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seminar surveyer
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03-01-2011, 04:22 PM

by:Abhishek agrawal

.ppt   water pollution presentation.ppt (Size: 970 KB / Downloads: 334)

It means the contamination of water by such substances whose presence in excess amount in water cause problems for animals and humans.
It affects plants animals and organisms living in these bodies of water; and in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

Water Pollution Categories
If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory. E.g.: a discharge from a smoke stack (factory chimney), or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain.
When pollution comes from many different scattered sources. It enters the water bodies from various sources.
Types of water pollution
Surface Water Pollution

Ground Water pollution

Microbiological Pollution

Oxygen Depletion Pollution

Types of water pollution
Surface Water Pollution

Ground Water pollution

Microbiological Pollution

Oxygen Depletion Pollution

Causes of water pollution
It refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities.
The use of land for agriculture and the practices followed in cultivation greatly affect the quality of groundwater.

Waste water from manufacturing or chemical processes in industries contributes to water pollution.
water pollution is concentrated within a few sub sectors, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic pollutants.
There are various other causes like highway waste, chemical waste, radioactive waste, plastics, etc.

The food chain is damaged.
Diseases can spread via polluted water.
Acid rain.
Pollutants in the water will alter the overall chemistry of water.
Marine food sources are contaminated.
Altered water temperatures can kill marine life.
Some people believe pollution is an inescapable result of human activity.
Sewage is another good example of how pollution can affect us all. Sewage discharged into coastal waters can wash up on beaches and cause a health hazard.
There are various other effects like it destroy our ecosystem, marine life, and affect human health in many ways.
Ways to control the water pollution
Making people aware of the problem and its harmful effects is the first step to solving it.
Environmental laws can make it tougher for people to pollute, but to be really effective they have to operate across national and international borders. Most environmental experts agree that the best way to tackle pollution is through something called the POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE.

Life is ultimately about choices—and so is pollution. We can live with sewage-strewn beaches, dead rivers, and fish that are too poisonous to eat. Or we can work together to keep the environment clean so the plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent.
So its better to realise that we are doing and what we will pay for it.

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22-01-2011, 03:07 AM

In rivers, oceans and seas, water pollution effects on flora and fauna them. In addition, birds and animals that eat contaminated feed this offer can perish. blood disorders, nervous system disorders and heart disease are some of the effects of water pollution. Many toxins in contaminated water may lead to cancer. Rarely, chromosomal composition of the body can change. Some effects are less potent skin lesions, vomiting and diarrhea.
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11-08-2012, 12:32 PM

Water Pollution

.ppt   water_pollution_full_chpater.ppt (Size: 1.11 MB / Downloads: 58)

Types and Sources of Water Pollution

Water pollution is any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses.

disease–causing agents: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites;
oxygen demanding wastes: organic wastes that can be decomposed by aerobic bacteria;
water–soluble inorganic chemicals: acids, salts, and compounds with heavy metals;
inorganic chemicals: oil, gasoline, plastics, pesticides, cleaning solvents, detergents, etc.
sediment: suspended matter, insoluble particles of soil and other solids; biggest class of pollution by weight;
water–soluble radioactive isotopes: ionizing radiation sources;
genetic pollution: introduction of non–native species;
thermal pollution: heat added to water.

Point and Nonpoint Sources

It is easier to control pollution that comes from a specific source.
point sources discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipes, ditches, or sewers (e.g., factories, sewage treatment plants, mines, oil wells, oil tankers);
nonpoint sources can not be traced to a single site of discharge (e.g., acid deposition, substances picked up in runoff, seepage into groundwater);
nonpoint source water pollution from agriculture is largest source of water pollution in the U.S. (64% of pollutants into streams and 57% of pollutants entering lakes).

Pollution of Streams and Lakes

Water pollution control laws enacted in the 1970s have greatly increased the number and quality of wastewater treatment plants in the U.S.
also improvements in Canada, Japan, and most western European countries;
large fish kill and contamination of drinking water still occur, especially in developing countries;
lakes, reservoirs and ponds are more vulnerable to contamination than streams because of less mixing and aeration.

Ocean Pollution

Coastal areas – especially wetlands and estuaries, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps – bear the brunt of enormous inputs of wastes into the ocean.
half of the world's population lives within 100 km (60 miles) of the ocean and 14 of the 15 largest metropolitan areas are near coastal waters;
in the U.S. about 35% of municipal sewage ends up virtually untreated in marine waters;
the ocean is the ultimate repository of waste, since surface waters flow into the ocean;
dumping of industrial waste directly into the ocean off U.S. coasts has stopped, but many countries still dump large quantities of toxic substances.

Oil Spills

Crude and refined petroleum are accidentally and deliberately released into the environment from various sources.
most oil is released in normal operation of offshore wells, from washing tankers, and pipeline and storage tank leaks;
tanker and offshore drilling rig accidents can release large amounts of oil in a short period of time;

Drinking Water Quality

Much of the world's drinking water is contaminated and poses serious health threats.
currently most drinking water is purified by storage in a reservoir, where suspended matter settles out, and then treated by sand filters, activated charcoal, and addition of chlorine;
U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 requires EPA to establish national drinking water standards; currently efforts by industry to weaken the standards;
many individuals turning to bottled water and home filters; bottled water is often more contaminated than tap water.


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