Utility Computing
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14-02-2009, 11:57 PM

Utility Computing:-

Utility computing (on-demand computing) is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a physical public utility (such as electricity, water, natural gas, or telephone network). This system has the advantage of a low or no initial cost to acquire hardware; instead, computational resources are essentially rented. Customers with very large computations or a sudden peak in demand can also avoid the delays that would result from physically acquiring and assembling a large number of computers. Basically, utility computing is a business model in which one company outsources part or all of its computer support to another company. Support in this case doesn't just mean technical advice; it includes everything from computer processing power to data storage.
"Utility computing" has usually envisioned some form of virtualization so that the amount of storage or computing power available is considerably larger than that of a single time-sharing computer. Multiple servers are used on the "back end" to make this possible. These might be a dedicated computer cluster specifically built for the purpose of being rented out, or even an under-utilized supercomputer. The technique of running a single calculation on multiple computers is known as distributed computing
Many utility computing companies offer bundles or packages of resources. A comprehensive package might include all of the following:

¢ Computer hardware: including servers, CPUs, monitors, input devices and network cables.
¢ Internet access: including Web servers and browsing software.
¢ Software applications: that run the entire gamut of computer programs. They could include word processing programs, e-mail clients, project and implimentation-specific applications and everything in between. Industry experts call this particular kind of business "Software as a Service" (SaaS).
¢ Access to the processing power of a supercomputer. Some corporations have hefty computational requirements. For example, a financial company might need to process rapidly-changing data gathered from the stock market. While a normal computer might take hours to process complicated data, a supercomputer could complete the same task much more quickly.
¢ The use of a grid computing system: - A grid computing system is a network of computers running special software called middleware. The middleware detects idle CPU processing power and allows an application running on another computer to take advantage of it. It's useful for large computational problems that can be divided into smaller chunks.
¢ Off-site data storage: - which is also called cloud storage. There are many reasons a company might want to store data off-site. If the company processes a lot of data, it might not have the physical space to hold the data servers it needs. An off-site backup is also a good way to protect information in case of a catastrophe. For example, if the company's building were demolished in a fire, its data would still exist in another location.
Utility computing rates vary depending on the utility computing company and the requested service. Usually, companies charge clients based on service usage rather than a flat fee. The more a client uses services, the more fees it must pay. Some companies bundle services together at a reduced rate, essentially selling computer services in bulk.


Utility Computing formed by advances in multiple technologies like
¢ Client server Architecture
In general, all of the machines on the Internet can be categorized as two types: servers and clients. Those machines that provide services (like Web servers or FTP servers) to other machines are servers. And the machines that are used to connect to those services are clients. Typically a server may be webserver
Here are the basic steps that occurred behind the scenes: Web server
The browser broke the URL into three parts:
o The protocol ("http")
o The server name ("cemunnar.com")
o The file name ("index.htm")
¢ The browser communicated with a name server to translate the server name cemunnar.com into an IP Address, which it uses to connect to the server machine.
¢ The browser then formed a connection to the server at that IP address on port 80. (if connected port is 80)
¢ Following the HTTP protocol, the browser sent a GET request to the server, asking for the file " cemunnar.com /index.htm."
¢ The server then sent the HTML text for the Web page to the browser.
¢ The browser read the HTML tags and formatted the page onto your screen.

¢ Grid Computing

Grid computing utilizes distributed computing resources to create a virtual computing platform. This will be leveraged to create a highly scalable and virtualized data center infrastructure Grid computing (computational grid) is applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time - usually to a scientific or technical problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or access to large amounts of data.

¢ Blade Computing

It is a cost-efficient, slim and less power-consuming servers are a hit for high-performance computing as well as for the small and midsize business (SMB). A blade server is essentially a single circuit board populated with components such as processors, memory, and network connections that are usually found on multiple boards. Since they use laptop technology, blades are usually thin and require less power and cooling than traditional servers. Blades are also designed to slide into existing servers (chassis) and overall are more cost-efficient, smaller and tend to consume less power than traditional box-based servers. The individual blades in the chassis (also called a cabinet) are connected using a bus system.

¢ Virtualization

In computing, virtualization means to create a virtual version of a device or resource, such as a server, storage device, network or even an operating system

Server virtualization

The partitioning of a physical server into smaller virtual server. In server virtualization the resources of the server itself are hidden, or masked, from users, and software is used to divide the physical server into multiple virtual environments, called virtual or private servers. One common usage of this technology is in Web servers. Virtual Web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services. Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer. There are several ways to create a virtual server, like Virtual machine
The main technology used behind the utility computing are

1. Client side: Thin Client/Low power PC
2. Server Side: Virtualization & Grid Computing

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