Waterjet Cutting (WJC)
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Computer Science Clay
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26-01-2009, 01:23 AM


Introduction
Waterjet Cutting (WJC) is a non-traditional method in which a high velocity jet is used to machine a material. Often it is assisted by abrasives and & is known as Abrasive. Waterjet Cutting (AWJC). The process offers a wide range of advantages. It is omni-directional and enables fully automated 3-D cutting and has unlimited creative potential. The resulting kerf width is small and hence improved yield. Forces involved are minimum and non-crushed edges even on very soft materials. Work hardening is eliminated and heat affected zone (HAZ) is absent. Environment pollution is minimised since airborne dust and fumes are absent. No deburring is required on the processed part. It is a versatile process and can cut a variety of materials. However, initial cost of equipment is high. In addition excess waviness/striations on side wall surface may limit the depth of cutting in practice..

STRUCTURE AND MODE OF OPERATION
Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of AWJC. Water is pressurised to about 400 MPa. A high velocity jet of 900 m/sec is obtained when the pressurised water passes through a nozzle, usually of sapphire, of diameter 0.6 mm. Abrasives delivered from a feed system is precisely controlled for its flow. These particles are entrained by the Waterjet stream and energy is transferred from water to the abrasive particles. The resulting AWJ is directed on to the target. Alternately abrasive suspension jets are used, in which premixing of abrasives with water is done to achieve their suspension (fluidised). These abrasive suspension jets are found to be economical. The distance between the target and the tip of the nozzle, Known as stand-off distance, is found to be critical in machining operations. Maximum material removal takes place at optimum stand-off distance. A catcher tank traps the unspent energy of the jet and the eroded particles. Large catcher tanks are used, or compact tube like catchers that move with nozzle are used for Omni-directional cutting.
Typical kerf width may range between 0.1. and 0.75. mm. Tolerances achievable are around 0.025 mm. The side wall of the cut surface is found to have two distinct zones, a smooth upper zone and a wavy bottom zone. Control of operating conditions during cutting ( jet pressure, abrasive flow rate and jet traverse rate) can be used to modulate the striations on the cut surface. However, motion control and vibrations due to rack/pinion that may be used in the system could lead to striations and hence design of system elements used for precision machining operations is considered very important.

Abrasives
A variety of abrasives are used in abrasive Waterjet cutting. Garnet is often used as abrasive material. Hard abrasives cut faster and deeper and also have less breakdown in mixing chamber. Sharp, angular abrasives cut
more efficiently than rounded ones because of penetration and shearing especially on difficult or thick materials. Heavier particles transfer higher energy and hence cut faster. The presence of impurities can reduce the effectiveness of the abrasive, for example, silica being lighter than garnet, if present, may reduce the cutting efficiency. Consistency in particle size distribution and range will result in even performance in cutting. Defects in abrasive mineral grains lead to unexpected behaviour of garnet. Removal of Fines and dust in abrasives used is critical to avoid clogging. Oversized abrasive particles, if present, lead to blocking and clogging in the nozzle. Hence, largest particle should be less than half the size of the nozzle. There are a number of variables to consider while selecting an abrasive. The most important is the abrasives' effect on the cost of cutting a unit length. This may be determined by experimentation and calculation of cost.
A researcher interested on the behaviour of abrasive may resort to micropetrography analysis of abrasives at various stages of AWJC starting with the fresh abrasives to those consumed in cutting the target material. Water soluble abrasives (eg. Aqua Dyne) are preferred in certain applications. Table 1 shows some materials and the cutting speeds used in AWJC.


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1. INTRODUCTION.

engineering and manufacturing departments are constantly on the lookout for an edge. The water jet process provides many unique capabilities and advantages that can prove very effective in the cost battle. Learning more about the water jet technology will give us an opportunity to put these cost-cutting capabilities to work. Beyond cost cutting, the water jet process is recognized as the most versatile and fastest growing process in the world. Waterjets are used in high production applications across the globe. They compliment other technologies such as milling, laser, EDM, plasma and routers. No poisonous gases or liquids are used in waterjet cutting, and waterjets do not create hazardous materials or vapors. No heat effected zones or mechanical stresses are left on a waterjet cut surface. It is truly a versatile, productive, cold cutting process. The waterjet has shown that it can do things that other technologies simply cannot. From cutting whisper, thin details in stone, glass and metals; to rapid whole drilling of titanium; for cutting of food, to the killing of pathogens in beverages and dips, the waterjet has proven itself unique.
. THEORY OF WATERJET CUTTING

Most waterjet cutting theories explain waterjet cutting as a form of micro erosion as described here. Waterjet cutting works by forcing a large volume of water through a small orifice in the nozzle. The constant volume of water traveling through a reduced cross sectional area causes the particles to rapidly accelerate. This accelerated stream leaving the nozzle impacts the material to be cut. The extreme pressure of the accelerated water particles contacts a small area of the work piece. In this small area the work piece develops small cracks due to stream impact. The waterjet washes away the material that "erodes" from the surface of the work piece. The crack caused by the waterjet impact is now exposed to the waterjet. The extreme pressure and impact of particles in the following stream cause the small crack to propagate until the material is cut through.

Figure 1: WORKING PRINCIPLE
For cutting thicker materials some abrasives like garnet is added to pure waterjet. This is called abrasive waterjet and cutting using abrasive jet is called abrasivejet cutting. The high-pressure abrasivejet cuts thicker and harder materials. Abrasivejet cutting is advancement in the field of waterjet cutting
3. WATERJET CUTTING PROCESS
Pure waterjet is the original water cutting method. Waterjet cutting uses only a pressurized stream of water to cut through material. This type of cutting is limited to material with naturally occurring small cracks or softer materials like disposable diapers, tissue paper, and automotive interiors. In the cases of tissue paper and disposable diapers the waterjet process creates less moisture on the material than touching or breathing on it. The figure shows the waterjet cutting process.
In this process water is increased in pressure by high-pressure pump to about 40000-60000 PSI and is forced through the orifice on to the target material. This high-pressure water on striking the surface performs the machining operation. The potential energy contained in the water is converted in the process to kinetic energy, i.e., into jet velocity, thus achieving its "cutting" effect.

Figure: PURE WATERJET

The basic waterjet process involves water flowing from a pump, through plumbing, and out a cutting head.
In waterjet cutting, the material removal process can be described as a supersonic erosion process. It is not pressure, but stream velocity that tears away microscopic pieces or grains of material. Pressure and velocity are two distinct forms of energy. The pumpâ„¢s water pressure is converted to the other form of energy, water velocity by a tiny jewel. A jewel is affixed to the end of the plumbing tubing. The jewel has a tiny hole in it. The pressurized water passes through this tiny opening changing the pressure to velocity. At approximately 40,000 psi the resulting stream that passes out of the orifice is traveling at Mach 2. And at 60,000 psi the speed is over Mach 3.

4. WATERJET MACHINING CENTER
Basic equipment used for waterjet cutting consists of:-
CNC guide machine, PC based programmable controller or microprocessor based control, structural steel base, servo drive system, "X/Y" carriage, cantilever arm,
motorized "Z" axis, catch tank, cutting table, work piece support grid/material,
filtration system, high pressure pumps, pressure intensifiers, abrasive material disposal/removal system, injector to draw abrasives into cutting stream, mixing chamber, cutting nozzle (varying orifice size), abrasive removal system, chiller (optional).

5. APPLICATIONS OF WATERJET CUTTING
Flexible waterjet cutting technology is used in practically all sectors of industry: Aerospace, residential and industrial construction, mechanical engineering, the glass industry, the wood, textiles and paper industries, the automotive and its supplier industries, and the electrical, electronic and foodstuffs industries. Unlike traditional thermal cutting methods, waterjet cutting technology wins friends with its high level of cost-effectiveness and flexibility. The most diverse materials, from metal via plastics up to and including granite, can be quickly and precisely worked using a high-pressure jet of water. Material thickness of 150 mm or more present no difficulties to our cutting processes. The waterjet achieves optimum cut-edge qualities on both simple and extremely complex contours.
General 2D applications:
¢ Sheet metal: Stainless steel, carbon steel, high-alloy nickel steels, aluminum, titanium, copper
¢ Building: Decorative stone, marble, granite, tiles, plasterboard, glass and mineral wool
¢ Glass: Laminated glass, safety glass, and bulletproof glass
¢ Foodstuffs: Baked goods, deep-frozen products and fish
¢ Paper: Cardboard, corrugated cardboard, printing papers
¢ Miscellaneous: Plywood, leather, textiles, composites, rubber, plastics, sealing materials and foams .
3D and robot applications:
¢ Abrasive: Titanium, aluminum and stainless steel motor-vehicle components, turbine blades, decorative stone or marble.
¢ Pure water: Motor-vehicle elements such as carpets, door-trims, fenders, dashboards, instrument panels, rear shelves.
8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE
Since its development, waterjet machining has seen many improvements in its design. Waterjet cutting technology is one of the fastest growing major machine tool processes in the world due to its versatility and ease of operation. Manufacturers are realizing that there are virtually no limits to what waterjets are capable of cutting and machining. Machine shops of all sizes are realizing greater efficiency and productivity by implementing UHP waterjets in their operations. Waterjets are becoming the machine tool of choice for many shops. Since abrasive waterjet (AWJ) technology was first invented by Flow in the early 1980s, the technology has rapidly evolved with continuous research and development. What makes waterjets so popular? Waterjets require few secondary operations, produce net-shaped parts with no heat-affected zone, heat distortion, or mechanical stresses caused by other cutting methods, can cut with a narrow kerfs, and can provide better usage of raw material since parts can be tightly nested. As a result of the Flow Master PC control system and intuitive operation, waterjets are extremely easy to use. Typically, operators can be trained in hours and are producing high quality parts in hours. Additionally, waterjets can cut virtually any material, leaving a satin-smooth edge. These benefits add up to significant cost savings per part in industries that have traditionally defined productivity by cost per hour.
The latest development in the field of waterjet cutting is the use of super water for cutting, which enhances both abrasive and non-abrasive waterjet cutting.
Advantages of using super-water for abrasive and waterjet cutting are:
¢ Increased cutting speed
¢ Narrower kerf cutting width
¢ Decreased wear on pumps and nozzles
¢ Decreased abrasive use
¢ Improved surface finish
¢ Decreased taper
¢ Diminished tendency for jet to wet substrates
REFERENCES
1. en.wikipedia.org
2. o-keating.com
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09-04-2010, 10:42 PM


.doc   water jetcutting.doc (Size: 83.5 KB / Downloads: 285)




1. INTRODUCTION. Doff rrrrrrrrrIn the battle to reduce costs, engineering and manufacturing departments are constantly on the lookout for an edge. The water jet process provides many unique capabilities and advantages that can prove very effective in the cost battle. Learning more about the water jet technology will give us an opportunity to put these cost-cutting capabilities to work. Beyond cost cutting, the water jet process is recognized as the most versatile and fastest growing process in the world. Waterjets are used in high production applications across the globe. They compliment other technologies such as milling, laser, EDM, plasma and routers. No poisonous gases or liquids are used in waterjet cutting, and waterjets do not create hazardous materials or vapors. No heat effected zones or mechanical stresses are left on a waterjet cut surface. It is truly a versatile, productive, cold cutting process. The waterjet has shown that it can do things that other technologies simply cannot. From cutting whisper, thin details in stone, glass and metals; to rapid whole drilling of titanium; for cutting of food, to the killing of pathogens in beverages and dips, the waterjet has proven itself unique.

. THEORY OF WATERJET CUTTING

Most waterjet cutting theories explain waterjet cutting as a form of micro erosion as described here. Waterjet cutting works by forcing a large volume of water through a small orifice in the nozzle. The constant volume of water traveling through a reduced cross sectional area causes the particles to rapidly accelerate. This accelerated stream leaving the nozzle impacts the material to be cut. The extreme pressure of the accelerated water particles contacts a small area of the work piece. In this small area the work piece develops small cracks due to stream impact. The waterjet washes away the material that "erodes" from the surface of the work piece. The crack caused by the waterjet impact is now exposed to the waterjet. The extreme pressure and impact of particles in the following stream cause the small crack to propagate until the material is cut through.

Figure 1: WORKING PRINCIPLE

For cutting thicker materials some abrasives like garnet is added to pure waterjet. This is called abrasive waterjet and cutting using abrasive jet is called abrasivejet cutting. The high-pressure abrasivejet cuts thicker and harder materials. Abrasivejet cutting is advancement in the field of waterjet cutting

3. WATERJET CUTTING PROCESS

Pure waterjet is the original water cutting method. Waterjet cutting uses only a pressurized stream of water to cut through material. This type of cutting is limited to material with naturally occurring small cracks or softer materials like disposable diapers, tissue paper, and automotive interiors. In the cases of tissue paper and disposable diapers the waterjet process creates less moisture on the material than touching or breathing on it. The figure shows the waterjet cutting process.

In this process water is increased in pressure by high-pressure pump to about 40000-60000 PSI and is forced through the orifice on to the target material. This high-pressure water on striking the surface performs the machining operation. The potential energy contained in the water is converted in the process to kinetic energy, i.e., into jet velocity, thus achieving its "cutting" effect.








Figure: PURE WATERJET

The basic waterjet process involves water flowing from a pump, through plumbing, and out a cutting head.
In waterjet cutting, the material removal process can be described as a supersonic erosion process. It is not pressure, but stream velocity that tears away microscopic pieces or grains of material. Pressure and velocity are two distinct forms of energy. The pumpâ„¢s water pressure is converted to the other form of energy, water velocity by a tiny jewel. A jewel is affixed to the end of the plumbing tubing. The jewel has a tiny hole in it. The pressurized water passes through this tiny opening changing the pressure to velocity. At approximately 40,000 psi the resulting stream that passes out of the orifice is traveling at Mach 2. And at 60,000 psi the speed is over Mach 3.


4. WATERJET MACHINING CENTER

Basic equipment used for waterjet cutting consists of:-
CNC guide machine, PC based programmable controller or microprocessor based control, structural steel base, servo drive system, "X/Y" carriage, cantilever arm,
motorized "Z" axis, catch tank, cutting table, work piece support grid/material,
filtration system, high pressure pumps, pressure intensifiers, abrasive material disposal/removal system, injector to draw abrasives into cutting stream, mixing chamber, cutting nozzle (varying orifice size), abrasive removal system, chiller (optional).



5. APPLICATIONS OF WATERJET CUTTING

Flexible waterjet cutting technology is used in practically all sectors of industry: Aerospace, residential and industrial construction, mechanical engineering, the glass industry, the wood, textiles and paper industries, the automotive and its supplier industries, and the electrical, electronic and foodstuffs industries. Unlike traditional thermal cutting methods, waterjet cutting technology wins friends with its high level of cost-effectiveness and flexibility. The most diverse materials, from metal via plastics up to and including granite, can be quickly and precisely worked using a high-pressure jet of water. Material thickness of 150 mm or more present no difficulties to our cutting processes. The waterjet achieves optimum cut-edge qualities on both simple and extremely complex contours.

General 2D applications:

¢ Sheet metal: Stainless steel, carbon steel, high-alloy nickel steels, aluminum, titanium, copper
¢ Building: Decorative stone, marble, granite, tiles, plasterboard, glass and mineral wool
¢ Glass: Laminated glass, safety glass, and bulletproof glass
¢ Foodstuffs: Baked goods, deep-frozen products and fish
¢ Paper: Cardboard, corrugated cardboard, printing papers
¢ Miscellaneous: Plywood, leather, textiles, composites, rubber, plastics, sealing materials and foams .

3D and robot applications:

¢ Abrasive: Titanium, aluminum and stainless steel motor-vehicle components, turbine blades, decorative stone or marble.
¢ Pure water: Motor-vehicle elements such as carpets, door-trims, fenders, dashboards, instrument panels, rear shelves.

8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE

Since its development, waterjet machining has seen many improvements in its design. Waterjet cutting technology is one of the fastest growing major machine tool processes in the world due to its versatility and ease of operation. Manufacturers are realizing that there are virtually no limits to what waterjets are capable of cutting and machining. Machine shops of all sizes are realizing greater efficiency and productivity by implementing UHP waterjets in their operations. Waterjets are becoming the machine tool of choice for many shops. Since abrasive waterjet (AWJ) technology was first invented by Flow in the early 1980s, the technology has rapidly evolved with continuous research and development. What makes waterjets so popular? Waterjets require few secondary operations, produce net-shaped parts with no heat-affected zone, heat distortion, or mechanical stresses caused by other cutting methods, can cut with a narrow kerfs, and can provide better usage of raw material since parts can be tightly nested. As a result of the Flow Master PC control system and intuitive operation, waterjets are extremely easy to use. Typically, operators can be trained in hours and are producing high quality parts in hours. Additionally, waterjets can cut virtually any material, leaving a satin-smooth edge. These benefits add up to significant cost savings per part in industries that have traditionally defined productivity by cost per hour.
The latest development in the field of waterjet cutting is the use of super water for cutting, which enhances both abrasive and non-abrasive waterjet cutting.

Advantages of using super-water for abrasive and waterjet cutting are:
¢ Increased cutting speed
¢ Narrower kerf cutting width
¢ Decreased wear on pumps and nozzles
¢ Decreased abrasive use
¢ Improved surface finish
¢ Decreased taper
¢ Diminished tendency for jet to wet substrates
REFERENCES
1. en.wikipedia.org
2. o-keating.com
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avmemperor
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31-07-2010, 12:52 AM

i want more details about water jet cutting
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pegg
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31-07-2010, 11:03 PM

There are pages and pages of information available online at the below website.

Waterjet University

The intro says:

What is the WARDJet Waterjet University?„¢

The WARDJet Waterjet University„¢ is the place to find answers for all of your waterjet cutting questions. Our mission is to provide friendly, easy to understand information to educate you in all aspects of high-pressure waterjet cutting. Subject matter includes pump design, gantry design, waterjet applications, waterjet in comparison with other cutting technologies, waterjet software & controls, and the exploration of business opportunities in the waterjet field. If you have specific topics or questions that you would like to see covered here, please feel free to email us with your suggestions.
-------------------------------
Below this intro are chapters filled with information - you can click on whatever interests you. WARDJet is a manufacturer of waterjet systems.
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12-10-2010, 03:23 PM


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#7
23-12-2010, 09:22 AM

can i get some some journals on this topic (WJC) ?
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23-12-2010, 10:39 AM

please visit the below thread too for more details on Waterjet Cutting

topicideashow-to-water-jet-cutting
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27-12-2010, 09:21 PM

thank you..it was helpful ..
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28-12-2010, 11:03 AM

welcome..
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18-02-2012, 04:33 PM

to get information about the topic waterjet cutting full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-waterjet-cutting-wjc

topicideashow-to-water-jet-cutting

topicideashow-to-waterjet-cutting-wjc?page=2
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