Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power
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02-05-2010, 06:24 AM


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Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

Presented By:
Henley, M.W. (1), Potter, S. D. (1), Howell, J. (2), and Mankins, J.C
. (3)
(1) The Boeing Company, (2) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, (3) NASA Headquarters
Wireless Power Transmission Options
for Space Solar Power
Far Term Space Systems to beam power to Earth
Radio-Wave WPT System
Light-Wave Systems
Near term Technology Flight Demonstrations
Model System Concept 1A: 100 kWe satellite
Model System Concept 1B: 10 kWe lunar system


Global Power Consumption

Initial Photovoltaic / Microwave SPS
GEO Sun Tower Conceptual Design
Photovoltaic / Laser-Photovoltaic SPS
GEO Sun Tower-Like Concept
Solar Panel Segment Dimensions: 260 m x 36 m



Synergy Between Sunlight and Laser-PV WPT

for Terrestrial Photo-Voltaic Power Production
Large photo-voltaic (PV) power plants in Earthâ„¢s major deserts (Mojave, Sahara, Gobi, etc.) receive & convert light from 2 sources:
1) Directly from the Sun, and
2) Via WPT from SSP systems
Laser light is transmitted and converted more efficiently than sun-light
Wavelength is selected for good atmospheric transmissivity
Efficient Light Emitting Diode wavelengths match common PV band-gaps
Gravity gradient-stabilized SPSs are in peak insolation at ~6 AM and ~6 PM, with shadowing or cosine loss at mid-day and midnight
Heavy, complex gimbaled arrays add little extra power at these times
Both sides of rigid (not gimbaled) solar arrays can be light-sensitive
Back-side produces less power due to occlusion by wires
Translucent substrate (e.g., Kapton) also reduces back-side power levels
Even gimbaled arrays suffer a loss of power around noon and midnight
The combination of ambient sunlight plus laser illumination combines, at the terrestrial PV array, to match the daily electricity demand pattern
Sunlight + Laser-PV WPT = ~ Power Requirement
Photo-Voltaic (PV) Power Station Receives Both
WPT Wavelength Trade for SSP


MSC-1A: Near Term Demonstration

100 kWe Power Plug Satellite
Power System derived from existing ISS IEA (Integrated Energy Assembly)
IEA is successfully deployed in orbit now
IEA includes energy storage (batteries)
Current ISS array pair produces 61.5 kWe
Advanced PV cells can double IEA power
~120 kWe with derivative array
MSC-1 demonstrates solar-powered WPT
Efficient power generation
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) achieve >30% conversion efficiency
~36 kW transmitted in light beam
Effective heat dissipation via IEA radiators
Accurate pointing of beam via reflector
MSC-1A: Lunar and Mars Power (LAMP) Application
Laser WPT to Photo-Voltaics on the moon or Mars



MSC 1B: Lunar Polar Science Applications

Technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice
Craters may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billions of years, recording prior impact events on the moon (& Earth)
A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a large area of polar terrain
The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moonâ„¢s South Pole-Aitkin Basin should be a high priority for Space Science
See paper IAC-02-r4.04, Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications, for further details


Summary

Farther-term micro-wave WPT options are efficient, and can beam power through clouds / light rain, but require large sizes for long distance WPT and a specialized receiver (rectenna).
Nearer-term Laser-Photovoltaic WPT options are less efficient, but allow synergistic use of the same photo-voltaic receiver for both terrestrial solar power and SSP.
The smaller aperture size also allows smaller (lower cost) initial systems.
Laser-Photovoltaic WPT systems open new SSP architecture options.
Gravity gradient-stabilized Sun Tower SSP satellites may make more sense for laser systems than than for microwave systems, because the receiver also converts sunlight into electricity, to correct for the cosine loss otherwise observed in power production at mid-day.
Technology flight demonstrations can enable advanced space science and exploration in the near term.
Power Plug or LAMP spacecraft and Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost advance technology for far-term commercial SSP systems, while providing significant value for near-term applications.


Attached Files
.ppt   WirelessPowerTransmissionOptionsForSpaceSolarPower.ppt (Size: 2.87 MB / Downloads: 382)
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.ppt   WirelessPowerTransmissionOptionsForSpaceSolarPower.ppt (Size: 2.96 MB / Downloads: 143)

Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

IAC-02-r4.08
Henley, M.W. (1), Potter, S. D. (1), Howell, J. (2), and Mankins, J.C. (3)
(1) The Boeing Company, (2) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, (3) NASA Headquarters

World Space Congress
Houston, Texas



Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

Far Term Space Systems to beam power to Earth
Radio-Wave WPT System
Light-Wave Systems

Near term Technology Flight Demonstrations
Model System Concept 1A: 100 kWe satellite
Model System Concept 1B: 10 kWe lunar system
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Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power



.pdf   solar power wpt_options_for_ssp_potter.pdf (Size: 925.2 KB / Downloads: 27)

Near-Term Market: Military Bases
• Much of the cost in lives and dollars of operating a military base
in a war environment is due to the delivery of fuel
• Cost of delivery of gasoline under such circumstances is about
$100/gallon, which contains 130 megajoules of energy = 36 kWh
• At this rate, 40 remote military bases (each using 5 MW) will
require 40 bases x 5 MW/base x 24 hours/day x 30 days/month =
144,000 MWh/month
• This is equivalent to 4,000,000 gallons of fuel per month or $400
million per month for fuel.
– Conversion from thermal to electrical energy not accounted for.
Actual fuel usage will be higher.
• These bases, using a total of 200 MW could instead be supplied
by just 20% of the power beamed from a single 1 GW power
satellite
• may be 6
Graceful growth toward this market achievable by
considering a constellation of smaller (5 to 10 MW) satellites.


Orbit Trade Study: Inclination
• Low Inclination
– Pros:
• Natural inclination for GEO orbits
• Low delta-V
– Cons:
• LEO satellites would be in darkness much of the time
• LEO satellites may not be visible at middle and high latitudes
• High Inclination
– Pros:
• Ground track may cover inhabited areas, so that greater use can be attained
by LEO and MEO satellites
• Sun-synchronous orbits may be achievable for LEO orbits, keeping them in
sunlight much of the time if orbit is over terminator
– Cons:
• Higher delta-v for a given altitude
• If sun-synchronous, time of overflight would be required to be near sunrise
and sunset each orbit
– This could constrain choice of altitudes if repeating ground track is desired


Initial Photovoltaic / Microwave SPS GEO Sun Tower Conceptual Design

•“Sun-Tower” Design based
on NASA Fresh Look Study
• Transmitter Diameter:
500 meters
•Vertical “Backbone” Length:
15.3 km (gravity gradient)
•Identical Satellite Elements:
•Autonomous Segment Ops:
1) Solar Electric Propulsion
from Low Earth Orbit
355 segments (solar arrays)
2) System Assembly in
Geostationary orbit


Summary
• Farther-term micro-wave WPT options are efficient, and can beam
power through clouds / light rain, but require large sizes for long
distance WPT and a specialized receiver (“rectenna”).
• Nearer-term Laser-Photovoltaic WPT options are less efficient, but
allow synergistic use of the same photovoltaic receiver for both
terrestrial solar power and SSP.
• Boeing is currently investigating near-term military, civil government,
and commercial markets for SSP.
• Technology flight demonstrations can enable advanced space science
and exploration in the near term.
– “Power Plug” or “LAMP” spacecraft and Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost
advance technology for far-term commercial SSP systems, while providing
significant value for near-term applications.
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