Wireless USB
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Computer Science Clay
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01-03-2009, 01:33 PM


Wireless USB

Abbreviated as "WUSB" this short-range, high-bandwidth wireless radio communication combines the speed and ease-of-use of USB 2.0 with the expediency of wireless technology and is based on the WiMedia Alliance's Ultra-WideBand (UWB) common radio platform, which is capable of sending 480 Mbit/s at distances up to 3 meters and 110 Mbit/s at up to 10 meters. However USB Implementers Forum discourages the practice of calling it WUSB and prefers to call the technology "Certified Wireless USB" to differentiate it from competitors (see below, "Competitors"). Though local regulatory policies may restrict the legal operating range for any given country, Wireless USB was designed to operate in the frequency

Uses:
WUSB are used in devices that are now connected via regular USB cables, such as game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras , MP3 players, hard disks and flash drives , and it is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams.
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wasim ahmed
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09-02-2010, 09:09 PM

please mail me the complete report
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Varunsarma
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09-02-2010, 09:14 PM

thanks for giving these topics here
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13-02-2010, 05:21 PM


.doc   WIRELESS USB.doc (Size: 262 KB / Downloads: 1,294)

ABSTRACT
Wireless USB is a wireless technology which enables the high speed computer peripheral interface, USB, wireless. It is a wire replacement of existing USB technology using a Multi Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing radio technique.
Wireless USB is a logical bus that supports data exchange between a host device (typically a PC) and a wide range of simultaneously accessible peripherals. The attached peripherals share bandwidth through a host-scheduled, TDMA-based protocol. The bus allows peripherals to be attached, configured, used, and detached while the host and other peripherals are in operation. Security definitions are provided to assure secure associations between hosts and devices, and to assure private communication.
Wireless USB connects USB devices with the USB host using a 'hub and spoke' model. The Wireless USB host is the 'hub" at the center, and each device sits at the end of a 'spoke'. Each 'spoke' is a point-to-point connection between the host and device. Wireless USB hosts can support up to 127 devices and because Wireless USB does not have physical ports there is no need, nor any definition provided, for
1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless USB is a wireless technology which enables the high speed computer peripheral interface, USB, wireless. It is a wire replacement of existing USB technology using a Multi Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing radio technique.
Wireless USB interest group was formed in 2004. It is the first high speed personal interconnect. The physical layer is standardized under IEEE 802.15.3 PHY. Today it is in the developing stage. The major WUSB promoters are HP, Intel, Microsoft, NEC Philips, & Samsung
A USB system consists of a host and some number of devices all operating together on the same time base and the same logical interconnect. A USB system can be described by three definitional areas:
¢ USB interconnect
¢ USB devices
¢ USB host
The USB interconnect
The USB interconnect is the manner in which USB devices are connected to and communicate with the host. USB devices
Wireless USB devices are one of the following:
Functions, which provide capabilities to the system, such as a printer, a digital camera, or speakers
Device Wire Adapter, which provides a connection point for wired USB
devices.
USB Host
There is only one host in any USB system. The USB interface to the host computer system is referred to as the Host Controller. Host controllers are typically connected to PCs through an internal bus such as PCI. The Host Controller may be implemented in a combination of hardware, firmware, or software.
Wireless USB has an advanced power management system which consumes very low power. The power management system is based on Tx/Rx system. It also supports an advanced encryption system in order to ensure the secure connection between the host and device.
2. NEED FOR ANOTHER WIRELESS TECHNIQUE
USB is a fast growing technology and now above 80% of all devices supports USB connectivity to a PC. It will be a great reduce of number of wires and cost for paying the cables, if the existing USB technique goes wireless.
Today, an office PC is disturbed with rat's nest of cables. By adopting the current wireless technology such as Bluetooth, WiFi, ZigBee, IR, etc doesn't reduces the number of wires since they have not enough bandwidth to support bigger data transfer rate.
A survey reveals the requirements of bandwidth for different devices, which is shown in the table below.
Peripheral Desired BW Comments
Video conf & digital still cameras 75-150Mbps MPEG-2 quality w/o compression; roll download in seconds not minutes.
Scanners 50-100Mbps+ Faster, high resolution scan
Printers 50-100Mbps+ Higher resolutions, more colors, or elimination of line/page buffers allows lower cost
External storage Up to 240Mbps SCSI/IDE performance levels. CD/ RW, DVD-RAM, HDD, flash memory
Broadband 10-1000Mbps Cable, DSL, Ethernet, HPNA, ...
High resolution monitors, project and implimentationors 63Mbps+ Upper limit (to ~4Gbps) a function of tolerable compression
Wireless USB support a high bandwidth of 480Mbps and it's scalable architecture extends the bandwidth up to lGbps.Moreover it is much less costly than Bluetooth and consumes much less power than any other wireless device.
Wireless USB supports both PC as well as personal Consumer Electronics devices such as audio/video players.
Wireless USB supports a mixture of both high speed and low speed devices and can be operated in multiple data transfer rates.
3. ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
Wireless USB is a logical bus that supports data exchange between a host device (typically a PC) and a wide range of simultaneously accessible peripherals. The attached peripherals share bandwidth through a host-scheduled, TDMA-based protocol. The bus allows peripherals to be attached, configured, used, and detached while the host and other peripherals are in operation. Security definitions are provided to assure secure associations between hosts and devices, and to assure private communication.
3.1 USB System Description
A USB system consists of a host and some number of devices all operating together on the same time base and the same logical interconnect. A USB system can be described by three definitional areas:
¢ USB interconnect
¢ USB devices
¦
¢ USB host
3.1.1 USB interconnect
The USB interconnect is the manner in which USB devices are connected to and communicate with the host. This includes the following:
¢ Topology
¢ Data Flow Models
¢ USB Schedule
3.1.1.1 Topology
Wireless USB connects USB devices with the USB host using a 'hub and spoke' model. The Wireless USB host is the 'hub' at the center, and each device sits at the end of a 'spoke'. Each 'spoke' is a point-to-point connection between the host and device Wireless USB hosts can support up to 127 devices and because Wireless USB does not have physical ports there is no need, nor any definition provided, for hub devices to provide port expansion. The figure illustrates the topology system
Fig 3.1.1 Hub and Spoke topology
3.1.1.2 Data Flow Models
The manner in which data moves in the system over the USB between producers and consumers.
3.1.1.3 USB Schedule
The USB provides a shared interconnect. Access to the interconnect is scheduled in order to support isochronous data transfers and to eliminate arbitration overhead.
3.1.2 USB Devices
Wireless USB devices are one of the following:
Functions, which provide capabilities to the system, such as a printer, a digital camera, or speakers
¢ Device Wire Adapter, which provides a connection point for wired USB devices. Wireless USB devices present a standard USB interface in terms of the following:
¢ Their comprehension of the Wireless USB protocol
¢ Their response to standard USB operations, such as configuration and reset
3.1.3 USB Hosts
There is only one host in any USB system. The USB interface to the host computer system is referred to as the Host Controller. Host controllers are typically connected to PCs through an internal bus such as PCI. The Host Controller may be implemented in a combination of hardware, firmware, or software. This specification defines another way that a host controller may be 'connected' to a PC. Chapter 8 describes a Wire Adapter device class that allows USB host functionality to be connected to a PC through a USB connection (either wired or wireless). Wire Adapters that directly connect to the PC using wired USB are known as Host Wire Adapters. Host Wire Adapters add Wireless USB capability to a PC. Wire Adapters that are Wireless USB devices and hence connect to the PC wirelessly are known as Device Wire Adapters. Device Wire Adapters typically have USB 'A' connectors (i.e. they look like wired hubs) and allow wired USB devices to be connected wirelessly to a host PC. Note that each Wire Adapter creates a new 'USB system', in that there is one host (the wire adapter) talking to one or more devices using the same time base and interconnect. Wire Adapters are important enabling devices for Wireless USB. Host Wire Adapters enable existing PCs to support Wireless USB. Device Wire Adapters allow existing wired USB devices to have a wireless connection to the host PC.
3.2 Physical Interface
Physical layer of Wireless USB is described in the Multi band OFDM Alliance (MBOA) UWB PHY specification, see reference [4]. The PHY supports information data rates of 53.3, 80, 106.7, 200, 320, 400 and 480 Mb/s and multiple channels. The PHY also provides appropriate error detection and correction schemes to provide as robust a communication channel as possible. For Wireless USB devices, the support of transmitting and receiving data at rates of 53.3, 106.7, and 200 Mb/s is mandatory. The support for the remaining data rates of 80, 160, 320, 400 and 480 Mb/s is optional. Wireless USB Hosts are required to support all data rates for both transmission and reception. All Wireless USB
3.3 Power Management
A Wireless USB host may have a power management system that is independent of the USB. The USB System Software interacts with the host's power management system to handle system power events such as suspend or resume. Additionally, USB devices typically implement additional power management features that allow them to be power managed by system software. This specification defines mechanisms and protocols that allow hosts and devices to be as power efficient as possible.
3.4 Bus Protocol
Logically, Wireless USB is a polled, TDMA based protocol, similar to wired USB. The Host Controller initiates all data transfers. Like wired USB, each transfer logically consists of three 'packets': token, data, and handshake. However, to increase the usage efficiency of the physical layer by eliminating costly transitions between sending and receiving, hosts combine multiple token information into a single packet. In that packet, the host indicates the specific time when the appropriate devices should either listen for an OUT data packet, or transmit an IN data packet or handshake (see Figure 3-2).
OUT
IN
MMG
Data Out
Data In
.¦IMC \
W O
O
Data In AcK
o
CD CL
I I Host Transmission I I Device Transmission
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Figure 3-2. Wired to Wireless Protocol comparison
3.5 Robustness
There are several attributes of wireless USB that contribute to its robustness:
The physical layer, defined by [4], is designed for reliable communication and robust error detection and correction.
¢ Detection of attach and detach and system-level configuration of resources
¢ Self-recovery in protocol, using timeouts for lost or corrupted packets
Flow control, buffering and retries ensure isochrony and hardware buffer management
3.5.1 Error Handling
The protocol allows for error handling in hardware or software. Hardware error handling includes reporting and retry of failed transfers. A Wireless USB Host will try a transmission that encounters errors up to a limited number of times before informing the client software of the failure. The client software can recover in an implementation-specific way.
3.6 Security
All hosts and all devices must support Wireless USB security. The security mechanisms ensure that both hosts and devices are able to authenticate their communication partner (avoiding man-in-the-middle attacks), and that communications between host and device are private. The security mechanisms are based on AES 128/CCM encryption, providing integrity checking as well as encryption. Communications between host and device are encrypted using 'keys' that only the authenticated host and authenticated device possess.
3.7 System Configuration
Like wired USB, Wireless USB supports devices attaching to and detaching from the host at any time. Consequently, system software must accommodate dynamic changes in the physical bus topology.
3.7.1 Attachment of Wireless USB Devices
Unlike wired USB, Wireless USB devices 'attach' to a host by sending the host a message at a well defined time. The host and device then authenticate each other using their unique IDs and the appropriate security keys. After the host and device have been authenticated and authorized, the host assigns a unique USB address to the device and notifies host software about the attached device.
3.7.2 Removal of Wireless USB Devices
Devices can be detached explicitly by either the host or device using protocol mechanisms. Device detach also happens when a host is not able to communicate with a device for an extended period of time.
3.7.3 Bus Enumeration
Bus enumeration is the activity that identifies and assigns unique addresses to devices attached to a logical bus. Because Wireless USB allows devices to attach to or detach from the logical bus at any time, bus enumeration is an on-going activity for the USB System Software. Additionally, bus enumeration for Wireless USB also includes the detection and processing of removals.
4. DATA FLOW MODEL
4.1 Implementer Viewpoints
Wireless USB is very similar to USB 2.0 in that it provides communication services between a Wireless USB Host and attached Wireless USB Devices. The Wireless USB communication model view preserves the USB 2.0 layered architecture and basic components of the communication flow (i.e. point-to-point, same transfer types, etc
4.2 Communications Topology
The general communications topology of Wireless USB is identical to that used in USB 2.0 (see Figure 4-1). The obvious advantage of this is that many existing USB 2.0 functional components (in hosts and devices) continue to work without modification when the physical layer components supporting USB 2.0 are replaced with those supporting Wireless USB. The delta change from USB 2.0 to Wireless USB is illustrated to the right- hand side of Figure 4-1. The Function Layer is (almost) completely the same. The only difference is the isochronous transfer model has some enhancements to allow functions to react to the increased unreliability of the "Bus Layer". The Device Layer includes a small number of framework extensions to support security
Fig: 4.1 Wireless USB data communication topology
and management commands required to manage devices on the wireless media. Finally, the Bus Layer includes significant changes to provide an efficient, secure communication service over a wireless media. The copper wire in USB 2.0 provides significant value with regards to security of data communications. The User knows which host the device is associated with because the device has to be physically plugged into a receptacle and the wire provides a specific path for data communications flow between a host and devices that cannot be casually observed by devices not purposely connected. Replacing the physical layer copper with a radio results in ambiguity about the actual association between devices and hosts, and also exposes data communication flows to all devices within listening range. In other words, the loss of the wire results in a significant loss of security which must be replaced by other mechanisms in order for Wireless USB to be a viable and usable technology. Wireless USB defines processes which allow a device and host to exchange the information required to establish a Secure Relationship (see Section 6.2.8). Alter a secure relationship has been established, the host and device have the necessary information required to support data encryption for "over the air" communications. Figure 4-1 illustrates how the standard USB data communications flow topology is extended for Wireless USB to include the concept of a secure relationship between a host and device and also illustrates that over-the-air data communications are encrypted. Notice that these new features extend only up to the device layer of the topology, allowing existing applications and device functions to exist and work without modification.
4.3 Physical Topology
Wireless USB Devices are not physically attached to a Wireless USB Host. Devices within radio range of a host establish a secure relationship with the host before application data communications are allowed. A host and its associated devices are referred to as a Wireless USB Cluster. A Wireless USB Cluster is comprised of a Wireless USB Host and all the Wireless USB Devices that it directly manages. Figure 4-2 illustrates an example physical topology enabled by Wireless USB. The host has a radio range of about 10 meters. Devices within the host's range can establish a secure relationship with the host and become part of the host's Wireless USB Cluster. All communication flows between the host and devices are point-to- point which means the physical topology of Wireless USB is a 1:1 match with the defined logical communications topology familiar to USB architecture. Likewise the client software-to-function relationship remains unchanged. Wireless USB also defines a specific class of device called the Wire Adapter that bridges between a Wireless USB bus and a USB 2.0 bus. The effect on the communications topology is essentially a cascading of USB busses.
5. POWER MANAGEMENT
Wireless USB provides mechanisms that allow hosts and devices to opportunistically and explicitly control their power consumption. Because Wireless USB protocol is TDMA-based, hosts and devices know exactly when their radios do not need to be transmitting or receiving and can take steps to conserve power during these times. Other mechanisms allow hosts and devices to turn off their radios for longer periods of time. The sections below cover power management mechanisms available for devices and for hosts and define the interactions between the two.
5.1 Device Power Management
Devices have three general ways to manage their Wireless USB power consumption. The first is to manage power during normal operation by taking advantage of the TDMA nature of Wireless USB protocol and opportunistically turning their radio off during periods when it isn't needed. Devices can do this at any time with the host being unaware of the efforts. The second way to manage power is to have the device go to 'sleep' for extended periods of time but still stay 'connected'. In this case the device will not be responsive to any communications from the host. Devices must notify the host before sleeping.
5.1.1Device Sleep
During periods of inactivity, a device may want to conserve power by turning off its radio and being unresponsive for an extended period of time. A device is required to notify the host before going to sleep and the host will acknowledge the notification.
5.1.2 Device Wakeup
After entering the Sleep state, devices may want to occasionally check with the host to find out if there is any work pending or the device may want to go back to the Awake state because the device now has data to deliver to the host (maybe for an Interrupt IN endpoint).
5.2 Host Power Management
A host has two general ways to manage Wireless USB power. The first can be done during normal operation by taking advantage of the TDMA nature of WUSB protocol and turning the radio off during periods when it is not needed. During times of low activity, the host can manage the Wireless USB channel to have long periods between MMCs(Micro-Sheduled Management Commands) and thereby have more time when the radio can be off. Devices are unaware of this power management, and since the Wireless USB channel is maintained, they just follow from one MMC to the next. The second general way for a host to manage power is to interrupt the Wireless USB channel, meaning that the continuous string of linked MMCs is stopped. Some typical reasons for the host to do this include:
The platform going to a low power state (Standby, Hibernate, ...)
The platform being shut down.
The user disabling the radio ¢ Aggressive host power management For this case, devices are made aware of the hosts actions through an explicit, communication from the host.
6. PROTOCOL LAYER
This chapter presents a bottom-up view of the Wireless USB protocol starting at packet format definitions inherited from the MAC Layer standard and the application-defined extension required for Wireless USB.
6.1 Packet Formats
Wireless USB uses the packet (Frame) formats defined in the MAC Layer standard. The general structure of a packet is that it contains a PHY Preamble, PHY Header and MAC Header followed by a data payload (MAC frame body) which can be transmitted at a signaling rate different than that of the PHY and MAC Header (see top of Figure 6-1). The PHY layer provides standard support for error correction for all bits in the logical packet (PHY/MAC Header plus frame body). The PHY also CRC checks the PHY and MAC Header. The Frame Check Sequence field, which is the CRC value for the frame body payload is managed by the MAC layer. See the MAC Layer standard for implementation requirements. Note that when the Security bit component of the Frame Control field is set to zero (0), the security-related fields are not present in the packet. These fields are TKID, Rsrvd, Encryption Offset, SFN, and MIC. These fields are present if the Security bit is set to one (1).
Format.
IJOFOMSymbcta 30 OFDM Symbols

lib
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Variable L^j'ti: Z CF more bytes T.A
E% HCS MAC Header PHY Heacer PL CP Preamble
Ace Wo S*q. Ce-mral SrdD DeatlD Frame
\2; (2) ;2t WCNTROL (2)
.'J. IB) Data Frame [12] =¢ 'IB; = $v*am Index
. Er-dpoifi! Hurvh&t [3 C] P*cfc*t ID [6:4]
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. J>*"3t Control Frame [12. £) = Apal sa'ior Ceir*d Zorvo' Value
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~”~ ¦ wPreseni:a*JorTime (2)
HLenctb
h" " : Sfeeme-m Dax
(wLength)
1 i
Fig 6-1 General Format of a Wireless USB Application Packet
7. SECURITY
This chapter provides Wireless USB security-related information. It describes the security inherent in wired USB (USB 2.0). This inherent security establishes a baseline that a wireless version must meet to be successful. When considering security solutions, one must keep in mind that no solution is currently or can be proven to be Impervious. Security systems are designed not to explicitly stop the attacker, but rather to make the cost of a successful attack far higher than any gain the attacker might realize from the attack. For the sake of brevity, when we say that a particular solution prevents attacks, we mean that the solution meets the objective listed above. The solution is not impervious, but the cost of compromising the solution outweighs the gain to be realized.
7.1 Encryption Methods
The standard method of encryption for the first generation of Wireless USB is AES-128 Counter with CBC- Mac (CCM). This is a symmetric encryption algorithm that uses the AES block cipher to create a robust stream cipher that can be used to provide integrity, encryption, or both. It is capable of real-time operation when Implemented in hardware. This is the only method currently defined for general session encryption.
Wireless USB also supports public key encryption, but only for authentication. Devices may choose to start a first-time authentication with public key encryption. In this case, PK encryption is used to authenticate the device and to protect the distribution of the initial CCM key. When PK is used, it will be used in a manner that will allow for software implementations of the algorithms.
The CCM encryption suite provides 128 bits of security for run-time operation. The PK cryptography suite must provide the same level of strength or else the strength of the entire suite is compromised. For this reason, Wireless USB will use RSA with 3072 bit keys for encryption and SHA-256 for hashing. The Security Architecture also recognizes a wired connection as an encryption method. This allows the SME to recognize a wired connection as a secure connection, without resorting to additional cryptography. This allows for wired/wireless devices, Where the wired connection can be used for initial CCM Connection Key distribution.
7.2 Message Format
Encryption will generally cause the message length to grow. In addition to the original message, the encrypted message must now contain additional keying material, freshness values, and an integrity value. The exact nature of these additional message components is dependent on the type of encryption used. In general, any new additional material added to the message, other than the integrity v|lue, will be added as a header. This header will immediately precede the encrypted message. The integrity value will immediately follow the message.
8. CONCLUSION
Wireless USB offers more band width than any other current wireless technology. Its power management and security features will enable it to wipe out all the current wireless personal interconnect. And tomorrow an office or a home computer will be cable free and inexpensive. Ease of installation and usage will makes Wireless USB the most accepted Wireless technology by the consumers.
9. FUTURE SCOPE
In future, every mobile phones, PDA's, Keyboard, Mice, Monitors, Projectors, External Storage, etc will become wireless. Today wireless USB is in the developing stage. In the middle of 2007 wireless USB will dominate the market.
Moreover, the scalable architecture of WUSB enable the technology to upgrade the data transfer rate more than 1 Gbps.
Many companies are now joining the WUSB special interest group and soon every product with a USB 2.0 connectivity will enable Wireless USB.
10. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. usb.org
2. wikipedia.org
3. intel.com
4 .techonline.com
hub devices to provide port expansion.
2. NEED FOR ANOTHER WIRELESS TECHNIQUE
3. ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
4. DATA FLOW MODEL
3 5
12
5. POWER MANAGEMENT
6. PROTOCOL LAYER
15 17
7. SECURITY
8. CONCLUSION
20
9. FUTURE SCOPE
10. BIBLIOGRAPHY
22
for more details of wireless usb than this please view topicideashow-to-wireless-usb--7194
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banchi
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08-03-2010, 03:12 PM

hi everyone i want wireless usb ppt for technical seminar and presentation plz post 2 my mail id....vamshipasnoor@gmail.com
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14-03-2010, 07:25 AM


.ppt   WirelessUSB.ppt (Size: 941.5 KB / Downloads: 854)

Wireless Universal Serial Bus

Submitted By:
Christopher Hanudel



Outline

Wired Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Overview of Wireless USB (wUSB)
History/Vision
Features
How wUSB Works
Design
Security
Issues/Limitations
Current Implementations
Future/Conclusion


Wired USB

Overview
Plug/Play standard for peripheral devices
Standardized by the USB Implementers Forum
Technical Details
Host/Slave Connection
PC (host) manages all transfers; peripherals (slave) just responds
Supports 127 slaves per host
Physical Connection
Four wire connection
Two wires for power (+5 and GND)
Two wires (twisted pair) for synchronous serial data
Computer supplies power (up to 500 mA)
Technical Details (Cont.)
Data Rates
Low Speed: 1.5 Mbps (Keyboards, mice, etc.)
Full Speed: 12 Mbps (USB1.1 max speed)
Hi-Speed: 480 Mbps (USB2.0 max speed)


Reasons For Wireless USB

Wired Issues
Wires are restrictive
Multiple wires can be a hassle
Wires slower than wireless solutions
Current wireless solutions inadequate
Bluetooth
Bandwidth of 3 Mbps not enough for higher demand applications (Video, HDTV, Monitor)
WiFi
Expensive
Too much power usage for mobile devices



Wireless USB Overview

Overview
Has evolved as companies figured out standards
Based on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) RF technology
UWB is a technology for transmitting data over a large bandwidth (>500 MHz)
History of Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
Late 1800s: Started with Spark Gap radio for transmitting Morse Code
1924: Spark Gap forbidden due to disruptive nature to narrowband carrier radios
1960s “ 1999s: Better test equipment promoted research of UWB for radar and communications
History of Ultra-Wideband (cont.)
April 2002: FCC issued UWB Regulations
Permitted marketing and operation of new products
Limited power and freq range
2002: Two standards emerge
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) UWB
WiMedia Alliance & Intel
Direct Sequence (DS) UWB
UWB Forum & Freescale
2006: DS-UWB loses support & OFDM-UWB wins
Freescale left UWB Forum; became quiet
Many companies dropped Freescale chips
Freescale trying proprietary Cable-Free USB
2007: Products begin to hit the market
Goals of Intel OFDM-UWB Wireless USB Standard
Wireless version of USB; same features, speeds
Interoperable across three major platforms
Consumer Electronic devices (digital video/audio)
Mobile devices (cellular phones, PDA)
Personal Computing (laptop, PC, printer, peripherals)
High bandwidth to support demanding data transfer (High Definition, Monitors)
Mobile friendly
Low power usage
Inexpensive costs
Small physical implementation
High level of security
Next gen Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
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15-03-2010, 05:40 PM

Hi,
wireless USB ppt is not available with us now. It will be uploaded as soon as it is available. You have a good report above. You can make a decent ppt with the information above in no time!
cheers!
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22-03-2010, 08:31 PM

please read
topicideashow-to-Wireless-USB--5674
topicideashow-to-Wireless-USB
topicideashow-to-wireless-usb--7194
topicideashow-to-Wireless-usb--5304

for getting technical seminar and presentation report and presentation of Wireless USB (wusb)
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20-08-2010, 08:24 AM

plz send full seminar and presentation reports on wireless usb with ppt
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07-10-2010, 04:27 PM


.docx   wusb.docx (Size: 14.45 KB / Downloads: 84)

Wireless USB


INTRODUCTION

The Universal Serial Bus (USB), with one billion units in the installed base, is the most successful interface in PC history. Projections are for 3.5 billion interfaces shipped by 2006. Benefiting from exceptionally strong industry support from all market segments, USB continues to evolve as new technologies and products come to market. It is already the de facto interconnect for PCs, and has proliferated into consumer electronics (CE) and mobile devices as well.
The Wireless USB is the first the high speed Personal Wireless Interconnect. Wireless USB will build on the success of wired USB, bringing USB technology into the wireless future. Usage will be targeted at PCs and PC peripherals, consumer electronics and mobile devices. To maintain the same usage and architecture as wired USB, the Wireless USB specification is being defined as a high-speed host-to-device connection. This will enable an easy migration path for today's wired USB solutions.
This paper takes a brief look at the widely used interconnect standard, USB and in particular, at the emerging technology of Wireless USB and its requirements and promises.
USB Ports
Just about any computer that you buy today comes with one or more Universal Serial Bus connectors on the back. These USB connectors let you attach everything from mice to printers to your computer quickly and easily. The operating system supports USB as well, so the installation of the device drivers is quick and easy, too. Compared to other ways of connecting devices to your computer (including parallel ports, serial ports and special cards that you install inside the computer's case), USB devices are incredibly simple!
Anyone who has been around computers for more than two or three years knows the problem that the Universal Serial Bus is trying to solve -- in the past, connecting devices to computers has been a real headache!
" Printers connected to parallel printer ports, and most computers only came with one. Things like Zip drives, which need a high-speed connection into the computer, would use the parallel port as well, often with limited success and not much speed.
" Modems used the serial port, but so did some printers and a variety of odd things like Palm Pilots and digital cameras. Most computers have at most two serial ports, and they are very slow in most cases.
" Devices that needed faster connections came with their own cards, which had to fit in a card slot inside the computer's case. Unfortunately, the number of card slots is limited and you needed a Ph.D. to install the software for some of the cards.
The goal of USB is to end all of these headaches. The Universal Serial Bus gives you a single, standardized, easy-to-use way to connect up to 127 devices to a computer.
Just about every peripheral made now comes in a USB version. In fact almost all the devices manufactured today are designed to be interfaced to the computer via the USB ports.
USB Connections
Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple -- you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it. If it is a new device, the operating system auto-detects it and asks for the driver disk. If the device has already been installed, the computer activates it and starts talking to it. USB devices can be connected and disconnected at any time.
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16-10-2010, 02:50 PM


.doc   WIRELESS_USB.doc (Size: 263 KB / Downloads: 97)
INTRODUCTION

Wireless USB is a wireless technology which enables the high speed computer peripheral interface, USB, wireless. It is a wire replacement of existing USB technology using a Multi Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing radio technique.

Wireless USB interest group was formed in 2004. It is the first high speed personal interconnect. The physical layer is standardized under IEEE 802.15.3 PHY. Today it is in the developing stage. The major WUSB promoters are HP, Intel, Microsoft, NEC Philips, & Samsung

A USB system consists of a host and some number of devices all operating together on the same time base and the same logical interconnect. A USB system can be described by three definitional areas:
• USB interconnect
• USB devices
• USB host
The USB interconnect
The USB interconnect is the manner in which USB devices are connected to and communicate with the host. USB devices
Wireless USB devices are one of the following:
Functions, which provide capabilities to the system, such as a printer, a digital camera, or speakers
Device Wire Adapter, which provides a connection point for wired USB
devices.

USB Host
There is only one host in any USB system. The USB interface to the host computer system is referred to as the Host Controller. Host controllers are typically connected to PCs through an internal bus such as PCI. The Host Controller may be implemented in a combination of hardware, firmware, or software.
Wireless USB has an advanced power management system which consumes very low power. The power management system is based on Tx/Rx system. It also supports an advanced encryption system in order to ensure the secure connection between the host and device.
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18-10-2010, 11:00 AM


.pdf   Mayerhofer-WUSB.pdf (Size: 96.82 KB / Downloads: 234)
Introduction to Wireless USB - An embedded perspective

Author:
Michael Mayerhofer, BSc
Streamunlimited Engineering GmbH
Gutheil-Schoder-Gasse 10, A-1102 Vienna, Austria

Abstract
The growing amount of content and data creates the need for exploring new technologies
that can cope with the huge amount of data traffic for example in the form of audio or video
streams.
Wireless USB (WUSB) is one of the most promising, upcoming technologies for device
interconnection. It continues the successful story of USB and will provide all features already
known from recent USB implementations, plus the fact that no cables are needed anymore.
The whole existing USB infrastructure (i.e. device drivers, USB stack …) can be used just as
it has been used up to now. That makes it much easier for developers to switch over to the
new technology. The only thing that will change is the media transporting the data. With the
concept of “Dual Role Devices”, which is similar to “USB on the go”, new application
scenarios will be possible.
WUSB also provides a sophisticated power management mechanism. Hosts and devices
implement smart algorithms to save power by switching off the radio and yet stay connected
to each other. Host and device have to take care for power management by themselves.
The ultra wideband (UWB) technology is the physical basis of WUSB. It uses an extremely
wide frequency spectrum at very low power radiation that works within the range of a few
meters. MB-OFDM by the Multiband OFDM Alliance (MBOA) provides data rates of up to
480Mbps.
As with all wireless technologies, security is an important aspect, too. WUSB security will
ensure the same level of security as wired USB. Connection-level security between devices
will ensure that the appropriate device is associated and authenticated before operation of
the device is permitted.
Wireless USB is a big leap in digital communication and will possibly become the ubiquitous
connectivity interface. First products can be expected in 2006.
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28-12-2010, 12:55 PM




.doc   USB 3.0.doc (Size: 550.5 KB / Downloads: 106)

INTRODUCTION
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to connect devices to a host computer. The USB 3.0 is the upcoming version of the USB. The USB 3.0 is also called super speed USB. Because the USB 3.0 support a raw throughput of 500MByte/s. As its previous versions it also supports the plug and play capability, hot swapping etc. USB was designed to allow many peripherals to be connected using a single standardized interface socket. . Other convenient features include providing power to low-consumption devices, eliminating the need for an external power supply; and allowing many devices to be used without requiring manufacturer-specific device drivers to be installed.
There are many new features included in the new Universal Serial Bus Specification. The most important one is the supers speed data transfer itself. Then the USB 3.0 can support more devices than the currently using specification which is USB 2.0. The bus power spec has been increased so that a unit load is 150mA (+50% over minimum using USB 2.0). An unconfigured device can still draw only 1 unit load, but a configured device can draw up to 6 unit loads (900mA, an 80% increase over USB 2.0 at a registered maximum of 500mA). Minimum device operating voltage is dropped from 4.4V to 4V. When operating in SuperSpeed mode, full-duplex signaling occurs over 2 differential pairs separate from the non-SuperSpeed differential pair. This result in USB 3.0 cables containing 2 wires for power and ground, 2 wires for non-SuperSpeed data, and 4 wires for SuperSpeed data, and a shield (not required in previous specifications).


HISTORY
2.1 PRERELEASES

•USB 0.7: Released in November 1994.
•USB 0.8: Released in December 1994.
•USB 0.9: Released in April 1995.
•USB 0.99: Released in August 1995.
•USB 1.0: Release Candidate: Released in November 1995.


2.2. USB 1.0
USB 1.0: Released in January 1996.Specified data rates of 1.5 Mbit/s (Low-Speed) and 12 Mbit/s (Full-Speed). Does not allow for extension cables or pass-through monitors (due to timing and power limitations). Few such devices actually made it to market.
USB 1.1: Released in September 1998.Fixed problems identified in 1.0, mostly relating to hubs. Earliest revision to be widely adopted.

2.3. USB 2.0
Released in April 2000.Added higher maximum speed of 480 Mbit/s (now called Hi-Speed). Further modifications to the USB specification have been done via Engineering Change Notices (ECN).

2.4. USB 3.0

On September 18, 2007, Pat Gel singer demonstrated USB 3.0 at the Intel Developer Forum. The USB 3.0 Promoter Group announced on November 17, 2008, that version 1.0 of the specification has been completed and is transitioned to the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF), the managing body of USB specifications. This move effectively opens the spec to hardware developers for implementation in future products.

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

3.1. HUB
The hub provide electrical interface between the USB devices and the host. Hubs are directly responsible for supporting many of the attributes that make USB user friendly and hide its complexity from the user. Listed below the major aspects of USB functionality that hub support:
• Connectivity behavior
• Power management
• Device connect/disconnect detection
• Bus fault detection
• SuperSpeed and USB 2.0 (high-speed, full-speed, an low-speed) support

A USB 3.0 hub incorporates a USB 2.0 hub and a SuperSpeed hub consisting of two principal components: the SuperSpeed Hub Repeater/Forwarder and the SuperSpeed Hub controller. The hub repeater/forwarder is responsible for connectivity and setup and tear-down. It also support fault detection and recovery. The Hub controller provides the mechanism for host-hub communication. Hub-specific status and control commands permit the host to configure hub and to monitor and control its individual downstream port.


3.2. HOST
There are two hosts are incorporated in a USB 3.0 host. One is SuperSpeed host and the second one is Non-SuperSpeed host. This incorporation ensures the backward compatibility of the USB 3.0 hub. Here the SuperSpeed hub will be supporting the 500MB/sec data transfer rate with full duplex mode. Then the Non- SuperSpeed host will be supporting the old data rates such as High-Speed, Full-Speed, Low-Speed. The host here interacts with the devices by the help of a host controller. When the host is powered off, the hub does not provide power to its downstream unless the hub supports the charging application. When the host is powered on with SuperSpeed support enabled on its downstream port by default the following is the typical sequence of events.

• Hub detects VBUS SuperSpeed support and powers its down stream ports with SuperSpeed enabled.
• Hub connects both as a SuperSpeed and as a High-Speed device.
• Device detects VBUS and SuperSpeed support and connects as a SuperSpeed device.
• Host system begins hub enumeration at high-speed and SuperSpeed.
• Host system begins device enumeration at SuperSpeed.

A SuperSpeed host is a source or sink of information. It implements the required host-end, SuperSpeed. Communications layer to accomplish information exchanges over the bus. It owns the SuperSpeed data activity schedule and management of the SuperSpeed bus and all devices connected to it. The host includes an implementation number of the root downstream ports for SuperSpeed and USB 2.0. Through these ports the host:
• Detect the attachment and removal of USB device.
• Manages control flow between the host and the USB device.
• Manages data flow between the host and the USB device.
• Collect the status activity statistics
• Provide power to the attached USB device

3.3. DEVICE
SuperSpeed devices are sources or sink of information exchanges. They implement the required device-end, SuperSpeed communication layers to accomplish information exchanges between a driver on the host and a logical function on the device. All SuperSpeed devices share their base architecture with USB 2.0.They are required to carry information for self-identification and generic configuration. They are also required to demonstrate behavior consistent with the defined SuperSpeed Device States.
All devices are assigned a USB address when enumerated by the host. Each device supports one or more pipes though which the host may communicate with the device. All devices must be support a designed pipe at endpoint zero to which the device’s Default Control Pipe is attached. All devices support a common access mechanism for accessing information through this control pipe. SuperSpeed inherits the categories of information that are supported on the default pipe from the USB 2.0. The USB 3.0 connection model allows for the discovery and configuration of the USB device at the highest signaling speed supported by the device. The USB 3.0 supports an increased power supply for the devices operating at the SuperSpeed. USB 3.0 devices within a single physical package (i.e., a single peripheral) can consist of a number of functional topologies including single function , multiple functions on a single peripheral device (composite device), and permanently attached peripheral devices behind an integrated hub.



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29-12-2010, 03:11 PM




BY:SARVESH KUMAR

.pptx   sarvesh ppt.pptx (Size: 1,010.2 KB / Downloads: 93)

Wireless USB Overview
Goals of Intel OFDM-UWB WUSB Standard
Wireless version of USB with same features, speeds
Implementable across three major platforms
Consumer Electronic devices (e.g.,digital video / audio)
Mobile devices (e.g. cellular phones, PDA)
Personal Computing (e.g., laptop, PC, printer, peripherals)
High bandwidth to support demanding data transfer (e.g., High Definition Monitors)
Mobile friendly
Low power consumption
Reduced cost of implementation
Small physical size
High level of security
Used IN Next generation Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Data Rate Requirements
Wireless USB Vision
Can connect a PC/
laptop to as many as 127 peripheral devices simultaneously.
Like monitor, keyboard , printer, camera, sounding devices, modem, flash card reader ,project and implimentationor requiring no wired physical connection etc.


Wireless USB Design
Features of UWB
Speed/Range
Scalable speeds up over 1 Gbps
Currently 480 Mbps at 10 m; 110 Mbps at 20 m distance
Frequency range: 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz
Divided into 14 bands and 5 groups
Each band is 528 MHz wide
OFDM symbols are interleaved across all bands
Provides protection against multi-path / interference

Wireless USB Physical Design
Frequency: 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz (cont.)
Band Groups 1 & 2 used for Longer range applications
Bands Groups 3 & 4 used for shorter range applications
Bands can be turned off to accommodate for conflicts or for regulations
Wireless USB Design

Power
Power consumption is limited due to usage of wide spectrum .
C = B.W.IN(1+S/N)
Low power for mobile devices and minimum interference allows
Max output to -41.3 dBm/MHz.
Security Design
Overview
Strongly stressed in WUSB specification and outlined in its own requirements document.
More we go in air more are the chances of being Accessed by other devices or unauthorized users.
Two major components of security check are : Association and Encryption
Association
Device must first associate with the host in a one-time event.
Accomplished via wired verification or numeric association.
Security Design

Wired Verification
Cable is attached between devices
Exchanges a unique 384-bit identifier known as the “connection key”
Numeric Association
Devices associate wirelessly
User must enter a hex code manually

WIRELESS DEVICE INTERCONNECT
Security Design
Encryption
Data encrypted with the AES 128 algorithm
During each session devices derive a session key based on “connection key”
Wireless data is encrypted using session key
Does not encrypt PHY and MAC headers
Connection Design
Host/Slave Connection
Similar to wired USB
minimum interference

Power Management
Sleep/Listen/Wake is used
Transmitter / Reciever power management
Wireless USB Issues/Problems
Product Comparison
Freescale uses wireless USB dongle separately in addition to host pc/laptop

USB implementation forum uses integrated wireless USB ‘Hub and Spoke’ model

Wireless USB Implementations
Belkin Cable Free Hub
Released Dec, 2006
Dongle attaches to PC/laptop
Retail price of $199.00
Speeds up to 480 Mbps

Wireless USB Implementations
GeFen HMDI Extender
Coming soon…
Based on WiMedia Alliance
specification
Retail price of $699.00
Range of 20 meters; data
rates up to 480 Mbps
Frequency band: 3.1 - 4.8 GHz

Wireless USB Implementations
Seagate Wireless USB
Hard Drive
Coming soon….
2.5 inches wide
Speeds up to 480 Mbps
Frequency range 3.1Ghz-5.6
Ghz.


Future of Wireless USB
Early : 2004
Initial devices being produced
Late :2006
WUSB started being built into laptops, PCs, multimedia devices etc.
Late :2008
Vision gain research firm predicts increase of WUSB by 400 percent
2009-2010
Wide scale applicability?
Concluding Thoughts
Appears well designed
provides good support
Slow start of products consumption !
Will it really catch on?
More products need to be developed
Promises a lot
Security is very important
Hence keeping the eyes on it just thinking



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23-02-2011, 02:43 PM


.docx   Wireless USB.docx (Size: 88.45 KB / Downloads: 62)
Abstract
The Universal Serial Bus (USB), with one billion units in the installed base, is the most successful interface in PC history. Projections are for 3.5 billion interfaces shipped by 2006. Benefiting from exceptionally strong industry support from all market segments, USB continues to evolve as new technologies and products come to market. It is already the de facto interconnect for PCs, and has proliferated into consumer electronics (CE) and mobile devices as well. USB enjoys strong brand recognition, has a well-recognized logo, and is supported by an experienced governing body the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF).
Wireless USB will build on the success of wired USB, bringing USB technology into the wireless future. Usage will be targeted at PCs and PC peripherals, consumer electronics and mobile devices. To maintain the same usage and architecture as wired USB, the Wireless USB specification is being defined as a high-speed host-to device connection. This will enable an easy migration path for today's wired USB solutions.
INTRODUCTION
The Universal Serial Bus (USB), with one billion units in the installed base, is the most successful interface in PC history. Projections are for 3.5 billion interfaces shipped by 2006. Benefiting from exceptionally strong industry support from all market segments, USB continues to evolve as new technologies and products come to market. It is already the de facto interconnect for PCs, and has proliferated into consumer electronics (CE) and mobile devices as well.
The Wireless USB is the first the high speed Personal Wireless Interconnect. Wireless USB will build on the success of wired USB, bringing USB technology into the wireless future. Usage will be targeted at PCs and PC peripherals, consumer electronics and mobile devices. To maintain the same usage and architecture as wired USB, the Wireless USB specification is being defined as a high-speed host-to-device connection. This will enable an easy migration path for today's wired USB solutions.
This paper takes a brief look at the widely used interconnect standard, USB and in particular, at the emerging technology of Wireless USB and its requirements and promises.
USB PORTS
Just about any computer that you buy today comes with one or more Universal Serial Bus connectors on the back. These USB connectors let you attach everything from mice to printers to your computer quickly and easily. The operating system supports USB as well, so the installation of the device drivers is quick and easy, too. Compared to other ways of connecting devices to your computer (including parallel ports, serial ports and special cards that you install inside the computer's case), USB devices are incredibly simple!
Wireless USB is a short-range, high-bandwidth wireless radio communication protocol created by the Wireless USB Promoter Group. Wireless USB is sometimes abbreviated as "WUSB", although the USB Implementers Forum discourages this practice and instead prefers to call the technology "Certified Wireless USB" to differentiate it from competitors. Wireless USB is based on the WiMedia Alliance's Ultra-WideBand (UWB) common radio platform, which is capable of sending 480 Mbit/s at distances up to 3 meters and 110 Mbit/s at up to 10 meters. It was designed to operate in the 3.1 to 10.6 GHz frequency range, although local regulatory policies may restrict the legal operating range for any given country.
Uses
Wireless USB is used in game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras, MP3 players, hard disks and flash drives. Kensington released a Wireless USB universal docking station in August, 2008. It is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams, while utilizing the Wireless USB over Ultra-wideband bandwidth.
Wireless USB vs. 60 GHz
Few issues differentiate the two technologies:
 Line of Sight: at 60 GHz, radio communication is blocked by any intervening object, which implies the need for open line of sight. Wireless USB is based on the UWBplatform, which operates in the 3.1 to 10.6 GHz frequency range, and therefore intervening bodies can be passed through with no line-of-sight limitation.
 Mobility: the 60 GHz technology is appealing to the wireless video market because it is supposed to deliver multi-gigabit-speed wireless communications.[1] In order to support such heavy demands, the underlying MAC layer should be able to process this huge amount of data. For these requirements, the 60 GHz-based solutions will need higher power consumption, and bigger chips, which are less suitable for mobile units or devices.
Development
The Wireless USB Promoter Group was formed in February 2004 to define the Wireless USB specification. The group consists of Agere Systems (now merged with LSI Corporation), Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, NEC Corporation, Philips and Samsung.
In May 2005, the Wireless USB Promoter Group announced the completion of the Wireless USB specification.
In June 2006, five companies showed the first multi-vendor interoperability demonstration of Wireless USB. A laptop with an Intel host adapter using an Alereon PHY was used to transfer high definition video from a Philips wireless semiconductor solution with a Realtek PHY, all using Microsoft Windows XP drivers developed for Wireless USB.
In October 2006 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the first complete Host Wire Adapter (HWA) and Device Wire Adapter (DWA) wireless USB solution from WiQuest Communications for both outdoor and indoor use. The first retail product was shipped by IOGEAR using Alereon, Intel and NEC silicon in mid-2007. Around the same time, Belkin, Dell, Lenovo and D-Link began shipping products that incorporated WiQuest technology. These products included embedded cards in the notebook PCs or Hub/Adapter solutions for those PCs that do not currently include Wireless USB. In 2008, a new Wireless USB Docking Station from Kensington was made available through Dell. This product was unique as it was the first product on the market to support video and graphics over a USB connection, by using DisplayLink USB graphics technology. Kensington's Docking Station enables wireless connectivity between a notebook PC and an external monitor, speakers, and existing wired USB peripherals. Imation announced Q408 availability of a new external Wireless HDD. Both of these products are based on WiQuest technology.
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