summarizes the motor characteristics of the vibration coupler standing wave type (Hitachi Maxel), surface propagating wave type (Shinsei Industry) and a compromised ‘teeth’ vibrator type (Matsushita)


The largest problem in ultrasonic motors is heat generation, which sometimes drives temperatures up to 120 _C and causes a serious degradation of the motor characteristics through depoling of the piezoceramic. Therefore, the ultrasonic motor requires a very hard type piezoelectric with a high mechanical quality factor Q, leading to the suppression of heat generation. It is also notable that the actual mechanical vibration amplitude at the resonance
frequency is directly proportional to this Q value. Figure 28 shows mechanical Q versus basic composition x at effective vibration velocity Vo = 0:05 m s−1 and 0.5 m s−1 for Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 doped with 2.1 at.% of Fe. The decrease in mechanical Q with an increase of vibration level is minimum around the rhombohedral– tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary (52/48). In other words, the worst material at a small vibration level becomes
the best at a large vibration level, and the data obtained by a conventional impedance analyser are not relevant to high power materials.
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04-03-2013, 11:12 AM

send ppt on ultrasonic motors to monika.angelic@gmail.cm

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