Zigbee - zapping away wired worries
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computer science crazy
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#1
22-09-2008, 12:21 AM


In recent years there has been rapid development in the wireless sector due to demand for wire free connectivity. Most of the development was focused on high data rate applications like file transfer etc with new standards like Bluetooth emerging.

During this time applications that required lower data rates but had some other special requirements were neglected in the sense that no open standard was available.

Either these applications we abandoned in the wireless arena or implemented using proprietary standards hurting the interoperability of the system.

ZigBee is a wireless standard that caters to this particular sector. Potential applications of ZigBee include Home Automation, Wireless Sensor Networks, Patient monitors etc. The key features of these applications and hence aims of ZigBee are
Low Cost
Low Power for increased battery life
Low Range
Low Complexity
Low Data Rates
Co-Existence with other long range Wireless Networks

The ZigBee standard is maintained by ZigBee Alliance is a spin off of the HomeRF group, an unsuccessful home automation related consortium.

It is built upon the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol which is intended for LR-WPAN (Low Rate - Wireless Personal Area Network).

In this seminar and presentation a general overview of ZigBee is followed by an analysis of how ZigBee and underlying 802.15.4 provide the aims mentioned. Also a brief comparisons with other solutions will be done.
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maheshgc
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#2
14-02-2009, 06:32 AM

plz send me more information abt thisIdea
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computer science crazy
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#3
14-02-2009, 06:47 PM

Whats ZigBee
ZigBee is the set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol. The IEEE is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. They are a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering technology involving electronics and electronic devices. The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved in network operations and technologies, including mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15 deals specifically with wireless networking technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous 802.15.1 working group, which is also known as Bluetooth.

The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zigging patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is evocative of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment. The standard itself is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.

While Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large packet user devices, such as laptops, phones, and major peripherals, ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient connectivity between small packet devices. As a result of its simplified operations, which are one to two full orders of magnitude less complex than a comparable Bluetooth device, pricing for ZigBee devices is extremely competitive, with full nodes available for a fraction of the cost of a Bluetooth node.

ZigBee devices are actively limited to a through-rate of 250Kbps, compared to Bluetooth's much larger pipeline of 1Mbps, operating on the 2.4 GHz ISM band, which is available throughout most of the world.

ZigBee has been developed to meet the growing demand for capable wireless networking between numerous low-power devices. In industry ZigBee is being used for next generation automated manufacturing, with small transmitters in every device on the floor, allowing for communication between devices to a central computer. This new level of communication permits finely-tuned remote monitoring and manipulation. In the consumer market ZigBee is being explored for everything from linking low-power household devices such as smoke alarms to a central housing control unit, to centralized light controls.

The specified maximum range of operation for ZigBee devices is 250 feet (76m), substantially further than that used by Bluetooth capable devices, although security concerns raised over "sniping" Bluetooth devices remotely, may prove to hold true for ZigBee devices as well.

Due to its low power output, ZigBee devices can sustain themselves on a small battery for many months, or even years, making them ideal for install-and-forget purposes, such as most small household systems. Predictions of ZigBee installation for the future, most based on the explosive use of ZigBee in automated household tasks in China, look to a near future when upwards of sixty ZigBee devices may be found in an average American home, all communicating with one another freely and regulating common tasks seamlessly.


Protocols

The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector, neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. In most large network instances, the network will be a cluster of clusters. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks.

In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15), an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. In this type of network, ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active, requiring a more robust power supply. However, this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously, while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: the ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly, since it is connected to the mains supply, while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. The switch then wakes up, sends a command to the lamp, receives an acknowledgment, and returns to sleep. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router, if not the ZigBee Coordinator; the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device.

In beacon-enabled networks, the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. Nodes may sleep between beacons, thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. Beacon intervals may range from 15.36 milliseconds to 15.36 ms * 214 = 251.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s, from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. However, low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing, which can conflict with the need for low product cost.

In general, the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. In beaconing networks, nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In non-beacon-enabled networks, power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active, while others spend most of their time sleeping.

ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers”the physical layer (PHY), and the medium access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz and 868 MHz ISM bands. In the 2.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels, with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as, FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch - 11)) MHz, where ch = 11, 12, ..., 26.

The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding, which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands, and orthogonal QPSK that transmits two bits per symbol is used in the 2.4 GHz band. The raw, over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.4 GHz band, 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band, and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 (up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.) meters (33 and 246 feet), although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. The maximum output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).

The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense, multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). That is, the nodes talk in the same way that people converse; they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule, and do not use CSMA. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. Finally, devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS), which by definition do not use CSMA.


For More Read
en.wikipediawiki/ZigBee
sinemergenzigbee.pdf
spectrum.ieeeoct06/4666
zigbee
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ramesh
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#4
01-05-2009, 12:14 PM

(22-09-2008, 12:21 AM)remshad_m Wrote: In recent years there has been rapid development in the wireless sector due to demand for wire free connectivity. Most of the development was focused on high data rate applications like file transfer etc with new standards like Bluetooth emerging.

During this time applications that required lower data rates but had some other special requirements were neglected in the sense that no open standard was available.

Either these applications we abandoned in the wireless arena or implemented using proprietary standards hurting the interoperability of the system.

ZigBee is a wireless standard that caters to this particular sector. Potential applications of ZigBee include Home Automation, Wireless Sensor Networks, Patient monitors etc. The key features of these applications and hence aims of ZigBee are
Low Cost
Low Power for increased battery life
Low Range
Low Complexity
Low Data Rates
Co-Existence with other long range Wireless Networks

The ZigBee standard is maintained by ZigBee Alliance is a spin off of the HomeRF group, an unsuccessful home automation related consortium.

It is built upon the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol which is intended for LR-WPAN (Low Rate - Wireless Personal Area Network).

In this seminar and presentation a general overview of ZigBee is followed by an analysis of how ZigBee and underlying 802.15.4 provide the aims mentioned. Also a brief comparisons with other solutions will be done.
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Computer Science Clay
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#5
01-05-2009, 03:44 PM

what you want?
why your only quoting text?

any way... hmmm
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electronics seminars
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#6
10-11-2009, 03:30 PM


.ppt   ZIGBEE-presentation.ppt (Size: 3.69 MB / Downloads: 151)
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sridhar
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#7
10-02-2010, 05:26 PM

Zigbee - zapping away wired worries
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gpushpalatha
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#8
21-04-2011, 08:44 PM

plz provide me the zigbee ppt and mobile phone cloning ppt............id-pushpa_89@yahoo.co.in
provide me the mobile phone cloning ppt plz
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seminar project
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#9
21-04-2011, 11:25 PM

hi
you can refer these pages to get the details on zigbee

topicideashow-to-zigbee-zapping-away-wired-worries

topicideashow-to-se...ss-network
topicideashow-to-se...ork?page=2

topicideashow-to-zi...ull-report
topicideashow-to-zi...ort?page=2

topicideashow-to-zi...ort?page=3

topicideashow-to-zi...d-project and implimentations
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#10
23-07-2012, 02:51 PM

Zigbee


.pptx   zigbee.pptx (Size: 2.77 MB / Downloads: 16)

Introduction

Zigbee is specification for high level communication protocols using small.
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard was completed in May 2003.
The ZigBee specifications were ratified on 14 December 2004.
The ZigBee Alliance announced public availability of Specification 1.0 on 13 June 2005


What is zigbee?


Zigbee is a technological standard created for control and sensor networks.
Based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
Created by zigbee Alliance.


What does zigbee do?


Designed for wireless controls and sensors
Operates in Personal Area Networks (PAN’s) and device-to-device networks
Connectivity between small packet devices
Control of lights, switches, thermostats, appliances, etc.


Advantages


Extremely low cost
Very low power consumption
Secure data transfer
Long battery life
Reliable
Supports large number of nodes
Can be Implemented with any type of microcontroller


Disadvantages


Low data rate
Typically less than 100kbps
Low bandwidth


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