VIRTUAL KEYBOARD A SEMINAR REPORT
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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 01:39 AM


VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
A SEMINAR REPORT
Submitted by
MOHAMMED AJMAL RAHMAN
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY,
KOCHI-682022
NOVEMBER 2008Page 2

DIVISION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY, KOCHI-682022
CERTIFICATE
Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar and presentation entitled
VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
done by the following student
MOHAMMED AJMAL RAHMAN
of the VIIth semester, Computer Science and Engineering in the year 2008 in
partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Computer Science and Engineering of Cochin University of Science
and Technology.
Ms. Remya Mol
Dr. David Peter S
Seminar Guide
Head of the Department
Date:19/09/2008Page 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I thank my seminar and presentation guide Ms Remya Mol, Lecturer, CUSAT, for her proper
guidance, and valuable suggestions. I am indebted to Mr. David Peter, the HOD,
Computer Science division & other faculty members for giving me an opportunity
to learn and do this seminar and presentation. If not for the above mentioned people my seminar and presentation
would never have been completed successfully. I once again extend my sincere
thanks to all of them.
MOHAMMED AJMAL RAHMANPage 4

iii
ABSTRACT
Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has found
its way into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what
has not changed for the last 50 or so odd years is the input device, the good
old QWERTY keyboard. Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and
artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard.
Virtual Devices have developed a flashlight-size gadget that project and implimentations an
image of a keyboard on any surface and letâ„¢s people input data by typing on
the image. The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project and implimentation a full-sized computer
keyboard onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. Used
with Smart Phones and PDAs, the VKEY provides a practical way to do
email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks, allowing the user to leave the
laptop computer at home.Page 5

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NO.
TITLE
PAGE NO.
ABSTRACT¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.iii
LIST OF FIGURES¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦...vi
1.
INTRODUCTION¦¦¦¦¦¦......................................1
2.
QWERTY KEYBOARDS¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..2
2.1 Introduction..........................................................2
2.2 Working¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦..2
2.3 Difficulties¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦3
3.
VIRTUAL KEYBOARD¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦....4
3.1 Introduction¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.............4
3.2 Virtual Keyboard Technology¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.7
3.3 Different Types¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.......................11
3.3.1 Developer VKB¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..11
3.3.2 Canesta¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...12
3.3.3 Senseboard Technologies¦¦¦¦¦...12
3.3.4 Kitty¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦....14
3.3.5 InFocus¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.. 15Page 6

v
4.
ADVANTAGES¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦....16
5.
DRAWBACKS¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.......17
6.
APPLICATIONS¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...18
7.
CONCLUSION¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...19
8.
REFERENCES¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦.20Page 7

vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 4.1: Virtual keyboard used in PDA™s¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...5
Fig 4.2: Sensor Module ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.................7
Fig 4.3: IR-light source ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.............................................9
Fig 4.4: Pattern project and implimentationor...............................................................................10
Fig 4.5: Developer VKB ¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.....11
Fig 4.6: Canesta Keyboard............................................................................12
Fig 4.7: Senseboard Technologies¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.....13
Fig 4.8: Kitty¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦......¦¦14Page 8

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1. INTRODUCTION
Virtual Keyboard is just another example of todayâ„¢s computer trend of
Ëœsmaller and fasterâ„¢. Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has
found its way into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what has
not changed for the last 50 or so odd years is the input device, the good old QWERTY
keyboard. The virtual keyboard technology is the latest development.
The virtual keyboard technology uses sensor technology and artificial
intelligence to let users work on any flat surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual
Keyboards lets you easily create multilingual text content on almost any existing
platform and output it directly to PDAs or even web pages. Virtual Keyboard, being a
small, handy, well-designed and easy to use application, turns into a perfect solution
for cross platform text input.
The main features are: platform-independent multilingual support for
keyboard text input, built-in language layouts and settings, copy/paste etc. operations
support just as in a regular text editor, no change in already existing system language
settings, easy and user-friendly interface and design, and small file size.
The report first gives an overview of the QWERTY keyboards and the
difficulties arising from using them. It then gives a description about the virtual
keyboard technology and the various types of virtual keyboards in use. Finally the
advantages, drawbacks and the applications are discussed.Page 9

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2. QWERTY KEYBOARDS
1.1 Introduction
QWERTY is the most common keyboard layout on English-language computer and
typewriter keyboards. It takes its name from the first six characters seen in the far left of
the keyboard's top first row of letters.
2.2 Working
The working of a typical QWERTY keyboard is as follows:
1. When a key is pressed, it pushes down on a rubber dome sitting beneath the key.
A conductive contact on the underside of the dome touches (and hence connects)
a pair of conductive lines on the circuit below.
2. This bridges the gap between them and allows electric current to flow (the open
circuit is closed).
3. A scanning signal is emitted by the chip along the pairs of lines to all the keys.
When the signal in one pair becomes different, the chip generates a "make code"
corresponding to the key connected to that pair of lines.
4. The code generated is sent to the computer either via a keyboard cable (using on-
off electrical pulses to represent bits) or over a wireless connection. It may be
repeated.
5. A chip inside the computer receives the signal bits and decodes them into the
appropriate keypress. The computer then decides what to do on the basis of the
key pressed (e.g. display a character on the screen, or perform some action). Page 10

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6. When the key is released, a break code (different than the make code) is sent to
indicate the key is no longer pressed. If the break code is missed (e.g. due to a
keyboard switch) it is possible for the keyboard controller to believe the key is
pressed down when it is not, which is why pressing then releasing the key again
will release the key (since another break code is sent).
2.3 Difficulties
It is now recognized that it is important to be correctly seated while using a
computer. A comfortable working position will help with concentration, quality of
work, and reduce the risk of long-term problems. This is important for all who use
computers, and especially so for those with disabilities.
The increased repetitive motions and awkward postures attributed to the use
of computer keyboards have resulted in a rise in cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs)
that are generally considered to be the most costly and severe disorders occurring in
the office. Lawsuits for arm, wrist, and hand injuries have been filed against keyboard
manufacturers allege that keyboarding equipment is defectively designed and
manufacturers fail to provide adequate warnings about proper use to avoid injury.
As early as1926, Klockenberg described how the keyboard layout required the
typist to assume body postures that were unnatural, uncomfortable and fatiguing. For
example, standard keyboard design forces operators to place their hands in a flat, palm
down position called forearm pronation. The compact, linear key arrangement also
causes some typists to place their wrist in a position that is skewed towards the little
fingers, called ulnar deviation. These awkward postures result in static muscle loading,
increased muscular energy expenditure, reduced muscular waste removal, and eventual
discomfort or injury. Researchers also noted that typing on the QWERTY keyboard is
poorly distributed between the hands and fingers, causing the weaker ring and little
fingers to be overworkPage 11

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3. VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
3.1 Introduction
Virtual Keyboard is just another example of todayâ„¢s computer trend of "smaller
and faster". Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has found its way
into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what has not changed for
the last 50 or so odd years is the input device, the good old QWERTY keyboard.
Alternatives came in the form of handwriting recognition, speech recognition, abcd input
(for SMS in cell phones) etc. But they all lack the accuracy and convenience of a full-
blown keyboard. Speech input has an added issue of privacy. Even folded keyboards for
PDAs are yet to catch on. Thus a new generation of virtual input devices is now being
paraded, which could drastically change the way we type.
Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users
work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual Devices have developed a
flashlight-size gadget that project and implimentations an image of a keyboard on any surface and letâ„¢s
people input data by typing on the image.
The device detects movement when fingers are pressed down. Those
movements are measured and the device accurately determines the intended keystrokes
and translates them into text. The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project and implimentation a full-sized
computer keyboard onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. The
translation process also uses artificial intelligence. Once the keystroke has been decoded,
it is sent to the portable device either by cable or via wireless.Page 12

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Fig 3.1: Virtual keyboard used in PDAâ„¢s
The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project and implimentation a full-sized computer keyboard
onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. Used with Smart Phones and
PDAs, it provides a practical way to do email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks,
allowing the user to leave the laptop computer at home. The technology has many
applications in various high-tech and industrial Sectors. These include data entry and
control panel applications in hazardous and harsh environments and medical markets.Page 13

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Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience
of compactness with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. An interesting
use of such keyboards would be in sterile environments where silence or low noise is
essential like operation theaters. The advantage of such a system is that you do not need a
surface for typing, you can even type in plain air. The company's Virtual Keyboard is
designed for anyone who's become frustrated with trying to put information into a
handheld but doesn't want to carry a notebook computer around. There is also the
provision for a pause function to avoid translating extraneous hand movements function,
so that users can stop to eat, drink etc
It is also a superior desktop computer keyboard featuring dramatically easier
to learn touch-typing and leaving one hand free for mouse or phone. Combination key
presses ("chords") of five main and two extra control keys allow users to type at 25-60
words per minute, with possibly greater speeds achieved through the use of abbreviation
expansion software. Most users, however, will find memorizing the chords easy and fun,
with the included typing tutorial. The scanner can keep up with the fastest typist,
scanning the project and implimentationed area over 50 times a second. The keyboard doesn't demand a lot of
force, easing strain on wrists and digits. virtual keyboards solve the problem of sore
thumbs that can be caused by typing on the tiny keyboards of various gadgets like PDAs
and cell phones. They are meant to meet the needs of mobile computer users struggling
with cumbersome, tiny, or nonexistent keyboards. It might help to prevent RSI injuries.
The Virtual Keyboard uses an extremely durable material which is extremely
easy to clean. The Virtual Keyboard is not restricted to the QWERTY touch-typing
paradigm , adjustments can be done to the software to fit other touch-typing paradigms as
well, such as the DVORAK keyboard. It will work with all types of Bluetooth enabled
devices such as PDAs and smart phones, as well as wearable computers. Applications
include computer/PDA input, gaming control, TV remote control, and musical
applications.Thus virtual keyboards will make typing easier, faster, and almost a
pleasure.Page 14

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3.2 Virtual Keyboard Technology
This system comprises of three modules,
1. The sensor module,
2. IR-light source and
3. The pattern project and implimentationor.
Sensor module:
Fig 3.2: Sensor Module
The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology.
The Sensor Module operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the
intended keystrokes, or mouse movements. Mouse tracking and keystroke information is
processed and can then be output to the host device via a USB or other interface.Page 15

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Electronic Perception Technology:
Electronic perception technology enables ordinary electronic devices to see the
world around them so they can perceive and interact with it. Now everyday electronic
devices in a variety of markets can perceive usersâ„¢ actions, gainingfunctionality and ease
of use.
The tiny electronic perception chips and embedded software work by developing
a 3D distance map to nearby objects in real-time. This information is factored through
an on-chip processor running imaging software that translates the image into defined
events before sending it offchip for application-specific processing. Itâ„¢s an action that is
continually repeated, generating over 30 frames of 3D information per second.
Electronic perception technology has a fundamental advantage over classical
image processing that struggles to construct three-dimensional representations using
complex mathematics and images from multiple cameras or points of view. This single-
chip contour mapping approach results in a high reduction of complexity, making it
possible to embed the application independent processing software directly into the chips
themselves “ so they may be used in the most modestly-priced, and even pocket-sized
electronic devices.Page 16

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IR-light source:
Fig 3.3: IR-light source
The Infrared Light Source emits a beam of infrared light. This light beam is
designed to overlap the area on which the keyboard pattern project and implimentationor or printed image
resides. This is done so as to illuminate the users fingers by the infra-red light beam. This
helps in recognizing the hand movements and the pressing of keys. The light beam
facilitates in scanning the image. Accordingly the information is passed on to the sensor
module which decodes the information.
An invisible infra-red beam is project and implimentationed above the virtual keyboard. Finger makes
keystroke on virtual keyboard. This breaks infrared beam and infrared light is reflected
back to project and implimentationor. Reflected infrared beam passes through infrared filter to camera. The
camera photographs angle of incoming infrared light. The Sensor chip in the sensor
module determines where the infrared beam was broken. detected co-ordinates determine
actions or characters to be generated.Page 17

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The pattern project and implimentationor:
Fig 3.4: Pattern project and implimentationor
The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the
keyboard or mouse zone of the system. This image can be project and implimentationed on any flat surface.
The project and implimentationed images is that of a standard qwerty keyboard, with all the keys and control
functions as in the keyboard.
The Projector features a wide-angle lens so that a large pattern can be project and implimentationed
from relatively low elevations. A printed image, with replaceable templates allows
system flexibility, permitting most any kind of keyboard configuration for greater
functionality.
In some types of virtual keyboards, a second infra-red beam is not necessary.
Here the project and implimentationor itself takes the inputs, providing dual functionality. A sensor or camera
in the project and implimentationor picks up the finger movements, and passes the information on to the
sensor modules.Page 18

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3.3 Different Types
There are different types of virtual keyboards, manufactured by various companies which
provide different levels of functionalities. The different types of virtual keyboards are:
3.3.1 Developer VKB?
Fig 3.5: Developer VKB
Its full-size keyboard also can be project and implimentationed onto any surface and uses laser
technology to translate finger movements into letters. Working with Siemens
Procurement Logistics Services Rechargeable batteries similar to those in cell phones
power the compact unit . The keyboard is full size and the letters are in a standard format.
As a Class 1 laser, the output power is below the level at which eye injury can occur.Page 19

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3.3.2 Canesta?
The Canesta Keyboard, which is a laser project and implimentationed keyboard with which the
same laser is also used to scan the project and implimentationion field and extract 3D data. Hence, the user
sees the project and implimentationed keyboard, and the device "sees" the position of the fingers over the
project and implimentationed keys. They also have a chip set, Electronic Perception Technology, which they
supply for 3rd parties to develop products using the project and implimentationion/scanning technology.
Canesta appears to be the most advanced in this class of technology and the only one who
is shipping product. They have a number of patents pending on their technology.
Fig 3.6: Canesta Keyboard
3.3.3 Sense board Technologies
The Senseboard SB 04 technology is an extreme case of a hybrid approach.
The sensing transducer is neither a laser scanner nor a camera. Rather, it is a bracelet-
like transducer that is worn on the hands which captures hand and finger motion. In fact,
as demonstrated, the technology does not incorporate a project and implimentationion component at all;
rather, it relies on the user's ability to touch type, and then infers the virtual row and key
being typed by sensing relative hand and finger movement. The system obviously could
be augmented to aid non-touch typists, for example, by the inclusion of a graphic Page 20

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representation of the virtual keyboard under the hands/fingers. In this case, the keyboard
graphically represented would not be restricted to a conventional QWERTY keyboard,
and the graphical representation could be project and implimentationed or even on a piece of paper. I include
it here, as it is a relevant related input transducer that could be used with a project and implimentationion
system. The technology has patents pending, and is currently in preproduction proof of
Concept form.
Fig 3.7: Senseboard Technologies
Sensors made of a combination of rubber and plastic are attached to the user's
palms in such a way that they do not interfere with finger motions. Through the use of
Bluetooth technology, the "typed" information is transferred wirelessly to the computer,
where a word processing program analyzes and interprets the signals into readable text.
The device is currently usable via existing ports on personal digital assistants (PDAs)
from Palm and other manufacturers. Senseboard officials say it eventually will be
compatible with most brands of pocket PCs, mobile phones and laptop computers.Page 21

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3.3.4 KITTY?
KITTY, a finger-mounted keyboard for data entry into PDA's, Pocket PC's
and Wearable Computers which has been developed at the University of California in
Irvine.
Fig 3.8: Kitty
KITTY, an acronym for Keyboard-Independent Touch-Typing, is a Finger
mounted keyboard that uses touch typing as a method of data entry. The device targets
the portable computing market and in particular its wearable computing systems which
are in need of a silent invisible data entry system based on touch typing .the new device
combines the idea of a finger mounted coding device with the advantages of a system that
uses touch typing.Page 22

Virtual Keyboard
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3.3.5 InFocus?
InFocus is one of the leading companies in providing video and data
project and implimentationors. Their project and implimentationors are conventional, in that they do not use laser technology.
This has that advantage of delivering high quality colour images with a mature
technology. However, it has the disadvantage of larger size, lower contrast, and higher
power requirements, compared to laser project and implimentationion systems. In 2000, InFocus merged
with Proxima, which had been one of its competitors. I include InFocus/Proxima in this
survey not only because they make project and implimentationors. In their early days, Proxima developed
one of the first commercially available project and implimentationion/vision systems. It was called Cyclops,
and they still hold a patent on the technology. Cyclops augmented the project and implimentationor by
adding a video camera that was registered to view the project and implimentationion area. The video camera
had a band pass filter over the lens, which passed only the wavelength of a laser pointer.
The system, therefore, enabled the user to interact with the project and implimentationed image, using a
provided laser pointer as the input device. The camera detected the presence of the laser
pointer on the surface, and calculated its coordinates relative to the currently project and implimentationed
image. Furthermore, the laser pointer had two intensity levels which enabled the user to
not only point, but to have the equivalent of a mouse button, by the vision system
interpreting the two levels as distinguishing button up and down events.Page 23

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4. ADVANTAGES
1. It can be project and implimentationed on any surface or you can type in the plain air.
2. It can be useful in places like operation theaters where low noise is essential.
3. The typing does not require a lot of force. So easing the strain on wrists and
hands.
4. The Virtual Keyboard is not restricted to the QWERTY touch-typing
paradigm, adjustments can be done to the software to fit other touch-typing
paradigms as well.
5. No driver software necessary, It can be used as a plug and play device.
6. High battery life. The standard coin-sized lithium battery lasts about eight
months before needing to be replaced.Page 24

Virtual Keyboard
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5. DRAWBACKS
1. Virtual keyboard is hard to get used to. Since it involves typing in thin air, it
requires a little practice. Only people who are good at typing can use a
virtual keyboard efficiently.
2. It is very costly ranging from 150 to 200 dollars.
3. The room in which the project and implimentationed keyboard is used should not be very bright
so that the keyboard is properly visible.Page 25

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6. APPLICATIONS
1. High-tech and industrial Sectors
2. Used with Smart phones, PDAs, email, word processing and spreadsheet
tasks.
3. Operation Theatres.
4. As computer/PDA input.
5. Gaming control.
6. TV remote control. Page 26

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7. CONCLUSION
Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users
work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Projection key boards or virtual key boards
claim to provide the convenience of compactness with the advantages of a full-blown
QWERTY keyboard. The company's Virtual Keyboard is designed for anyone who's
become frustrated with trying to put information into a handheld but doesn't want to carry
a notebook computer around.
Canesta appears to be the most advanced in this class of technology. Different
types of virtual keyboards suit different typing styles. Thus virtual keyboards will make
typing easier, faster, and almost a pleasure.Page 27

Virtual Keyboard
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8. REFERENCES
1.
newscomcgi-bin/prnh
2.
canesta.com
3.
procams.org
4.
billbuxton3state.html
5.
smarttech.com
6.
3mus/office/meeting/product_catalog/wd.jhtm
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PATEL NAVAL RAMESHBAHI
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#2
29-07-2009, 02:39 PM

full report of virtual keyboard &free scale network along with the diagram &slide shows
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PATEL NAVAL RAMESHBAHI
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29-07-2009, 02:41 PM

reply fast with in 5 minutes
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harikrishnan.vadakkath
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#4
29-07-2009, 08:20 PM

i want
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seminar presentation
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18-05-2010, 10:33 PM

hey please read topicideashow-to-virtual-keyboard-download-full-report-and-abstract and topicideashow-to-virtual-keyboard-a-seminar and presentation-report for getting more information about VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
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29-06-2010, 12:38 AM

Virtual Keyboard
Abstract
A virtual keyboard is actually a key-in device, roughly a size of a fountain pen, which uses highly advanced laser technology, to project and implimentation a full sized keyboard on to a flat surface. Since the invention of computers they had undergone rapid miniaturization. Disks and components grew smaller in size, but only component remained same for decades “ its keyboard. Since miniaturization of a traditional keyboard is very difficult we go for virtual keyboard. Here, a camera tracks the finger movements of the typist to get the correct keystroke. A virtual keyboard is a keyboard that a user operates by typing on or within a wireless or optical “ detectable surface or area rather than by depressing physical keys.
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ruchit_dadhania
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#7
08-07-2010, 09:45 AM

i need seminar and presentation report of virtual keyboard ppt & word doc free
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30-07-2010, 05:52 PM

hi......................
plz tell me how to download this repoart.....................
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projects wizhard
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31-07-2010, 01:21 PM

The content posted in this thread can be copied and added to your report. For your convenience, we post this report in pdf too:

.pdf   VIRTUAL KEYBOARD seminar report.pdf (Size: 2.68 MB / Downloads: 694)
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04-10-2010, 09:01 AM


.ppt   Virtual_Keyboard_1.ppt (Size: 1.5 MB / Downloads: 1,146)

Prepared by:
Joe Smith & Lucy Main

Introduction
A Virtual Keyboard is a project and implimentationion keyboard
that is project and implimentationed
and touched on any surface.
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#11
18-10-2010, 05:15 PM


Keyboards without Keyboards:A Survey of Virtual Keyboards


Prepared by:
Mathias Kölsch
Matthew Turk


ABSTRACT
Input to small devices is becoming an increasingly crucial factor in development for the ever-more powerful embedded market. Speech input promises to become a feasible alternative to tiny keypads, yet its limited reliability, robustness, and flexibility render it unsuitable for certain tasks and/or environments. Various attempts have been made to provide the common keyboard metaphor without the physical keyboard, to build “virtual keyboards”. This promises to leverage our familiarity with the device without incurring the constraints of the bulky physics. This paper surveys technologies for alphanumeric input devices and methods with a strong focus on touch-typing. We analyze the characteristics of the keyboard modality and show how they contribute to making it a necessary complement to speech recognition rather than a competitor.

INTRODUCTION
Touch-typing or machine writing was invented for mechanical typewriters which had the current QWERTY key layout since 1874. While this interface is come to age, it survived because of its many positive aspects. Yet it is not feasible for the ever-smaller computing devices that house ever-more advanced functionalities. New alphanumeric interfaces include numeric keypads augmented with letters as on the cell phone and the Graffiti handwriting characters.
Here, we survey the state of the art in alphanumeric input interfaces. After an overview of the related work in the area in section 2, we lay out the general space of interfaces for text input in section 3. In the following section we discuss characteristics and human factors of touch-typing in particular. Section 5 explains the criteria we examined with. Section 6 introduces and compares various touch-typing input methods and devices. We conclude with stating that keyboards – whether virtual or real – are very well suited to the task of alphanumeric input.


for more details, please visit
citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.18.9065&rep=rep1&type=pdf

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#12
19-10-2010, 07:32 PM

pls give the details of project and implimentationion keyboard
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#13
05-03-2011, 07:43 AM

please send the ppt and report of virtual keyboard
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12-03-2011, 11:52 AM


.rtf   vk final11.rtf (Size: 5.3 MB / Downloads: 112)
1. INTRODUCTION
Virtual Keyboard
is just another example of today’s computer trend of
‘smaller and faster’. Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has
found its way into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what has
not changed for the last 50 or so odd years is the input device, the good old QWERTY
keyboard. The virtual keyboard technology is the latest development.
The virtual keyboard technology uses sensor technology and artificial
intelligence to let users work on any flat surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual
Keyboards lets you easily create multilingual text content on almost any existing
platform and output it directly to PDAs or even web pages. Virtual Keyboard, being a
small, handy, well-designed and easy to use application, turns into a perfect solution
for cross platform text input.
The main features are: platform-independent multilingual support for
keyboard text input, built-in language layouts and settings, copy/paste etc. operations
support just as in a regular text editor, no change in already existing system language
settings, easy and user-friendly interface and design, and small file size.
The report first gives an overview of the QWERTY keyboards and the
difficulties arising from using them. It then gives a description about the virtual
keyboard technology and the various types of virtual keyboards in use. Finally the
advantages, drawbacks and the applications are discussed.
2. QWERTY KEYBOARDS
1.1 Introduction
QWERTY is the most common keyboard layout on English-language computer and
typewriter keyboards. It takes its name from the first six characters seen in the far left of
the keyboard's top first row of letters.
2.2 Working
The working of a typical QWERTY keyboard is as follows:
1. When a key is pressed, it pushes down on a rubber dome sitting beneath the key.
A conductive contact on the underside of the dome touches (and hence connects)
a pair of conductive lines on the circuit below.
2. This bridges the gap between them and allows electric current to flow (the open
circuit is closed).
3. A scanning signal is emitted by the chip along the pairs of lines to all the keys.
When the signal in one pair becomes different, the chip generates a "make code"
corresponding to the key connected to that pair of lines.
4. The code generated is sent to the computer either via a keyboard cable (using on-
off electrical pulses to represent bits) or over a wireless connection. It may be
repeated.
5. A chip inside the computer receives the signal bits and decodes them into the
appropriate keypress. The computer then decides what to do on the basis of the
key pressed (e.g. display a character on the screen, or perform some action).

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17-03-2011, 12:09 PM

Prepared by
Habeeba Begum


.pptx   Presentation4.pptx (Size: 675.57 KB / Downloads: 99)
AIM
 To introduce Virtual Keyboard which uses the infrared & laser technology to project and implimentation a full-size
keyboard onto any flat surface. So you can use it almost anywhere.
 virtual keyboards will make typing easier, faster, and almost a pleasure.
 A Virtual (project and implimentationion) keyboard is a full-size virtual keyboard project and implimentationed and touched on any surface.
 The keyboard watches your fingers move and translates that action into keystrokes in the device.
 Virtual Keyboard is just another example of today’s computer trend of ‘smaller and faster’.
 The virtual keyboard technology uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any flat surface as if it were a keyboard.
 The Virtual Keyboard uses the infrared & laser technology to project and implimentation a full-size keyboard onto any flat surface. So you can use it almost anywhere.
 For the first time mobile device users can actually type normally on a virtual keyboard , enabling them to work quickly and effectively, taking the pain and frustration out of existing keyboards and handwriting recognition s/w.
 The Virtual Keyboard is not restricted to the ‘QWERTY’ touch-typing paradigm ; adjustments can be done to the software to fit other touch-typing paradigms as well, such as the ‘DVORAK’ keyboard.
Virtual Keyboard Technical Terms..
1. Sensor Module
The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology. The Sensor Module
operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the intended keystrokes.
2. Infra Red Light Source
An invisible infra-red beam is project and implimentationed above the virtual keyboard. Finger makes keystroke on virtual keyboard. This breaks infrared beam and infrared light is reflected back to project and implimentationor. The Sensor chip in the sensor module determines where the infrared beam was broken. Detected co-ordinates determine actions or characters to be generated.
3. Pattern Projector
The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the keyboard of the system. This image can be project and implimentationed on any flat surface. The project and implimentationed image is that of a standard ‘QWERTY’ key-board, with all the keys and control functions as in the keyboard.
 It takes up less desk space than a conventional keyboard.
 The typing does not require a lot of force. So easing the strain on wrists and hands.
 When connected to your handheld computer it is more convenient to carry around than your laptop.
 You can use it with your desktop, laptop, PDAs, Smart phones or handheld computer .
 No driver software necessary, it can be used as a plug and play device. It can be project and implimentationed on any surface or you can type in the plain air
 It can be useful in places like operation theatres where low noise is essential.
 The standard coin-sized lithium battery lasts about eight months before needing to be replaced.
BY PROFESSIONALS
 To take notes during a business meeting.
 As computer/PDA input.
 To do everyday work at your desk without taking up so much valuable space.
 High-tech and industrial Sectors.
BY STUDENTS
 To take notes while in class (no one will hear your keying).
 To work on a paper while in the library.
 To do homework while you are on break at work.
 Virtual Keyboard Drawbacks
 Virtual keyboard is hard to get used to. Since it involves typing in thin air, it requires a little practice. Only people who are good at typing can use a virtual keyboard efficiently.
 It is very costly ranging from 150 to 200 dollars. So not everyone can buy this product.
 The room in which the project and implimentationed keyboard is used should not be very bright so that the keyboard is properly visible.
Conclusion
Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience of compactness with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. Virtual Keyboard is designed for anyone who's become frustrated with trying to put information into a handheld.
Thus virtual keyboards will make typing easier, faster, and almost a pleasure.
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