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AIR TICKET RESERVATION
Submitted by SANDEEP S. ELDHO PAUL MATHEW ANIL SUKUMARAN
SEA Airlines is a leading travel company offering leisure and business travelers the widest selection of low fares as well as deals on lodging and vacation packages. The site was created to address the need for an unbiased, comprehensive display of fares and rates in a single location for consumers. SEA Airlines search results are presented in an easy-to-use Matrix that displays a vast array of travel options for you. SEA Airlines is the first and only travel site with a seasoned Customer Care Team that monitors nationwide travel conditions for our travelers around the clock, everyday.
SEA Airlines is a site, which helps the flight travelers. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. All purchases made on SEA Airlines are not final and can be cancelled, refunded or changed. If you want, you can also receive your updates by calling Arabian Travels toll-free number and using your personalized PIN. When customers prefer a specific travel itinerary, they offer the widest range of flight options and fares.
The project and implimentation will be in any platform with Front End as JSP and ORACLE 8i as Back End.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION 1
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT 1
2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 3
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM 3
2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM 4
3. SYSTEM STUDY 5 3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 5
4. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 7
5. REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 8
5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY 8
5.1.1 Operation Feasibility 8
5.1.2 Technical Feasibility 8
5.1.3 Economic Feasibility 9
5.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 9
5.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 10
5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION 10
6. SYSTEM DESIGN 12
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN 12
6.2 INPUT DESIGN 13
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN 13
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN 14
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN 14
7. DATABASE DESIGN 16
7.1 NORMALIZATION 16
8. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 18
8.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHOD S 18
8.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 19
9. EDUCATION & TRAINING 20
9.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 20
10. SYSTEM TESTING 22
10.1 UNIT TESTING 23
10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING 24
10.3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING 24
10.4 REGRESSION TESTING 24
11 MAINTENANCE 25
12 TABLES 26
13 FIGURES 29
14 CONCLUSION 47 APPENDIX 1 48
LIST OF TABLES
12.1 FLIGHT DETAILS 26
12.2 FLIGHT TIME 27
12.3 PASSENGER 27
12.4 REGISTRATION 28
12.5 RESERVATION 29
12.6 PAYSPARE 29
12.7 PAYMENT 30
12.8 CONFIRM 30
12.9 ROUTE 31
LIST OF FIGURES
13.1 LEVEL 0 DFD 32
13.2 LEVEL 1 DFD 33
13.3 LEVEL 2 DFD 34
13.4 LEVEL 3 DFD 35
13.5 LEVEL 4 DFD 36
13.6 LOGIN FORM 37
13.7 REGISTRATION FORM 38
13.8 ADMIN HOME 39
13.9 USER HOME 40
13.10 FLIGHT DETAILS 41
13.11 FLIGHTTIMINGS 42
13.12 ROUTE MAP FLIGHTS 43
13.13 TICKET CANCELLATION 44
13.14 CANCELLATION 45
13.15 VIEW RESERVATION 46
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION
SEA Airlines is a leading travel company offering leisure and business travelers the widest selection of low fares as well as deals on lodging and vacation packages. SEA Airlines search results are presented in an easy-to-use Matrix that displays a vast array of travel options for you. When customers prefer a specific travel itinerary, they offer the widest range of flight options and fares.
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT
SEA Airlines is a site, which helps the flight travelers. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. Through partnerships with leading travel companies, it can negotiate special prices that can't be found anywhere else.
The working of the project and implimentation is as follows.
The first page provides several links. The Home link contains several informations about the site; it provides a link to the login page.
In the Login link a user have to login before ordering for tickets. An already registered user can simply type in -his\her valid username and password, and then click the "Login" button. But those visitors who are not registered have to go to the registration page before they login. In that page user have to enter First name, Last name, Address, Postal Code, City, Phone number, Username and password.
About Us Link contains some information regarding SEA Airlines and its developers.
After registration user can reserve the seats in particular flights by using the flights date and time. The user can enter the number of seats required and the details of the passengers by specifying adult or child. Then goes to the payment or confirmation page. It will display the total rate and a PNR number. This PNR number can be used for cancellation.
Logout Link will help the user to logout from the site.
CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM DEFINITION
SEA Airlines is a site, which is very helpful to users. The aim of this project and implimentation is to provide the users flexible leisure travelers an immediate and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. They can find attractive prices that can't be found anywhere else through partnerships with leading travel companies. Its working is that partners allow to access their empty seats on flights -- all at big savings. The site pass these savings on to those travelers who can be flexible about their plans. Sea airline's founding organizations are industry leaders in their respective areas. With their backing, SEA Airlines will continue to grow - ultimately providing a wide breadth of products and services at the best prices.
User Login module helps the user to login to the site. For that he must type the username and password correctly. The login provision in this page helps the already registered user to directly access the site and there is a link for registration to a user who is new to this site.
Member Registration module helps the new user to register into the site. The information entered by the users is added into the table registration.
Air Ticket Request module helps the user to make a request for Air Ticket. In this page the user enters the full details about his flight such as the start and destination place, number of tickets, cabin and the convenient date.
Air Ticket confirmation module helps the user to confirm the air ticket.
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM
The existing system is manual entry of up keeping of the details of the persons who are registered already. And it is very difficult for each person to come to the office. Users can also enquire about the tickets through phones. It is very difficult for the user to remember all the
details that they received through phones. And it is also very difficult to calculate how many peoples registered in a month by hand. This requires quite a lot of time and wastage of money as it requires quite lot of manpower to do that. Another factor that takes into account that is the possibility of errors and which requires verification and checking of data relating to various operations which is done manually. Data's are stored globally and are retrieved in the same manner. Most of the data are hidden from outside the world. The limitations of existing system is that it is not all personalized. It cannot be used for personal and quick reference. Even the other staff members can make quick entries if the responsible person is not present.
2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The modern computerized system is developed with the aim to overcome the drawbacks of existing system. The proposed system has got many advantages. People from different parts of the world can register very easily. The new system is more personalized. It is maze in such a manner that all the new users can understand all the options in it very easily. It is made in a quick and easy referential manner. This system helps the user to go through the rates quoted by different travel agencies and select the convenient rate that is suitable for him.
Access to all important matters are not always locked and can be opened easily at the time of urgency. The advantages of proposed system are that security is maintained in the new system. Securities for all important data are maintained confidentially. As it is easily understandable and user friendly, quick entries can be made in this system.
CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM STUDY
The system study phase involves the initial investigation of the structure of the System, which is currently in use, with the objective of identifying the problem and difficulties with the existing system. The major steps involved in this phase included defining the user requirements and studying the present system to verify the problem. The performance expected by the new system was also defined in this phase in order to meet the user requirements. The information gathered from various documents were analyzed and evaluated and the findings reviewed in order to establish specific system objectives.
3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System analysis is the way of studying a system with an eye on solving its problem -using computer. It is the most essential part of the development of a project and implimentation of a system analysis. System analysis consists of system element, process and technology.
To analyze a system, has to study the systems in details. The analyst has to understand the functioning and concept of the system in detail, before design the appropriate computer based system that will meet all the requirements of the existing system. The system analyst has to carry out a customary approach to use the computer for problem solving.
System analysis includes the following basic concepts Â¢ Preliminary investigation
Â¢ Feasibility study
Â¢ Detailed investigation
Â¢ Drawing up of strategies
Â¢ Design and coding
Â¢ Testing and training
The above steps constitute the logical framework for the system analysis. After the preliminary investigation and feasibility study, the scope of the defined and comparable items are set forth and hence detailed investigation is executed. This allows the system analyst to comprehend the full scope of the project and implimentation. Soon after the implementation of the newly developed system, followed by the training of the users, the system analysis is included.
A request to receive assistance from information system can be made for many reasons, but in case a manager, employee or system specialist initiates the request. When that request is made, the first system activity preliminary investigation begins. The activity has three parts
> Request clarification: the request from employee may not be well stated. Sometimes the request may not be well defined. Therefore before any system investigation can be considered, the project and implimentation request must be examined to determine precisely the actual requirements of the organization.
> Feasibility study: the basic idea of feasibility study is to determine whether the requested project and implimentation is feasible.
> Request approval: all project and implimentations that are requested are not desirable or feasible .some organization receive so many project and implimentations requests from employee that only a few of them can be pursued. However those project and implimentations that are feasible and desirable should put into a schedule. The management decides request that are most important. After a project and implimentation request is approved the cost priority, the completion time and the personal required are estimated. Once the request is approved, the collection of data and determination of requirements can be started.
CHAPTER 5 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
The primary goal of the system analyst is to improve the efficiency of the existing system. For that the study of specification of the requirements is very essential. For the development of the new system, a preliminary survey of the existing system will be conducted. Investigation done whether the upgradation of the system into an application program could solve the problems and eradicate the inefficiency of the existing system.
5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY
The initial investigation points to the question whether the project and implimentation is feasible. A feasibility is conducted to identify the best system that meets the all the requirements. This includes an identification description, an evaluation of the proposed systems and selection of the best system for the job
The requirements of the system are specified with a set of constraints such as system objectives and the description of the out puts. It is then duty of the analyst to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system to generate the above results. Three key factors are to be considered during the feasibility study.
5.1.1 Operation Feasibility
An estimate should be made to de4termine how much effort and care will go into the developing of the system including the training to be given to the user. Usually, people are reluctant to changes that come in their progression. The computer initialization will certainly affected the turn over, transfer and employee job status. Hence an additional effort is to be made to train and educate the users on the new way of the system.
5.1.2 Technical Feasibility
The main consideration is to be given to the study of available resources of the organization where the software is to be implemented. Here the system analyst evaluates the technical merits of the system giving emphasis on the performance, Reliability, maintainability and productivity.
By taking the consideration before developing the proposed system, the resources availability of the organization was studied. The organization was immense computer facilities equipped with sophisticated machines and the software hence this technically feasible.
5.1.3 Economic Feasibility
Economic feasibility is the most important and frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system. It is very essential because the main goal of the proposed system is to have economically better result along with increased efficiency. Cost benefit analysis is usually performed for this purpose. It is the comparative study of the cost verses the benefit and savings that are expected from the proposed system. Since the organization is well equipped with the required hard ware, the project and implimentation was found to be economically.
5.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
PROCESSOR : PENTIUM II
CLOCK SPEED : 800 MHZ
SYSTEM BUS : 32 BIT
RAM : 128 MB
HDD : 5GB
MONITOR : SVGA COLOR
KEY BOARD : 108 KEYS
MODEM : 56 KBPS
MOUSE : LOGITECH
FDD : 1.44 MB
5.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
OPERATING SYSTEM : WINDOWS XP
BROWSER : INTERNET EXPLORER 5.5 OR ANY HTTP BROWSER
FRONT END : MICROSOFT FRONTPAGE
DATABASE LAYER : ORACLE 8i
WEB SERVER : JBOSS
SERVER SIDE SCRIPTING : JSP
CLIENT SIDE SCRIPTING : JAVA SCRIPT
CONNECTION : TCP / IP
PROTOCOL : HTTP, SMTP, POP3,WAP
5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION
Typical client-server systems are based on the 2-tiered architecture, whereby there is a clear separation between the data and the presentation/business logic. These are generally data driven, with the application existing entirely on the client machine while the database server is deployed somewhere in the organization.
In a traditional 2- Tiered application, the processing load is given to the client PC while the server simply acts as a traffic controller between the application and data. As a result, not only does the application performance suffer due to the limited resources of the PC, but the network traffic tends increase as well.
3- Tier Architecture
In 3- Tier architecture an application is broken into three separate logical layers, each with a well - defined set of interfaces. The first tier is referred to as the presentation layer and typically consists of graphical user interface of some kind. The middle tier, or business layer, consists of application or business layer and the third layer- the data layer contains the data that is needed for the application. The middle tier is basically the code that the user calls upon to retrieve the desired data. The presentation layer then receives the data and formats it for display. This separation of application logic from the user interface adds enormous flexibility to the design of application. The third tier contains the data that is needed for the application.
n- Tier Architecture
In an n - tier architecture the application logic is divided by function rather than physically. N - Tier architecture then breaks down like this:
> A user interface that handle the user's interaction with the application; this can be web browser running through a firewall, a heavier desktop application or even a wireless device
> Presentation logic that defines what the user interface displays and how a user's requests are handled- depending on what user interfaces are supported we need to have slightly different versions of the presentation logic to handle the client appropriately.
> Business logic that models the application's business rules, often through the interaction with the application's data.
> Interface services that provide additional functionality required by the application components, such as messaging, transactional support etc.
> The Data layer where the enterprise's data resides.
CHAPTER 6 SYSTEM DESIGN
System design is the solution to the creation of a new system. This phase is composed of several systems. This phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the feasible system. It emphasis on translating design specifications to performance specification. System design has two phases of development logical and physical design.
During logical design phase the analyst describes inputs (sources), out puts (destinations), databases (data sores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meats the uses requirements. The analyst also specifies the user needs and at a level that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the data resources. Here the logical design is done through data flow diagrams and database design.
The physical design is followed by physical design or coding. Physical design produces the working system by defining the design specifications, which tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. The programmers write the necessary programs that accept input from the user, perform necessary processing on accepted data through call and produce the required report on a hard copy or display it on the screen.
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN
Logical design of an information system shows the major features and also how they are related to one another. The first step of the system design is to design logical design elements. This is the most creative and challenging phase and important too. Design of proposed system produces the details of the state how the system will meet the requirements identified during the system analysis that is, in the design phase we have to find how to solve the difficulties faced by the existing system. The logical design of the proposed system should include the details that contain how the solutions can be implemented. It also specifies how the database is to be built for storing and retrieving data, what kind of reports are to be created and what are the inputs to be given to the system. The logical design includes input design, output design, and database design and physical design
6.2 INPUT DESIGN
The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data into a usable form for processing data entry. The activity of putting data into the computer for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required, controlling errors, avoiding delay, avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple.
The system needs the data regarding the asset items, depreciation rates, asset transfer, physical verification for various validation, checking, calculation and report generation.. The error raising method is also included in the software, which helps to raise error message while wrong entry of input is done. So in input design the following things are considered.
What data should be given as input
Â¢ How the data should be arranged or coded
Â¢ The dialogue to guide the operating personnel in providing input.
Â¢ Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur
Â¢ The samples of screen layout are given in the appendix.
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN
Computer output is the most important and direct information source to the user. Output design is a process that involves designing necessary outputs in the form of reports that should be given to the users according to the requirements. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the system's relationship with the user and help in decision making. Since the reports are directing referred by the management for taking decisions and to draw conclusions they must be designed with almost care and the details in the reports must be simple, descriptive and clear to the user. So while designing output the following things are to be considered.
Â¢ Determine what information to present
Â¢ Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format
Â¢ Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipts
Depending on the nature and future use of output required, they can be displayed on the monitor for immediate need and for obtaining the hardcopy. The options for the output reports are given in the appendix.
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN
The process of developing the program software is referred to as physical design. We have to design the process by identifying reports and the other outputs the system will produce. Coding the program for each module with its logic is performed in this step. Proper software specification is also done in this step.
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN
A software system is always divided into several sub systems that makes it easier for the development. A software system that is structured into several subsystems makes it easy for the development and testing. The different subsystems are known as the modules and the process of dividing an entire system into subsystems is known as modularization or decomposition.
A system cannot be decomposed into several subsystems in any way. There must some logical barrier, which facilitates the separation of each module. The separation must be simple but yet must be effective so that the development is not affected.
The system under consideration has been divided into several modules taking in consideration the above-mentioned criteria. The different modules are
1) Customer registration Module
2) Travel agent registration Module.
3) Ticket Request Module.
4) Rate comparison Module.
5) Ticket confirmation module.
6) Administrator module.
CHAPTER 7 DATABASE DESIGN
The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. DBMS allow data to be protected and organized separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of data. The most significant form of data as seen by the programmers is data as stored on the direct access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
Database files are the key source of information into the system. It is the process of designing database files, which are the key source of information to the system. The files should be properly designed and planned for collection, accumulation, editing and retrieving the required information.
The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: -
Â¢ Data integration.
Â¢ Data integrity.
Â¢ Data independence.
The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS SQL SERVER database. This database contains tables, where each table corresponds to one particular type of information. Each piece of information in table is called a field or column. A table also contains records, which is a set of fields. All records in a table have the same set of fields with different information. There are primary key fields that uniquely identify a record in a table. There are also fields that contain primary key from another table called foreign keys.
Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large table in to a smaller one. It is also used to avoid insertion, deletion and updating anomalies. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form. In short the rules for each of the three normal forms are as below.
Â¢ First normal form
A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain simple individual values.
Â¢ Second normal form
The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on candidate key of the table.
Â¢ Third normal form
The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency. A relation in 2NF is said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitively.
Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. The old system consists of manual operations, which is operated in a very different manner from the proposed new system. A proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the requirements of the organizations. An improper installation may affect the success of the computerized system.
8.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHODS:
There are several methods for handling the implementation and the consequent conversion from the old to the new computerized system.
The most secure method for conversion from the old system to the new system is to run the old and new system in parallel. In this approach, a person may operate in the manual older processing system as well as start operating the new computerized system. This method offers high security, because even if there is a flaw in the computerized system, we can depend upon the manual system. However, the cost for maintaining two systems in parallel is very high. This outweighs its benefits.
Another commonly method is a direct cut over from the existing manual system to the computerized system. The change may be with in a week or with in a day. There are no parallel activities. However, there is no remedy in case of a problem. This strategy requires careful planning.
A working version of the system can also be implemented in one part of the organization and the personnel will be piloting the system and changes can be made as and when required. But this method is less preferable due to the loss of entirety of the system.
8.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN:
The implementation plan includes a description of all the activities that must occur to implement the new system and to put it into operation. It identifies the personnel responsible for the activities and prepares a time chart for implementing the system. The implementation plan consists of the following steps.
o List all files required for implementation.
o Identify all data required to build new files during the implementation. o List all new documents and procedures that go into the new system.
The implementation plan should anticipate possible problems and must be able to deal with them. The usual problems may be missing documents; mixed data formats between current and files, errors in data translation, missing data etc.
EDUCATIONS AND TRAINING
The implementation of the proposed system includes the training of system operators. Training the system operators includes not only instructions in how to use the equipment, but also in how to diagnose malfunctions and in what steps to take when they occur. So proper training should be provided to the system operators. No training is complete without familiarizing users with simple system maintenance activities. Since the proposed system is developed in a GUI, training will be comparatively easy than systems developed in a non-GUI. There are different types of training. We can select off-site to give depth knowledge to the system operators.
Success of the system depends on the way in which it is operated and used. Therefore the quality of training given to the operating person affects the successful implementation of the system. The training must ensure that the person can handle all the possible operations.
Training must also include data entry personnel. They must also be given training for the installation of new hardware, terminals, how to power the system, how to power it down, how to detect the malfunctions, how to solve the problems etc. the operators must also be provided with the knowledge of trouble shooting which involves the determination of the cause of the problem.
The proposed system requires trained personnel for operating the system. Data entry jobs must be done utmost carefully to avoid errors. This will reduce the data entry errors considerably. It is preferable to provide the person with some kind of operating manuals that will explain all the details of the system.
9.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW
After the system is implemented, a review should be conducted to determine whether the system is meeting expectations and where improvements are needed. System quality, user confidence and operating systems statistics are accessed through such technique event logging, impact evaluation and attitude surveys. The review not only assesses how well the proposed system is designed and implemented, but also is a valuable source of information that can be applied to a critical evaluation of the system.
The reviews are conducted by the operating personals as well as the software developers in order to determine how well the system is working, how it has been accepted and whether adjustments are needed. The review of the system is highly essential to determine the future enhancements required by the system. The system can be considered successful only if information system has met it objectives. The review analyses the opinion of the employees and identifies the attitudes towards the new computerized system. Only when the merits and demerits of the implemented system are known, one can determine what all additional features it requires are. The following are the issues to be considered in the evaluation of the system.
CHAPTER 10 SYSTEM TESTING
System testing is a critical aspect of Software Quality Assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test is one that has a probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. The purpose of testing is to identify and correct bugs in the developed system. Nothing is complete without testing. Testing is the vital to the success of the system.
In the code testing the logic of the developed system is tested. For this every module of the program is executed to find an error. To perform specification test, the examination of the specifications stating what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions.
Unit testing focuses first on the modules in the proposed system to locate errors. This enables to detect errors in the coding and logic that are contained within that module alone. Those resulting from the interaction between modules are initially avoided. In unit testing step each module has to be checked separately.
System testing does not test the software as a whole, but rather than integration of each module in the system. The primary concern is the compatibility of individual modules. One has to find areas where modules have been designed with different specifications of data lengths, type and data element name.
Testing and validation are the most important steps after the implementation of the developed system. The system testing is performed to ensure that there are no errors in the implemented system. The software must be executed several times in order to find out the errors in the different modules of the system.
Validation refers to the process of using the new software for the developed system in a live environment i.e., new software inside the organization, in order to find out the errors. The validation phase reveals the failures and the bugs in the developed system. It will be come to know about the practical difficulties the system faces when operated in the true environment. By testing the code of the implemented software, the logic of the program can be examined. A specification test is conducted to check whether the specifications stating the program are performing under various conditions. Apart from these tests, there are some special tests conducted which are given below:
Peak Load Tests: This determines whether the new system will handle the volume of activities when the system is at the peak of its processing demand. The test has revealed that the new software for the agency is capable of handling the demands at the peak time.
Storage Testings This determines the capacity of the new system to store transaction data on a disk or on other files. The proposed software has the required storage space available, because of the use of a number of hard disks.
Performance Time Testings This test determines the length of the time used by the system to process transaction data.
In this phase the software developed Testing is exercising the software to uncover errors and ensure the system meets defined requirements. Testing may be done at 4 levels
Â¢ Unit Level
Â¢ Module Level
Â¢ Integration & System
10.1 UNIT TESTING
A Unit corresponds to a screen /form in the package. Unit testing focuses on verification of the corresponding class or Screen. This testing includes testing of control paths, interfaces, local data structures, logical decisions, boundary conditions, and error
handling. Unit testing may use Test Drivers, which are control programs to co-ordinate test case inputs and outputs, and Test stubs, which replace low-level modules. A stub is a dummy subprogram.
10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING
Module Testing is done using the test cases prepared earlier. Module is defined during the time of design.
10.3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING
Integration testing is used to verify the combining of the software modules. Integration testing addresses the issues associated with the dual problems of verification and program construction. System testing is used to verify, whether the developed system meets the requirements.
10.4 REGRESSION TESTING
Each modification in software impacts unmodified areas, which results serious injuries to that software. So the process of re-testing for rectification of errors due to modification is known as regression testing. Installation and Delivery
Installation and Delivery is the process of delivering the developed and tested software to the customer. Refer the support procedures Acceptance and Project Closure
Acceptance is the part of the project and implimentation by which the customer accepts the product. This will be done as per the Project Closure, once the customer accepts the product, closure of the project and implimentation is started. This includes metrics collection, PCD, etc.
CHAPTER 11 MAINTENANCE
Maintenance is making adaptation of the software for external changes (requirements changes or enhancements) and internal changes (fixing bugs). When changes are made during the maintenance phase all preceding steps of the model must be revisited.
There are three types of maintenance:
1. Corrective (Fixing bugs/errors)
2. Adaptive (Updates due to environment changes)
3. Perfective (Enhancements, requirements changes
Table 12.1 FLIGHTDETAILS
Field Type Constraints
flight id number primary key
av busseats number
av ecoseats number
The above table stores the available seat's details in the flight.
The above table stores details of passengers.
Table 12.4 REGISTRATION
Field Type Constraints
user id number primary key
logid varchar2 unique
The above table stores the details of each user.
Fig 13.1 LEVEL 0 DFD
SELECT CONVENIENT FLIGHT
REQUEST FOR TICKETS
Fig13.2 LEVEL 1 DFD
Fig 13.3 LEVEL 2 DFD
Fig 13.4 LEVEL 3 DFD
Fig 13.5 LEVEL 4 DFD
Fig 13.6 LOGIN FORM
13.7 REGISTRATION FORM
Fig 13.8 ADMIN HOME
Fig 13.10 FLIGHT DETAILS
3 FLIGHT TIMINGS - Microsoft Internet Explorer - [Working Offline] US
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Ronte ID. Flight No. Aircraft Type Date
Fig 13.11 FLIGHT TIMINGS
Dep.rt.re Time Arrival Time
Fig 13.12 ROUTE MAP OF FLIGHTS
Fig 13.13 TICKET CANCELLATION
Fig 13.14 CANCELLATION
Fig 13.15 VIEW RESERVATION
CHAPTER 14 CONCLUSION
The project and implimentation report entitled "AIR TICKET RESERVATION" has come to its final stage. The system has been developed with much care that it is free of errors and at the same time it is efficient and less time consuming. The important thing is that the system is robust. Also provision is provided for future developments in the system. The entire system is secured. This online system will be approved and implemented soon.
OVERVIEW OF J2EE
Today, more and more developers want to write distributed transactional applications for the enterprise and leverage the speed, security, and reliability of server-side technology. If you are already working in this area, you know that in today's fast-moving and demanding world of e-commerce and information technology, enterprise applications have to be designed, built, and produced for less money, with greater speed, and with fewer resources than ever before.
To reduce costs and fast-track enterprise application design and development, the Javaâ€žÂ¢ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE ) technology provides a component-based approach to the design, development, assembly, and deployment of enterprise applications. The J2EE platform offers a multitiered distributed application model, the ability to reuse components, integrated Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based data interchange, a unified security model, and flexible transaction control. Not only can you deliver innovative customer solutions to market faster than ever, but your platform-independent J2EE component-based solutions are not tied to the products and application programming interfaces (APIs) of any one vendor. Vendors and customers enjoy the freedom to choose the products and components that best meet their business and technological requirements.
JAVA SERVER PAGES (JSP)
The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) has taken the once-chaotic task of building an Internet presence and transformed it to the point where developers can use Java to efficiently create multi-tier, server-side applications. Today, the Java Enterprise APIs have expanded to encompass a number of areas: RMI and CORBA for remote object handling, JDBC for database interaction, JNDI for accessing naming and directory services, Enterprise Java Beans for creating
reusable business components, JMS (Java Messaging Service) for message oriented middleware, JAXP for XML processing, and JTA (Java Transaction API) for performing atomic transactions. In addition, J2EE also supports Servlets, an extremely popular Java substitute for CGI scripts. The combination of these technologies allows programmers to create distributed business solutions for a variety of tasks. In late 1999, Sun Microsystems added a new element to the collection of Enterprise Java tools: Java Server Pages (JSP). Java Server Pages are built on top of Java Servlets and are designed to increase the efficiency in which programmers, and even nonprogrammers, can create web content.
> Area of Java Server Pages
Put succinctly, Java Server Pages is a technology for developing web pages that include dynamic content. Unlike a plain HTML page, which contains static content that always remains the same, a JSP page can change its content based on any number of variable items, including the identity of the user, the user's browser type, information provided by the user, and selections made by the user. This functionality is key to web applications such as online shopping and employee directories, as well as for personalized and internationalized content. A JSP page contains standard markup language elements, such as HTML tags, just like a regular web page. However, a JSP page also contains special JSP elements that allow the server to insert dynamic content in the page. JSP elements can be used for a variety of purposes, such as retrieving information from a database or registering user preferences. When a user asks for a JSP page, the server executes the JSP elements, merges the results with the static parts of the page, and sends the dynamically composed page back to the browser.
JSP defines a number of standard elements that are useful for any web application, such as accessing Java Beans components, passing control between pages and sharing information Programmers can also extend the JSP syntax by implementing application-specific elements that perform tasks such as accessing databases and Enterprise Java Beans, sending email, and generating HTML to present application-specific data. One such set of commonly needed custom elements is defined by a specification related to the JSP specification: the JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL) specification. The combination of standard elements and custom elements allows for the creation of powerful web applications.
> Use of JSP
In the early days of the Web, the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) was the only tool for developing dynamic web content. However, CGI is not an efficient solution. For every request that comes in, the web server has to create a new operating-system process, load an interpreter and a script, execute the script, and then tear it all down again. This is very taxing for the server and doesn't scale well when the amount of traffic increases.
Numerous CGI alternatives and enhancements, such as FastCGI, mod_perl from Apache, NSAPI from Netscape, ISAPI from Microsoft, and Java Servlets from Sun Microsystems, have been created over the years. While these solutions offer better performance and scalability, all these technologies suffer from a common problem: they generate web pages by embedding HTML directly in programming language code. This pushes the creation of dynamic web pages exclusively into the realm of programmers. Java Server Pages, however, changes all that.
An Oracle database comprises instance and data storage. The instance comprises a set of operating system processes and memory structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).
Oracle users refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information like data-buffers, SQL commands and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. Tablespaces can contain various types of segments, for example, Data
Segments, Index Segments etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. Oracle keeps track of its data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary - and often (by default) indexes and clusters. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user objects in the database). Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces, which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces).
The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.
The developed system is flexible and changes can be made easily. The system is developed with an insight into the necessary modification that may be required in the future. Hence the system can be maintained successfully without much rework.
One of the main future enhancements of our system is to add a mail response from the administrator to the user. So that the user can understand the availability of his tickets, right time of flights etc. directly from the administrator.
1. Barry Burd(2005); JSP: Java Server Pages;WILEY Publications.
2. Pankaj Jalote(2004);An integrated approach to Software Engineering;Narosa Publications.
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airline ticket reservation project source code jsp.zip (Size: 81.76 KB / Downloads: 1,217)
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I need a detail project and implimentation report on air ticketinh & reservation use Java script for school project and implimentation
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the first and second posts containing attachments. please download them for more details
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Software Requirements Specification (SRS)
This document fully and formally describes the requirements of the proposed said project and implimentation system. It sets out the functional and non-functional requirements and includes a description of the user interface and documentation and training requirements.
Online Air Ticket Booking system is to provide an option to customers to book the tickets online and to check the confirmation online. This system will help the this company to sell the flight tickets online. Unless like in the previous stage people as to walk into travel agency or this company ticket counter to buy the tickets. And also to check the flight timings. This problem is over come introducing this system.
Presently this company have ticket counters in the airport. Where people as to come to book the tickets or to check the flight timings. Also there are many travel agents take the advance booking. In turn these agents will check out with the main ticket counter officials for the ticket confirmation. Which is very lengthy and tedious process.
The proposed system will available online. So anybody who are interested in the flight timings and ticket booking they check online only.
Pentium III 400MHz and Above
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Report.doc (Size: 2.04 MB / Downloads: 490)
SATHISH KUMAR REDDY YENNA
1. PROJECT’S MOTTO
The main aim of the project and implimentation was to develop a website which would facilitate the reservation of online air tickets through an effective and yet simple GUI for a normal passenger intending to travel in airways. Apart from reserving tickets, through our system a passenger can compare online fares ‘from’ various cities ‘to’ various cities.
2. INTENDED AUDIENCE
1. The project and implimentation is basically targeted at those people who would like to travel through air and have an Internet access.
2. As we will be making our site WAP – enabled, this will facilitate our site to accept requests from other alternative devices like PDA’s and WAP-enabled browsers. Apart from the above category of audience, passengers using hand-held devices will be our second major category of audience.
3. Finally passengers curious in comparing the prices for various Airlines for their selected source and destination cities form our third category of audience.
3.COOL FEATURES OF OUR SITE:
1.Dynamic Bandwidth Calculation:
We dynamically calculate the user’s bandwidth and redirect him to either to the Graphical Version or to the Text-Version based on the client’s bandwidth.
We are providing a cool map of our entire site for easy access of our pages. Sitemap includes all the links in all the pages in our site categorized based on the functionality of the pages.
3.Flash Images of Flights:
We created flight detail images and used Flash to integrate them and show the user the seating arrangement of the flight. The user can know about the details of the seating arrangement, emergency exit doors and lavatory details before entering the flight.
We are showing the airport layouts so that the user can know the airline counter details prior to his arrival at the airport. He can directly go to the counter concerned to collect his travel tickets.
5.Points Based System:
We are giving discounts to the regular customers shopping on our site based on points he achieved. One percent of discount is given on present transaction for each $1000 previous transaction amount with a maximum of 20 percent. This will attract regular travelers to use our site instead of others.
Following are the core technologies used in developing our website.
A. Server Technologies:
WEB SERVER :
1. Tomcat Server
• Tomcat is enterprise class, robust web server which comes bundled with JavaServlets and JSP that provides a java application server environment
• One of the other major issues why we chose Tomcat was Scalability. Presently Java is our core technology used for portability and in future if we want to make our site be reachable to users using Microsoft products we would be having no conflicts between the servers because Tomcat can be deployed as either a standalone product with its own internal Web server or in conjunction with several other Web servers, including
Netscape Enterprise Server.
Microsoft Internet Information Server.
Microsoft Personal Web Server.
• It adheres to the latest standards, which expands the security features.
Configuration, tuning and maintenance are lot easier than compared to other prevailing web servers.
• Since we were not going for enterprise java beans in our project and implimentation we didn’t feel the necessity of going for other application servers like J2EE or JBOSS .We were basically looking for a reliable web server which would be compatible with both the front-end and back-end technologies we were using and our ultimate choice was Apache’s Tomcat Web Server.
DATABASE SERVER :
1. Oracle Server
We are listing the four main reasons why we have used Oracle instead of any other prevailing database servers
Oracle supports the largest databases, which can contain terabytes of
data. To make efficient use of expensive hardware devices, Oracle
enables full control of space usage. Even though we want to extend our
site to incorporate upcoming various Airlines database we would be
having no problems at all in extending our database.
For now, since our website is not a full-fledged corporate website we are estimating that there would be a maximum of 150-200 hits per day including from all the above mentioned categories of audience who come to our site either to make an online reservation or to compare the prices of various airlines.
Oracle supports large numbers of concurrent users executing a variety
of database applications operating on the same data. It minimizes data
contention and guarantees data concurrency. This definitely helps
us make our website robust and accessible to many number of users
simultaneously. In future even though users increase there would be no
problem on overall.
One of the major concerns about our database were the security issues as we would be maintaining tables to store user information like his user-name, password and personal information like credit card details. We had this extra overhead of maintaining all this information securely and at the same time transparent to the user. We have no regrets now for choosing Oracle as our database server.
To protect against unauthorized database access and use, Oracle provides security features to limit and monitor data access. These features make it easy to manage even the most complex design for data access.
• OTHER REASONS
Based upon the functionality of our website, it obvious that we have to be in a position to handle requests from users accessing our website from various different types of computers and operating systems. Oracle software enables different types of computers and operating systems to share information across networks. Even in future if we want to jump into distributed environment/network we can do so. For networked, distributed environments, Oracle combines the data physically located on different computers into one logical database that can be accessed by all network users. Apart from these reasons, Oracle software lets you replicate groups of tables and their supporting objects to multiple sites. Oracle supports replication of both data- and schema-level changes to these sites.
B. Software Technologies:
1. Java Server Pages (JSP)
2. Java Servlets
3. Java Beans
5. XML & XSL
9. HTTP Sessions
10. Java Bean
Java Server Pages (JSP)
• Regular HTML, of course, cannot contain dynamic information. JSP is so easy and convenient that it is quite feasible to augment HTML pages that only benefit marginally by the insertion of small amounts of dynamic data.
• JSP was designed to work with Java Servlets and JavaBeans in a seamless fashion, it provides applications developers with the capability to cleanly separate content generation from content presentation.
• This means that Web page designers can work independently from business logic developers, and the end result will work in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment.
• Java Servlets are server-side technologies that provide a component-based, platform-independent method for building web-based applications. They provide web developers with a simple, consistent mechanism for extending the functionality of a web server and for accessing existing databases. Since our website was more database-centric we found servlets as more appropriate choice.
• Servlets have access to the entire family of Java APIs, including the JDBC API to access databases. Servlets can also access a library of HTTP-specific calls and receive all the benefits of the mature Java language, including portability, performance, reusability, and crash protection.
• Our other alternative for Java servlets was CGI. But we continued with Java servlets mainly because of the following reasons
i) Efficient: With traditional CGI, a new process is started for each HTTP request. With servlets, the Java Virtual Machine stays up, and each request is handled by a lightweight Java thread, not a heavyweight operating system process.
ii) Convenient: Each one of us was more comfortable with Java Besides the convenience of being able to use a familiar language, servlets they have this added advantage of automatically parsing and decoding HTML form data, tracking sessions, and many other such tasks. As these operations were very much needed for our website we found our decision to be right.
iii) Powerful: Java servlets let us do several things easily, which are either difficult or impossible by traditional CGI. One thing is servlets can talk directly to the Web server (regular CGI programs can't). This simplified operations that needed us to look up data stored in standard places. We found them very useful in maintaining information from request to request, simplifying things like session tracking and caching of previous computations.
• Hosting an Online Air tickets Website we had this requirement of sending out an email to our customer once he purchased ticket through our site as a confirmation with his flight details and schedule. As we were using Java as our programming language we had this added advantage of using JavaMail API to suffice our need.
• We implemented this feature of sending out emails using JavaMail successfully. For this we had to download Javamail API and JavaBeans activation Framework apart from setting their paths in our webservers classpath. JavaMail API allowed us to instantly add the ability to send-out e-mail with our Java applications with negligible programming effort.
XML & XSL
• XML was mainly used because of its extensibility feature. It had this added advantage of presenting the same content in different formats to different clients.
• Our site is completely driven by XML data. We have implemented all our servlets in such a way that they throw XML DOM tree for each and every page. So once we had this XML DOM tree in hand we implemented XSL’s to throw out either a HTML data or WML data to the client depending on either the request coming from http browser or WAP browser.
• In this way our site is more extensible, suppose that in future we had to extend our site to clients with a new markup language what all we need to do is write out a separate XSL to display the data in the form specific to that client.
• Another major advantage of sending XML data to the client instead of html data is, we can offload some computation to the client from the server. i.e. we weren’t forced to bother about the presentation data on the server's side, instead we concentrated on sending the data and using style sheets to display it in according to the client’s needs.
• Our site is PDA enabled. We used WML to make our site accessible through handheld devices.
• WML is the basic mark-up language for the alternate web-access devices.
• We have small java scripts, which are lightweight and will not hinder the download time of the HTML document significantly.
HTTP Sessions& Java Beans:
Every user who logs in to our system is given a new session. We implemented this feature using the Http Session API provided by the Servlets and Java Beans.
In the Design of our website we made an assumption that we are accessing the database of different airline to get the flight information. Any last minute changes to the flight schedule are taken care by the respective airlines. Presently we are accessing database of three airlines. In our website we will be maintaining the table to hold user information, his transaction details only.
We are using an Applet to encrypt to user credit card and password information.
6. CONTROL FLOW IN A TYPICAL USER SESSION:
1. User will type the URL of our site: eztickets.com in the browser.
2. User will be shown our homepage containing various page links and search option.
3. User will click on the Login button to log on into our system.
4. The user-id and password are validated and the user is allowed to login.
5. The user is directed to the home page where he can start his search for his travel options.
6. The user can select the Departure and arrival cities and click on the Search button.
7. The user will be shown a page with various list boxes he has to choose for his tickets.
8. The user will select the departure airport, arrival airport, departure date, arrival date, and number of tickets and will click on the Search button again.
9. The user is presented with page listing all the options for his search criteria.
10. The user can select one of the options and click on the Buy button.
11. The user will be shown the details of the option and the discount offered to him on his selection for his confirmation.
12. The user can click on the Confirm button or can cancel even at this point.
13. If he chooses to buy this ticket he will be sent E-mail with all details of the tickets and is shown a page with a link to the flight seating arrangement details page.
14. User can click on that link and go to the Flight seating arrangement details page.
15. He can click on the link corresponding to his flight number to see the seating arrangement of his flight.
16. User can either continue shopping or close his session by logging out of the system.
7. DATABASE DESIGN:
We use Oracle as the backend and use JDBC connectivity to access the database. The servlets access the database using JDBC and output the results according to the query, which again takes into account the options, selected by the user.
The following gives the various tables and their fields used in our database, which was a major design decision of our project and implimentation.
USERS Table contains the details of the users registered for our services. The fields in this table are as follows:
USERID PASSWORD FNAME LNAME SSN ADDRESS CARDTYPE CREDITCARD EXPMONTH EXPYEAR POINTS
USERID is the PRIMARY KEY of this table.
TRANSACTIONS Table contains the details of all the transactions done by the users through our site. The table contains the following fields:
TNO USERID TDATE OFNO DDATE DAIRLINE DCITY TICKETS ACITY AAIRLINE RDATE RFNO TOTAL
TNO is the PRIMARY KEY of this table.
NEWS Table contains the details of the current news. This news includes flight cancellations, flight delay information and other important weather information. The table contains the following fields:
HEADLINE is the PRIMARY KEY of this table and the HREF is the link to the file, which contains the complete data regarding the headline.
MOTELS Table contains the motel information for various cities. The fields in this table are as follows:
CITY MOTEL ADDRESS DELUX LUXURY
(CITY,MOTEL) is the PRIMNARY KEY of this table. DELUX AND LUXURY are the corresponding of the MOTEL.
AIRLINE Table contains the information about the various flight availabilities and the related information. The table has the following fields:
FLIGHT DEPCITY DEPPORT DEPTIME ARRCITY ARRPORT ARRTIME AIRLINE ECPRICE ECSEATS BSPRICE BSSEATS
(FLIGHT, DEPTIME) is the PRIMARY KEY of this table.
We assumed three airline databases in the above format. For that we created three different tables DELTA, UNITED, AMERICAN with the same above schema.
We have been very much successful in implementing the security features to our site as stated in our project and implimentation specifications. We are enclosing the brief description of how we have carried out this feature.
We have used Java Applets for the encryption of the password typed by the user. We implemented the Unix Crypt command for the password encryption. The encrypted password is sent to the servlet. The encrypted password itself is stored in the database table. This will avoid unauthorized users/malicious technical staff from accessing our database. Whenever user tries to login into our system, the password typed by the user is again encrypted and is compared with the encrypted password stored in the database.
Encryption of Credit Card Details:
We have used RSA algorithm for the encryption of the credit card number. When the user gives credit card number in the Registration form, the credit card number is encrypted using a Java Applet implementing the RSA algorithm and is sent to the servlet. The encrypted credit card number is decrypted using the same algorithm and is stored in the database. For all other purposes the server will use the format XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-1234 and send only the last four digits of the credit card. So the sensitive card information is well secured in our system.
We have implemented session tracking using HTTP sessions API provided by the servlets. New session is created each time a user logs in and all the information required is stored in the session object. The HTTP session keeps track of the user status and whenever he logs out of the system, the entire data in the session object is destroyed so that other users can’t access his information. More over we are not storing the entire credit card number in the session, only the last four digits are stored. So, even if the user doesn’t close the browser, others can’t access his personal details.
8. HANDICAPPED ACCESS:
We have provided text-only version of our entire website which makes it more accessible to both the handicapped users and low computational powered devices.
We have provided ALT tags to all the images and other multimedia content on our website. This will enable the handicapped users to use their screen readers to know about the images on our site.
We provided a map of our entire website. A hyperlink is given on Home page so that users can click on that link to have the entire sitemap. In this way the users can have a quick glance of our entire site. This will also enable the handicapped users who are unable to find particular page access that page directly from our sitemap.
We have completely avoided using frames on our web pages as these frames avoid screen readers providing information to the handicapped users.
Minimal User Input:
We have taken major steps to minimize the user input. We used Pull Down menus to avoid the user providing the information. User can browse the entire site with very less amount of input. This will attract not only the handicapped users but also the normal users.
9. DISTRIBUTION OF COMPUTATION:
A. Client-side Computation:
Password encryption and Credit Card encryption are done at the client-side using the java applets. This will reduce the server side computation a bit.
As we have designed our Servlets in such a way that they throw out the XML DOM tree, in a way we are able to offload the computation to the client side thereby reducing the overhead on the server side.
B. Server-side Computation:
The server side computations include
• Servlet accessing the database
• Building the XML DOM tree
• XSL transforming the XML data into HTML/WML
We are assuming that at most 500 simultaneous users will access our site at any instance, so this requires high computational powered server. We assumed dual processor web server with each 1.0 GHz power. This will be sufficient for the requirements.
Inner view of the Flights:
We created various flash videos giving the details of the flights such as:
Seating arrangement Details
Rough Pictorial View of the Flights.
• Content generation and Content Presentation are separated in our system. We used XML and XSL for achieving this feature. This will enable us to extend our site to new era of alternate web access devices.
• We implemented our system accessing an airline database at the backend. We can extend this to access any number of airline databases as backend information providers.
12. PERFORMANCE RESULTS:
• Since our website doesn’t involve bandwidth occupying images or bitmaps which could unnecessarily take lot of time to load, our loading times for each of the JSP pages are quite decent and fast. Moreover we are calculating the client’s bandwidth dynamically and directing the client to the text version if it has low bandwidth.
• The pages that invoke the servlets (which in turn access the database) to generate dynamic content may take some few seconds to load as the servlet has to establish a connection and then has to query the database. This cannot be avoided in our case and it doesn’t occupy much of a time really.
• The performance result actually depends on the number of users accessing the database. Our optimal case, average case and the worst case all depend upon the number of users trying to connect to the database. The worst case will be when several hundreds of users are accessing the pages, which might cause the database server to crash. Since we create new connection every time a servlet is invoked it could be a case that the connections are used rapidly and it will come to a point where the database server could crash.
• We have around 3 servlets for WML which enables our website to be accessed by hand held devices.
13. IMPLEMENTATION EXPERIENCES:
• We had problems in implementing Dynamic Bandwidth Calculation in our site. We used an Applet to load a fixed-size image from the server to the client in the background. Based on the time taken by the file transmission we tried to direct the user to either Graphical version or the Text version of our site.
• We initially thought of providing the user an option of sorting the results based on his own priority. We started implementing this using java script but we were unable to implement it both in Internet explorer and Netscape navigator. We thought this wouldn’t affect our site’s experience much.
• We initially planned to show the user an animated inner view of the flights but we were unable to create the animated pictures and hence we used flash to show various static images of the flights.
• Initially we installed Tomcat Version 3.4.1 but it was unable to recognize the class path. So we had to move to Version 3.2.4.
• We had many problems with the WAP simulators in passing the parameters dynamically to the servlets. We tried on many available WAP simulators but we were unable to find one for our purpose.
• We had problem with Oracle database population. We thought of providing the user at least one month flight details but because of the constraints on the usage of CIS oracle database space, we couldn’t populate it as we planned.
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23-01-2011, 01:51 PM
thank you.. thank you very much
Your project and implimentation report is very usefull for me
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24-01-2011, 10:54 AM
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30-08-2011, 02:51 PM
Airways_reservation_system.zip (Size: 46.91 KB / Downloads: 77)
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30-11-2011, 09:38 PM
Thank u for the project and implimentation..
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30-11-2011, 09:46 PM
For More Java/J2EE project and implimentations, view...
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03-02-2012, 11:30 AM
to get information about the topic Online Cinema Ticket Booking System using C programming.. full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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03-02-2012, 11:42 AM
to get information about the topic Airline Reservation System full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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03-02-2012, 01:50 PM
i m also preparing project and implimentation on airline resevation......can u send ur project and implimentation on my id ....so i can do better in my project and implimentation
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04-02-2012, 12:04 PM
im a MCA student & i want detail project and implimentation alongwith coding on air ticket reservation system