WAP(wireless application protocol)
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ajukrishnan
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#1
26-12-2009, 01:03 PM


WAP: An Introduction
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a new advanced intelligent
messaging service for digital mobile phones and other mobile terminals that will allow
you to see Internet content in special text format on special WAP-enabled mobile phones.
Enabling information access from handheld devices requires a deep understanding of
both technical and market issues that are unique to the wireless environment. The WAP
specification was developed by the industryâ„¢s best minds to address these issues.
Wireless devices represent the ultimate constrained computing device with limited CPU,
memory and battery life and a simple user interface. Wireless networks are constrained
by low bandwidth, high latency and unpredictable availability and stability. The WAP
specification addresses these issues by using the best of existing standards and
developing new extensions when needed. The WAP solution leverages the tremendous
investment in web servers, web development tools, web programmers and web
applications while solving the unique problems associated with the wireless domain. The
specification ensures that this solution is fast, reliable and secure. The WAP specification
is developed and supported by the wireless telecommunication community so that the
entire industry and its subscribers can benefit from a single, open specification.
The WAP forum
The WAP specification was developed by the WAP forum, a consortium
founded by the telecommunication giants Nokia, Ericsson, Phone.com and Motorola. The
WAP forumâ„¢s membership roster now includes computer industry heavyweights such as
Microsoft, Oracle, IBM and Intel along with several hundred other companies. The WAP
forum is an industry group dedicated to the goal of enabling sophisticated telephony and
information services on handheld wireless devices. The WAP forum has drafted a global
wireless protocol specification for all wireless networks and is contributing it to various
industry groups and standard bodies. This WAP specification by the WAP forum enables
manufacturers, network operators, content providers and application developers to offer
2
compatible products and secure services on all devices and networks, resulting in greater
economies of scale and universal access to information.
Goals of the WAP forum
The goals of the WAP forum are listed as follows.
¢ To bring Internet content and advanced data services to wireless phones and other
wireless terminals.
¢ To develop a global wireless protocol specification that works across all wireless
network technologies.
¢ To enable the creation of content and applications that scale across a wide range
of wireless bearer networks and device types, i.e. to maintain device and bearer
independence
¢ To embrace and extend existing standards and technology whenever possible and
appropriate.
Why WAP is necessary
Ensure interoperability
Service providers must feel secure that their investments will yield benefits
in the future. They will not be able to do so until equipment and software offered by
different suppliers can be made to work together. The WAPspecification has been
designed to encourage easy, open interoperability between its key components. Any
solution component built to be compliant with the WAP specification can interoperate
with any other WAP-compliant component. Service providers can choose equipment and
software from multiple WAP-compliant vendors, selecting each piece of the solution that
is appropriate for the service providerâ„¢s particular needs.

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22-03-2010, 10:02 PM

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12-10-2010, 05:51 PM


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WAP: An Introduction



The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a new advanced intelligent
messaging service for digital mobile phones and other mobile terminals that will allow
you to see Internet content in special text format on special WAP-enabled mobile phones.
Enabling information access from handheld devices requires a deep understanding of
both technical and market issues that are unique to the wireless environment. The WAP
specification was developed by the industry’s best minds to address these issues.
Wireless devices represent the ultimate constrained computing device with limited CPU,
memory and battery life and a simple user interface. Wireless networks are constrained
by low bandwidth, high latency and unpredictable availability and stability. The WAP
specification addresses these issues by using the best of existing standards and
developing new extensions when needed. The WAP solution leverages the tremendous
investment in web servers, web development tools, web programmers and web
applications while solving the unique problems associated with the wireless domain. The
specification ensures that this solution is fast, reliable and secure. The WAP specification
is developed and supported by the wireless telecommunication community so that the
entire industry and its subscribers can benefit from a single, open specification.
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#4
19-10-2010, 05:49 PM


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WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL



WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL


INTRODUCTION

The primary means of communicating information of these days are voice and Internet. The unlimited accesses to Internet and sheer number of people connected to the Internet have made industry captain realize its potential. The industry now plans its marketing and communication strategies around the Internet. Today every banking to education, research to health-care is affected by it. E-mail is the way to communicate today. Practically who use the Internet uses E-mail. The wireless technologies and the Internet were growing separately. The wireless industry initially struggled within a number of issues like low bandwidth and low connection stability, to bring Internet to its users. They came together to form a common forum to tackle these issues. This forum is called the WAP.The wireless application protocol.


The Wireless Application Protocol is a standard developed by the WAP Forum, a group founded by Nokia, Ericsson, Phone.com (formerly Unwired Planet), and Motorola. The WAP Forum’s membership roster now includes computer industry heavyweights such as Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, and Intel along with several hundred other companies. According to the WAP Forum, the goals of WAP are to be:
• Independent of wireless network standard.
• Open to all.
• Proposed to the appropriate standards bodies.
• Scalable across transport options.
• Scalable across device types.
• Extensible over time to new networks and transports.

WAP defines a communications protocol as well as an application environment. In essence, it is a standardized technology for cross-platform, distributed computing. It sound similar to the World Wide Web. WAP is very similar to the combination of HTML and HTTP except that it adds in one very important feature: optimization for low-bandwidth, low-memory, and low-display capability environments. These types of environments include PDAs, wireless phones, pagers, and virtually any other communications device.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a result of continuous work to define an industry-wide specification for developing applications that operate over wireless communication networks. The scope for the WAP Forum is to define market is growing very quickly and reaching new customers and providing new services. To enable operators and manufacturers to meet the challenges in advanced services, differentiation, and fast/flexible service creation, WAP defines a set of protocols in transport, session and application layers.
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#5
31-12-2010, 04:15 PM

A-Jesuraj
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Over view
WAP - Introduction
WAP - The Model
WAP - Architecture
WAP - Environment
WAP - WML Syntax
WAP - WML Script
WAP - Core Services
WAP - Key Benefits
WAP - Modern
WAP - Future Prospects

Contents
Introduction
What is WAP?
History
WAP - The Model
The Internet Model
The WAP Model
How WAP Model Works?
WAP - Architecture
Application Layer
Session Layer
Security layer
Transport Layer

1. Introduction
1.1 What is WAP?
WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol
WAP is an application communication protocol
WAP is used to access services and information
WAP is inherited from Internet standards
WAP is for handheld devices such as mobile phones



WAP is a protocol designed for micro browsers
WAP enables the creating of web applications for mobile devices.
WAP uses the mark-up language WML (not HTML)
WML is defined as an XML 1.0 application

1.2. The Wireless Application Protocol
The WAP is the leading standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones.
The WAP standard is based on Internet standards (HTML, XML and TCP/IP).



1.3. History of WAP
WAP is published by the WAP Forum, founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet.
Forum members now represent over 90% of the global handset market, as well as leading infrastructure providers, software developers and other organizations.

2. WAP Model

2.1 Internet Model
The Internet model makes it possible for a client to reach services on a large number of origin servers.
Each services is addressed by a unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

The content stored on the servers is of various formats, but HTML is the predominant. HTML provides the content developer with a means to describe the appearance of a service in a flat document structure. If more advanced features like procedural logic are needed, then scripting languages such as JavaScript or VB Script may be utilised.








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#6
02-03-2011, 11:18 AM

presented by:
AJINKYA JADHAV


.ppt   WAPpresentation.ppt (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 52)
The Two Paradigms
W – World
W – Wide
W -- Web
W – World
W – Wide
W – Wireless
W -- Web
Wireless Trend in 10 years
WAP Forum
Open Standard
Internet WWW application development model
Wireless Network Technology and bearer independence
Device independence
Embrace and extend existing standards.
WAP Forum Dates
26 June - 97 WAP effort launched by founders
30 April - 98 WAP 1.0 public available
30 June – 99 WAP 1.1 public available
Dec-99 WAP 1.2 launched
2002 WAP 2.0 launched
Wireless Application Protocol
Protocol specification for communication over wireless devices
Specified by WAP Forum
Open, global specification
Conforming to OSI standards
You can say it is a parallel internet
WAP Key Features
WAP Architecture
WAP - Terminals
Ericsson
MC218, R320, R380
Nokia
7110
Motorola
i500plus, i1000plus
Alcatel
One Touch POCKET
Samsung
SGH-800
Siemens etc.
WAP Protocol Stack
Makes applications independent of bearers and other hardware
Modified to allow for
Lower Bandwidth (9.6kbps – 14.4kbps)
Network latency (6 – 10 seconds on SMS)
Unreliable connections
WAP Protocol Stack
Wireless Application Environment (WAE)
A micro-browser environment containing
Addressing Model (URL, URI)
Wireless Markup Language (WML)
WMLScript
Content Formats – WBMP, vCard, vCalendar
WTA User Agent
Handles wireless devices telephony functions
Wireless Session Protocol (WSP)
A strip down version of HTTP/1.1 (“B”)
Maintain session states
Session suspend, resume (long-lived sessions)
Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
Three types of transactions
Unreliable one-way requests (class 0)
Reliable one-way requests (class 1)
Reliable two-way request-reply (class 2)
Reliability thru [selective] re-transmission
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
WTLS is an optional layer
Privacy thru encryption
Authentication through digital certificates
Compression
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
WAP Gateway
Connects the Internet domain to the Wireless domain.
Cache service
Script compilation
Protocol conversion
Security provided with WTLS, which supports authentication and encryption
Compressed Binary Transmission
WAP Server
Hosts WAP applications

Allows WAP services to be hosted on standard WWW servers using proven technologies like ASP, Java Servlets, CGI scripts …
Provides security and authentication
WAP content is created using WML, which is a light weight HTML.
Gateway and server functions can be combined into a single physical server.
WAP - Services, Business areas
Information services
WAP Portals
E-commerce
Banking and finance
Shopping
Gambling
Ticketing
Advantages Vs Disadvantages
Simplicity of Use
Mobility
Personalized
Easy to Carry
Low Band Width
Battery life
Limited Computation Power
Limited on board storage
Limited Graphics
Limited Keyboard and Display screen Size
WAP - potential threats
Delayed standard roll-out
WAP 1.0 WAP 1.1, a developer drawback
WAP 1.2 in December, 1999
Pricing
Security
End-to-end security problems
Marketing
Competition
Microsoft Wireless Knowledge (Microsoft-Qualcomm tie-up)
Palm VII (Palm Computing)
I-mode (NTT) , currently most developed but limited
SIM TOOLKIT, will be a complementary solution
Future …
Leverage IVR (Interactive Voice response) technologies to reduce data entry woes.
Location and proximity detection technologies
Evolution of Wireless networks towards 3 and 4G.
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15-03-2011, 12:25 PM


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Abstract
WAP bridges the gap between the wireless mobile world and the internet. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) , is a collection of protocols and transport layers which allow mobile and portable communication devices such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s), to receive information over the airwaves such as personal computers users obtain information over the internet. . WAP is simply a protocol- a standardized way that a mobile phone talks to a server installed in the mobile phone network.
Introduction
WAP is a hot topic that has been widely hyped in the mobile industry and outside of it. It has become imperative for all Information Technology companies in Nordic countries and beyond to have a WAP division. Many advertising agencies and "dotcoms" have announced WAP services. From the user's perspective, using WAP is much like surfing the net on a personal computer; the mobile device is fitted with a small, or not so small, display which can be used just like a desktop browser. Information sources can be selected which are then downloaded and their content is displayed. Hyper Text links and buttons can then be pressed to move around from page to page in a very simple way. In this respect, there is very little difference between WAP browsing and desktop surfing, but, behind the scenes there are considerable differences because of the medium through which the information must travel, over radio waves rather than along hard-wired or telephone lines.
Importance of WAP
It provides a standardized way of linking the Internet to mobile phones, thereby linking two of the hottest industries anywhere.
Its founder members include the major wireless vendors of Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola, plus a newcomer Phone.com.
Compared to the wired networks there are many constraints in this wireless world.
* Less band width
* More latency
* Less connection stability
* Less predictable availability
.In order to meet the requirements for mobile operations the solutions must be:
Inter operable-terminals from different manufacturers are able to communicate with the services in the mobile networks.
Scalable-mobile network operators are able to scale services to customer needs.
Efficient-provides quality of services suited to the behavior and characteristics of the mobile world.
Reliable-provides a consistent and predictable platform for deploying services.
Secure-enables services to be extended over potentially unprotected mobile networks while still preserving the integrity of user data, protects the devices and services from security problems such as denial of service.
WAP also has its detractors and controversies:
It is very difficult to configure WAP phones for new WAP services, with 20 or so different parameters needing to be entered to gain access to a WAP service.
Compared with the installed base of Short Message Service (SMS) compliant phones, the relative number of handsets supporting WAP is tiny. WAP is a protocol that runs on top of an underlying bearer. None of the existing GSM bearers for WAP- the Short Message Service (SMS), Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) and Circuit Switched Data (CSD) are optimized for WAP.
There are many WAP Gateway vendors out there competing against each other with largely the same standardized product. This has led to consolidation such as the pending acquisition of APiON by Phone.com.
Other protocols such as SIM Application Toolkit and Mobile Station Application Execution Environment (MexE) are respectively already widely supported or designed to supercede WAP.
WAP services are expected to be expensive to use since the tendency is to be on-line for a long Circuit Switched Data (CSD) call as the end user uses features such as interactivity and selection of more information. Without specific tariff initiatives, there are likely to be some surprised WAP users when they see their mobile phone bill for the first time after starting using WAP.
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#8
15-03-2011, 04:24 PM

It should be like this. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a new advanced intelligent
messaging service for digital mobile phones and other mobile terminals that will allow
you to see Internet content in special text format on special WAP-enabled mobile phones.
Enabling information access from handheld devices requires a deep understanding of
both technical and market issues that are unique to the wireless environment. It is the basic about this.
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#9
12-04-2011, 09:21 AM


Presented By,
Raghavendra.K


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Introduction:
 Barely a decade ago, when Internet was in its infancy, the mere thought that a person could access a global database of information right from his/hers room was thought to be science fiction.
 Could a person chat with his wife, bid at the stock exchange, keep in touch with the latest in sports and business, catch up on some research, all while commuting to and from his office?
Definition of WAP
 WAP aims to integrate Internet, wireless data, and telephony.
 WAP works with all types of wireless networks including GSM, TDMA, CDMA, and the upcoming 3G networks.
 WAP addresses issues
àlow bandwidth
àdevices with small displays
àlimited processing power and memory
àbatteries
 WAP follows the client-server Web model of interaction
 WAP gateways (proxies) are needed to sit between the client (WAP device) and the Web servers.
WAP Forum members
Motivation

• Limitations on Mobile Terminals:
• Less powerful CPUs and memory
• Restricted power consumption
• Smaller displays
• Limitations on Mobile Networks:
• Less bandwidth
• More latency
• Less connection stability and less predictable availability
How we over come these, using WAP:
We use,
 Binary transmission :- For long latency and low bandwidth
WAP sessions cope with intermittent coverage :- For Less connection stability and
less predictable availability
Wireless Markup Language (WML) :-For smaller displays
 The need for WAP
With out WAP
 We need Higher bandwidth
 HTML and TCP/IP significant amount of bandwidth
 Lost of signals.
 TCP/IP is not inherently secure.
 TCP/IP not supported by all wireless network
With WAP
 Tailored for small devices and low bandwidth.
 Binary encoded
 Secure
 Independent
WAP Architecture:
World Wide Web model
WAP Model
WAP Protocol Architecture:--

 Advantages Vs Disadvantages
 Simplicity of Use
 Mobility
 Personalized
 Easy to Carry
 Low Band Width
 Battery life
 Limited Computation Power
 Limited Graphics
 Limited Keyboard and Display screen Size
Conclusion :
 The application developer must always be aware of the user and take into account the usability issues if the application is to be a success.
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19-04-2011, 04:15 PM


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INTRODUCTION
The primary means of communicating information of these days are voice and Internet. The unlimited accesses to Internet and sheer number of people connected to the Internet have made industry captain realize its potential. The industry now plans its marketing and communication strategies around the Internet. Today every banking to education, research to health-care is affected by it. E-mail is the way to communicate today. Practically who use the Internet uses E-mail. The wireless technologies and the Internet were growing separately. The wireless industry initially struggled within a number of issues like low bandwidth and low connection stability, to bring Internet to its users. They came together to form a common forum to tackle these issues. This forum is called the WAP.The wireless application protocol.
The Wireless Application Protocol is a standard developed by the WAP Forum, a group founded by Nokia, Ericsson, Phone.com (formerly Unwired Planet), and Motorola. The WAP Forum’s membership roster now includes computer industry heavyweights such as Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, and Intel along with several hundred other companies. According to the WAP Forum, the goals of WAP are to be:
• Independent of wireless network standard.
• Open to all.
• Proposed to the appropriate standards bodies.
• Scalable across transport options.
• Scalable across device types.
• Extensible over time to new networks and transports.
WAP defines a communications protocol as well as an application environment. In essence, it is a standardized technology for cross-platform, distributed computing. It sound similar to the World Wide Web. WAP is very similar to the combination of HTML and HTTP except that it adds in one very important feature: optimization for low-bandwidth, low-memory, and low-display capability environments. These types of environments include PDAs, wireless phones, pagers, and virtually any other communications device.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a result of continuous work to define an industry-wide specification for developing applications that operate over wireless communication networks. The scope for the WAP Forum is to define market is growing very quickly and reaching new customers and providing new services. To enable operators and manufacturers to meet the challenges in advanced services, differentiation, and fast/flexible service creation, WAP defines a set of protocols in transport, session and application layers.
WAP As An Extension of the Internet model
The WAP model closely resembles the Internet model of working. In Internet a WWW client requests a resource stored on a web server by identifying it using a unique URL, that is, a text string constituting an address to that resource. WAP client applications make requests very similar in concept to the URL concept in use on the Web.Standard communication protocols, like HTTP and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) manage these requests and transfer of data between the two ends. The content that is transferred can either be static like html pages or dynamic like Active Server Pages (ASP), Common Gateway Interface (CGI), and Servlets.
The following figure helps draw a parallel to the Internet protocols. You can see how WAP extends or reuses Internet protocols to achieve mobile Internet access.
The strength of WAP (some call it the problem with WAP) lies on the fact that it very closely resembles the Internet model. In order to accommodate wireless access to the information space offered by the WWW, WAP is based on well-known Internet technology that has been optimized to meet the constraints of a wireless environment. Corresponding to HTML, WAP specifies a markup language adapted to the constraints of low bandwidth available with the usual mobile data bearers and the limited display capabilities of mobile devices - the Wireless Markup Language (WML). WML offers a navigation model designed for devices with small displays and limited input facilities (no mouse and limited keyboard). WAP also provides a means for supporting more advanced tasks, comparable to those solved by using for example JavaScript in HTML.
THE WAP MODEL
A WAP request is routed through a WAP gateway which acts as an intermediary between the “bearer” used by the client (GSM, CDMA, TDMA, etc.) and the computing network that the WAP gateway resides on (TCP/IP in most cases). The gateway then processes the request, retrieves contents or calls CGI scripts, Java servlets, or some other dynamic mechanism, then formats data for return to the client. This data is formatted as WML (Wireless Markup Language), a markup language based directly on XML. Once the WML has been prepared (known as a deck), the gateway then sends the completed request back (in binary form due to bandwidth restrictions) to the client for display and/or processing. The client retrieves the first card off of the deck and displays it on the monitor.
The deck of cards metaphor is designed specifically to take advantage of small display areas on handheld devices. Instead of continually requesting and retrieving cards (the WAP equivalent of HTML pages), each client request results in the retrieval of a deck of one or more cards. The client device can employ logic via embedded WMLScript (the WAP equivalent of client-side JavaScript) for intelligently processing these cards and the resultant user inputs.
To sum up, the client makes a request. This request is received by a WAP gateway that then processes the request and formulates a reply using WML. When ready, the WML is sent back to the client for display. As mentioned earlier, this is very similar in concept to the standard stateless HTTP transaction involving client Web browsers.
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11-05-2011, 04:23 PM


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INTRODUCTION:
Mobile phones have become very popular.They offer ultimate convenience and are very useful devices for people to stay in touch.
The main draw back of web based application is that the user has to stay close to the pc to use the facility.
WAP has given a new dimension to web applications by doing away with the restrictions posed by pc.
ABOUT WAP:
The Wireless Application protocol (WAP) is an open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services instantly.
Nokia, Ericson, Motorola and the US Software Company phone.com were the initial partners that team up in mid 1997 to develop and deploy the WAP.
WAP is an attempt to define the standard for how content from the internet is filtered for mobile communications.
WAP IS A STRONG CORPORATE TOOL
The excitement over WAP is essentially because of the potential as a strong corporate tool. WAP could effect a company in two ways.
A new way of delivering services
An enabler of the any time, any where connected work force.\
Today companies have realized the value of their customers time and the need to reach out to customers, any where and anytime.
BENEFITS:
OPERATORS

For wireless network operators, WAP promises to decrease churn, cut costs, and increase the subscriber base both by improving existing services, such as interfaces to voice-mail and prepaid systems, and facilitating an unlimited range of new value-added services and applications.
CONTENT PROVIDERS
Applications will be written in wireless markup language (WML), which is a subset of extensible markup language (XML). Using the same model as the Internet, WAP will enable content and application developers to grasp the tag-based WML.
END USERS
End users of WAP will benefit from easy, secure access to relevant Internet information and services such as unified messaging, banking, and entertainment through their mobile devices. Intranet information such as corporate databases can also be accessed via WAP technology.
Why Choose WAP?
In the past, wireless Internet access has been limited by the capabilities of handheld devices and wireless networks.
Internet standards such as hypertext markup language (HTML), HTTP, TLS and transmission control protocol (TCP) are inefficient over mobile networks, requiring large amounts of mainly text-based data to be sent.
WAP utilizes Internet standards such as XML, user datagram protocol (UDP), and Internet protocol (IP).
WML and wireless markup language script (WMLScript) are used to produce WAP content
WORKING OF THE WAP
WAP Gateway
WAP Gateway allows WAP browsers to access the WAP content located in the Internet.
WAP Server
WAP Server provides the data and the services locally in the server PC. By using the WAP Server one doesn’t have to install a separate HTTP server to provide WAP content.
A Wireless Application Protocol standard specifies two essential elements of a wireless communication and end-to-end application protocol and an application environment based on a browser.
WAP FEATURES
LANGUAGES:

WML has full support for user input to enable interactivity within the WAP application. WML is based on XML.
OPERATING SYSTEM:
WAP can be built on any operating system including palmOS, FLEXOS, OS/9, JAVAOS etc. It provides service interoperability even between different device families.
NETWORK THAT SUPPORT WAP:
WAP can be used very easily on almost any wireless format. Currently WAP is being used by both GSM, CDMA and TDMA cellular phone networks.
WAP APPLICATIONS
Wireless access to Internet content
Wireless access to corporate IT-systems and Extranets
Intelligent telephony services
Wireless access to personal information
WAP PROGRAMMING TOOLS
WML
WML Script
Wbmp Image
WHY WAP IS HOT ?
It provides a standardized way of linking the internet to mobile phones, thereby linking two of the hottest industries any where.
Its founder members include major wireless vendors of Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola, Plus new comer phone.com.
The WAP forum has over 500 members.
WAP PROGRAMMING MODEL
WAP programming model is similar to World Wide Web programming model.
WAP model consists of three entities
Client
Gateway
Server.
1. Client:
This is micro browser that resides on the mobile device.
2. Gateway:
This entity takes care of translation between WAP & WWW.
3. Server
This entity is the standard WWW server that contains static & dynamic content
WAP PROTOCOL STACK
WAP relies on stacked architecture, as does UNIX, Windows NT, and most other newer technologies. Because wireless devices have limited memory, some layers of the stack have been offloaded to the WAP gateway. The layers, are:
THE FUTURE OF CONTENT DEVELOPMENT
WML’s basis in XML also positions it well as a future target markup language for automatic content transformation.
The W3C is currently defining the eXstensible Style Language (XSL), which provides a powerful mechanism for the dynamic transformation of well formed XML.
Using a XSL style sheet, content written in XML defined markup languages can be automatically translated into content suitable for either HTML or WML, as shown in fig.
EXTENSION TO WAP TECHNOLOGY - BLUETOOTH:
With the blue-tooth technology the wireless world will be even more wire-less. We will able to print from our phone or laptop without connecting any cables. You will tell your computers to communicate with each other without your permission.
WAP PITFALLS
It is very difficult to configure WAP phones for new WAP services with 20 or so different parameters needing to be entered to gain access to a WAP Service.
There are few mobile phones that support WAP and wide spread WAP support in handsets is unlikely for sometime.
There are many WAP Gateway vendors out these competing against each other with largely the same standardized product. This led to consolidation.
CONCLUSION:
WAP is an initiative by WAP forum that allows users of mobile devices to access content on their devices using wireless networks. It provides a universal standard, which enables users to easily access web based interactive information services and applications from the screens of their mobile phones.
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