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10-09-2009, 05:49 PM

Introduction Working of WIMAX IEEE 802.16 standard 802.16 Architecture Features of WIMAX Advantages of WIMAX over WIFI FUTURE OF WIMAX There are three possible ways to access internet. Broadband access Uses DSL or cable modem at home and T1 or T3 line at office WIFI Uses WIFI routers at home and hotspots on the road Dial Up Connection Broadband access is too expensive and WiFi coverage is very sparse. The new technology promises High speed of broadband service Wireless rather than wired access Broad Coverage WIMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WiMAX refers to broadband wireless networks that are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which ensures compatibility and interoperability between broadband wireless access equipment WiMAX, which will have a range of up to 31 miles, is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cellphone tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km). A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or Personal Computer Memory card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today Non-Line of sight Uses a lower frequency range. Line of sight Uses a higher frequency range. WiMAX Mini-PCI Reference Design Intel™s first WIMAX chip Range- 30 miles from base station Speed- 70 Megabits per second Frequency bands- 2 to 11 and 10 to 66(licensed and unlicensed bands respectively) Defines both MAC and PHY layer and allows multiple PHY layer specifications IEEE 802.16 Protocol Architecture has 4 layers: Convergence, MAC, Transmission and physical, which can be mapped to two OSI lowest layers: physical and data link. Scalability Quality of Service Range Coverage Primary purpose of QoS feature is to define transmission ordering and scheduling on the air interface These features often need to work in conjunction with mechanisms beyond the air interface in order to provide end to end QoS or to police the behaviour or SS. It provides flexible and dynamic QoS . Speed Faster than broadband service Wireless Not having to lay cables reduces cost Easier to extend to suburban and rural areas Broad Coverage Much wider coverage than WiFi hotspots Allow service providers to deliver high throughput broadband based services like VoIP, high-speed Internet and Video Facilitate equipment compatibility Reduce the capital expenditures required for network expansion Provide improved performance and extended range Range of technology and service level choices from both fixed and wireless broadband operators DSL-like services at DSL prices but with portability Rapidly declining fixed broadband prices No more DSL installation fees from incumbent Scalability Relative Performance Quality of Service Range Coverage Security 802.11 ¢ 802.16a Channel bandwidths can be chosen by operator (e.g. for sectorization) ¢ 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz width channels. MAC designed for scalability. independent of channel bandwidth ¢ ¢ Wide (20MHz) frequency channels ¢ MAC designed to support 10™s of users MAC designed to support thousands of users. Channel Bandwidth 802.11 802.16a 20 MHz 1.5 “ 20 MHz Maximum Data Rate 54 Mbps 100 Mbps Maximum bps/Hz 2.7 bps/Hz 5.0 bps/Hz 802.11 ¢ 802.16a Standard cannot currently Designed to support Voice and guarantee latency for Voice, Video Video from ground up Standard does not allow for differentiated levels of service on a per-user basis ¢ ¢ Supports differentiated service levels: e.g. T1 for business customers; best effort for residential. 802.11 ¢ 802.16a ¢ Optimized for ~100 meters No near-far compensation Optimized for up to 50 Km Designed to handle many users spread out over kilometers Designed to tolerate greater multi-path delay spread (signal reflections) up to 10.0µ seconds PHY and MAC designed with multi-mile range in mind ¢ ¢ ¢ Designed to handle indoor multipath delay spread of 0.8µ seconds Optimization centers around PHY and MAC layer for 100m range ¢ ¢ ¢ 802.11 ¢ 802.16a ¢ Optimized for indoor performance Optimized for outdoor NLOS performance Standard supports mesh network topology Standard supports advanced antenna techniques ¢ ¢ No mesh topology support within ratified standards ¢ 802.11 802.16a ¢ Existing standard is WPA + WEP ¢ Existing standard is PKM “ EAP ¢ Encryption codes are used WiMax will be deployed in three stages In the first phase WiMaX technology (based on IEEE 802.16-2004) provides fixed wireless connections In the second phase WiMaX will be available as a cheap and self-installing Subscriber Terminal (ST), linked to PC and to antenna The third phase enables portability, thus WiMAX (based on IEEE 802.16e) will be integrated into commercial laptops Will WIMAX replace 3G Along with the forthcoming standardization, WiMAX has the potential to substitute 3G and become a promising 4G WiMAX has its distinct identity as either a stand-alone solution for incumbent and competitive fixed network operators or as complementary radio access solution for established 2G and 3G cellular network operators Fixed-line operators, on the one hand, may consider WiMAX as a viable alternative to add mobility to the service portfolio, leveraging their huge subscriber base, in particular in countries where 3G licensing is delayed or not affordable
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24-04-2010, 11:30 AM

please read topicideashow-to-wimax--5303 and topicideashow-to-wimax and topicideashow-to-wimax-ieee for getting all technical information about wimax ieee and its presentation
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31-03-2011, 12:59 PM


.ppt   seminar ppt.ppt (Size: 347 KB / Downloads: 277)
 A Wireless local area network (LAN) is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension to or as an alternative for, a wired LAN.
 Examples of wireless technologies includes, Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11), Bluetooth, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16), and more.
 This paper discusses the Wireless LANs and the functional parts of a WIMAX system with its basic operation .
 Using radio frequency (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit and receive data over the air, minimizing the need for wired connections.
• The goal of WiMAX is to provide high-speed internet access in a coverage range several kilometers in radius.
• WiMAX provides about 70Mbps with a range of 50 kilometers.
• WiMAX standard has the advantage that it can support both LOS ( line of sight ) as well as NLOS( non line-of-sight )
• Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through a variety of devices.
 The IEEE 802.16 standard have two categories
 Fixed WiMAX : provides for fixed line communication with an antenna mounted on a rooftop , like a TV antenna .
 Mobile WiMAX : allows mobile client machines to be connected to the internet . Mobile WiMAX opens the doors to mobile phone use over IP , and even high-speed mobile services.
A WiMAX tower : similar to the concept of phone tower, which can provide the coverage to rural areas.
 A WiMAX receiver : the receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA(Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) card.
 Non-line-of-sight : this is Wi-Fi sort of service where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower ,which uses a lower frequency range –2GHz to 11GHz.
 Line-of-sight : Here a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole, which is more stable and stronger connection .This uses a frequency range of possibly 66GHz
 Some of the different types of uses that WiMAX provides
 Point to Point (PTP) : Here the connection may be independent from all other systems or networks.
 Point to multipoint(PTMP) : It allows a radio system to provide services to multiple users.
 WiMAX can also be setup as mesh networks allowing the WiMAX systems to forward packets between the base stations and subscribers without having to install communication lines between the base stations .

• Bad weather conditions such as rain could interrupt the signal.
• High installation and operational cost.
• Other wireless equipment could cause interference.
• WiMAX cannot deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers (31 miles). Like all wireless technologies, WiMAX can operate at higher bitrates or over longer distances but not both.
 Within five years ,we expect WiMAX to be the dominant technology for wireless networking .
 As the cellular operators move to IP based 4G systems they will include WiMAX.
 WiMAX advantages exceed the performance and cost advantages that people talk about always.
 Wireless networking is the best thing to happen to the Internet in a very long time! With the thousands of new hot spots being created, this year alone, staying in touch by email will come as naturally as breathing!
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22-04-2011, 03:21 PM

.docx   WiMAX.docx (Size: 180.47 KB / Downloads: 77)
In recent years, Broadband technology has rapidly become an established, global commodity required by a high percentage of the population.DSL operators, who initially focused their deployments in densely-populated urban and metropolitan areas, are now challenged to provide broadband services in suburban and rural areas where new markets are quickly taking root. Governments are prioritizing broadband as a key political objective for all citizens to overcome the “broadband gap” also known as “digital divide”.
Wireless DSL (WDSL) offers an effective, complementary solution to wire line DSL, allowing DSL operators to provide broadband service to additional areas and populations that would otherwise find them outside the broadband loop. Government regulatory bodies are realizing the inherent worth in wireless technologies as a means for solving digital-divide challenges in the last mile and have accordingly initiated a deregulation process in recent years for both licensed and unlicensed bands to support this application. Recent technological advancements and the formation of a global standard and interoperability forum - WiMAX, set the stage for WDSL to take a significant role in the broadband market. Revenues from services delivered via Broadband Wireless Access have already reached $323 million and are expected to jump to $1.75 billion.
WiMax delivers broadband to a large area via towers, just like cell phones. This enables your laptop to have high-speed access in any of the hot spots. Instead of yet another cable coming to your home, there would be yet another antenna on the cell-phone tower. This is definitely a point towards broadband service in rural areas. First get the signal to the area, either with a single cable (instead of one to each user) or via a point-to-point wireless system. Then put up a tower or two, and the whole area is online. This saves the trouble of digging lots of trenches, or of putting up wires that are prone to storm damage.
However there is one promising technology that still uses cables to deliver a broadband signal to, well, wherever. It doesn't require laying any new wires (like cable Internet), and it doesn't require overhauling a lot of existing systems (like DSL).It's BPL: (broadband over power lines). The signal, like those power lines, can travel a long way thanks to "regenerators" that not only pass the data along, but clean the signal so it doesn't degrade over distance. That means the signal can travel as long as the lines do.
WiMAX is revolutionizing the broadband wireless world, enabling the formation of a global mass-market wireless industry. Putting the WiMAX revolution in the bigger context of the broadband industry, this paper portrays the recent acceleration stage of the Broadband Wireless Access market, determined by the need for broadband connectivity and by the following drivers:
A) The worldwide deregulation process
B) The standardization progression; and
C) Revolutionary wireless technology.
A major driver impacting the broadband wireless explosion is the advent of global telecom deregulation, opening up the telecommunications/Internet access industries to a host of new players. As more and more countries enable carriers and service providers to operate in a variety of frequencies, new and lucrative broadband access markets are springing up everywhere. Wireless technology requires the use of frequencies contained within a given spectrum to transfer voice and data. Governments allocate a specific range of that spectrum to incumbent and competitive carriers, as well as cellular operators, ISPs, and other service providers, enabling them to launch a variety of broadband initiatives based exclusively on wireless networking solutions.
There are two main types of spectrum allocation: licensed and unlicensed.
 Licensed frequencies are typically awarded through an auction or “beauty contest” to those who present the soundest business plans to the regulatory authorities overseeing the process.
 Unlicensed frequencies allow multiple service providers to utilize the same section of the spectrum and compete with each other for customers.
The 802.16 standard, amended by the IEEE to cover frequency bands in the range between 2 GHz and 11 GHz, specifies a metropolitan area networking protocol that will enable a wireless alternative for cable, DSL and T1 level services for last mile broadband access, as well as providing backhaul for 801.11 hotspots.
The new 802.16a standard specifies a protocol that among other things supports low latency applications such as voice and video, provides broadband connectivity without requiring a direct line of sight between subscriber terminals and the base station (BTS) and will support hundreds if not thousands of subscribers from a single BTS. The standard will help accelerate the introduction of wireless broadband equipment into the marketplace, speeding up last-mile broadband deployment worldwide by enabling service providers to increase system performance and reliability while reducing their equipment costs and investment risks.
For the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) market and its 802.16 standard, this role is played by the WiMAX. WiMAX is instrumental in removing the barrier in adopting the standard by assuring demonstrable interoperability between system components developed by OEMs. WiMAX will develop conformance and interoperability test plans, select certification labs and will host interoperability events for IEEE 802.16 equipment vendors.
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25-04-2011, 03:12 PM

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.docx   wimax report.docx (Size: 1.63 MB / Downloads: 84)
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunications protocol that provides fixed and mobile Internet access. The current WiMAX revision provides up to 70 Mbps.
WiMax has two basic functions, one is to provide privacy across the wireless network and the other is to provide access control to the network.
WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave AccessSystem.
WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.16 wireless-networks standard , in similarity with Wi-Fi, which refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standard (ratified by the Wi-Fi Alliance).
WiMAX is sometimes referred to as "Wi-Fi on steroids" and can be used for a number of applications including broadband connections, cellular backhaul, hotspots, etc. It is similar to Wi-Fi but it can also permit usage at much greater distances. WiMax is more effective on a larger scale and it is more cost-effective because the cost of moving traditional broadband services to the next is more expensive.
WiMAX Architecture
The WiMAX Forum has proposed an architecture that defines how a WiMAX network can be connected with an IP based core network, which is typically chosen by operators that serve as Internet Service Providers (ISP); Nevertheless the WiMAX BS provide seamless integration capabilities with other types of architectures as with packet switched Mobile Networks.
The WiMAX forum proposal defines a number of components, plus some of the interconnections (or reference points) between these, labeled R1 to R5 and R8:
• SS/MS: the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station
• ASN: the Access Service Network
• BS: Base station, part of the ASN
• ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway, part of the ASN
• CSN: the Connectivity Service Network
• HA: Home Agent, part of the CSN
• AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Server, part of the CSN
• NAP: a Network Access Provider
• NSP: a Network Service Provider
It is important to note that the functional architecture can be designed into various hardware configurations rather than fixed configurations. For example, the architecture is flexible enough to allow remote/mobile stations of varying scale and functionality and Base Stations of varying size - e.g. femto, pico, and mini BS as well as macros.
What is WiMax?
WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication technology that provides wireless transmission of data using variety of transmission modes from point to multi-point links to portable and fully mobile internet access.This technology provides up to 72 Mbit/s symmetric broadband speed without the need for cables. This technology is based on IEEE802.16 standard.WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
Working of WiMax
There is line-of-sight service, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMax tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable, soit's able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Line-of-sight transmissions use higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz. At higher frequencies, there is lessinterference and lots more bandwidth WiFi-style access will be limited to a 4-to-6 mile radius (perhaps 25 square miles or 65 square km of coverage, which is similar in range to a cell-phone zone). Through the stronger line-of sight antennas, the WiMax transmitting station would send data toWiMAX-enabled computers or routers set up within the transmitter's 30-mile radius (2,800 square miles or 9,300 square km of coverage). This is what allows WiMAX toachieve its maximum range.
WiMax Infrastructure
Typically, a WiMax system consists of two parts:
• A WiMax Base Station- Base station consists of indoor electronics and a WiMax tower. Typically, a base station can cover up to 10 km radius (Theoretically, a base station can cover-up to 50 kilo meter radius or 30 miles, however practical considerations limit it to about 10km or 6 miles). Any wireless node within the coverage area would be able to access the Internet.
• A WiMax receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a stand-alone box or a PC card that sits in your laptop or computer. Access to WiMax base station is similarto accessing a Wireless Access Point in a WiFi network, but the coverage is more.
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16-02-2012, 04:30 PM

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