automatic braking system ABS
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#1
10-12-2009, 02:48 PM


Abstract:
ABS system includes wheel-speed sensors, a hydraulic control unit, and an electronic control unit. When apply the brake pedal, the electronic control unit monitors and compares the signals from the wheel-speed sensors. If the electronic control unit senses rapid deceleration (impending lock-up) at a given wheel, the electronic control unit commands the hydraulic control unit to reduce hydraulic pressure to that wheel. ABS system preventing a skid and allowing the wheel to continue interacting tractively with the road surface as directed by driver steering inputs. While ABS offers improved vehicle control, and may decrease stopping distances on dry and especially slippery surfaces,This type of pressure limiting is similar to pumping the brake pedal,.ABS was designed to help to maintain directional control during emergency stops and when road conditions are poor. better chances of avoiding a crash. ABS is especially useful on wet and slippery roads,But latest technology like electronic brake force distribution (EBD), traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control. enables high technical advantages in ABS System
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#2
22-03-2010, 09:34 PM

please read topicideashow-to-FUZZY-LOGIC-IN-CONTROL-DESIGN-ANTILOCK-BRAKE-SYSTEM for more of automatic braking system ABS technical informations
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#3
22-08-2010, 10:39 PM

hi,
m deepak sawant & i wanted seminar and presentation on ABS so
can u plzz send me this seminar and presentation,
if u hav some additional information about this then please send me.
thanks
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#4
20-04-2011, 09:55 AM


.docx   ABS.docx (Size: 336.01 KB / Downloads: 519)
ABS
Stopping a car in a hurry on a slippery road can be very challenging. Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) take a lot of the challenge out of this sometimes nerve-wracking event. In fact, on slippery surfaces, even professional drivers can't stop as quickly without ABS as an average driver can with ABS.
The theory behind anti-lock brakes is simple. A skidding wheel (where the tire contact patch is sliding relative to the road) has less traction than a non-skidding wheel. If you have been stuck on ice, you know that if your wheels are spinning you have no traction. This is because the contact patch is sliding relative to the ice . By keeping the wheels from skidding while you slow down, anti-lock brakes benefit you in two ways: You'll stop faster, and you'll be able to steer while you stop.
There are four main components to an ABS system:
• Speed sensors
• Pump
• Valves
• Controller
Speed Sensors
The anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up. The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential, provide this information.
Valves
There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions:
• In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake.
• In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder.
• In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake.
Pump
Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to put that pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line, the pump is there to get the pressure back up.
Pump Valves
Controller

The controller is a computer in the car. It watches the speed sensors and controls the valves.
ABS at Work
There are many different variations and control algorithms for ABS systems. We will discuss how one of the simpler systems works.
The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in the wheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapid deceleration. If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could. It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96.6 kph) under ideal conditions, but a wheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second.
The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces the pressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it sees the deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantly change speed. The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives the system maximum braking power.
When the ABS system is in operation you will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 15 times per second.
Anti-Lock Brake Types
¬Anti-lock braking systems use different schemes depending on the type of brakes in use. We will refer to them by the number of channels -- that is, how many valves that are individually controlled -- and the number of speed sensors.
Four-channel, four-sensor ABS
This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force.
Three-channel, three-sensor ABS
This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle.
This sys¬tem provides individual control of the front wheels, so they can both achieve maximum braking force. The rear wheels, however, are monitored together; they both have to start to lock up before the ABS will activate on the rear. With this system, it is possible that one of the rear wheels will lock during a stop, reducing brake effectiveness.
One-channel, one-sensor ABS
This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle.
This system operates the same as the rear end of a three-channel system. The rear wheels are monitored together and they both have to start to lock up before the ABS kicks in. In this system it is also possible that one of the rear wheels will lock, reducing brake effectiveness.
This system is easy to identify. Usually there will be one brake line going through a T-fitting to both rear wheels. You can locate the speed sensor by looking for an electrical connection near the differential on the rear-axle housing.
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#5
27-04-2011, 11:59 AM

Presented By
V SANTOSH


.pptx   anti lock brake .pptx (Size: 2.71 MB / Downloads: 424)
INTRODUCTION
The anti-lock breaking is safety system that allows the wheel on a motor vehicle to continues interacting with the road surface as directing by driver steering input while braking. Prevent the wheel from locking up (that is ceasing rotation) and therefore avoiding skidding.
An ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers
Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have evolved considerably. Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under braking, but also electronically control the front-to-rear brake bias. This function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known as electronic brake distribution.
HISTORY
The ABS was first developed for aircraft use in 1929 by the French automobile and aircraft pioneer,
1950 Dunlop's MAXARET introduced a system and still in use on some aircraft models
In 1958, a Royal Enfield Super Meteor motorcycle was used to test the MAXARET anti-lock brake, The experiments demonstrated that anti-lock brakes can be of great value to motorcycles.
A fully system saw limited automobile use in the 1960s in the Ferguson p99 racing car, but the system proved expensive and unreliable in automobile use.
Modern systems
BENDIX corporation, introduced a computerized, three-channel, four-sensor all-wheel ABS called "Sure Brake" for its 1971.
General Motors introduced the "Track master" rear-wheel only ABS as an option on their Rear-wheel drive Cadillac models.
In 1988, BMW introduced the first motorcycle with an electronic-hydraulic ABS: the BMW K100
In 2007, Suzuki launched its GSF1200SA (Bandit) with an ABS
Harley-Davidson began offering ABS as an option for police bikes. In 2008
Components of ABS
Speed sensors

The anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up. The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential, provide this information
Valves
There is a valve in the brake line
of each brake controlled by the
ABS. On some systems, the valve
has three positions:
In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake.
In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder.
In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake.
Pump& accumulator
Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to put that pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line, the pump is there to get the pressure back up.
The fluid pressure that is generated by the pump is stored in the "accumulator."
Controller
The controller is an ECU type unit in the car which receives information from each individual wheel speed sensor, in turn if a wheel loses traction the signal is sent to the controller, the controller will then limit the brake force and activate the ABS modulator which actuates the braking valves on and off.
How They Work Together
Each of these pieces of
equipment have important
duties in the case of a slide.
The controller constantly
monitors the speed sensors.
If the speed sensors sense a
deceleration that seems out
of place, it puts the valves
into action
The natural reaction for a driver when the car
starts sliding is to slam on the brake. However, for the car
to stop as quickly and safely as possible, the car and wheels
must stop at roughly the same speed.
If the brakes reacted the same way the driver did, the wheel would stop their movement before the car, causing the car to slide out of control.
The anti-lock brake system senses this and forces pressure out of the brakes by activating the valves. The controller then balances the brake pressure during the slide by releasing pressure from the brake system with the valve, and increasing the pressure with the pump. It does this until the car and the wheels are stopping at the same speed
Brake types
Anti-lock braking systems use different schemes depending on the type of brakes in use. They can be differentiated by the number of channels: that is, how many valves that are individually controlled and the number of speed sensors
1 Channel
3 Channel
4 Channel
One channel
1 channel ABS system controls the rear wheel together.
1 channel system only has 1 speed sensor and control valve assembly
This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS
Three channel
A three (3) channel ABS system control the rear wheel together and the front independently
Three channel ABS system have 3 speed sensor and one (1) control module
This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS
Four channel
is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force.
Advantages of ABS
Good accuracy of working.
Safety system.
Preventing the wheel from locking and slippery surface.
ABS can apply to all kind of automobile and air craft.
Easy in operation.
Disadvantages
Increased braking distances under some limited circumstances (snow, gravel, "soft" surfaces),
Creation of a "false sense of security" among drivers who do not understand the operation, and limitations of ABS.
The anti-lock brakes are more sensitive on the damper condition. the influence of the worn components on the performance of the vehicle with anti-lock brakes is more significant than without anti-lock brakes, the stopping distance with defective shocks is by meters longer for the presented simulation scenario
comparing of ABS
Research Papers Base On ABS`
CHINMAYA B. PATIL and Raul G.LONGORIA,DEPT. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Control Prototyping for an Anti-Lock Braking Control System on a Scaled Vehicle, Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Maui, Hawaii USA, December 2003
SUDEENDRA KUMAR K, LESLIN VERGHESE, K. K. MAHAPATRA Department of Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India, Fuzzy Logic based Integrated Control of Anti-lock Brake System and Collision Avoidance System using CAN for Electric Vehicles
DINESH CHAWDE, Don Bosco Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering ,Mumbai , IMDAD A. RIZVI Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering ,Don Bosco Institute of Technology ,Mumbai. Simulation Of Antilock Braking System,
Summary of research papers
Simulation Of Antilock Braking System- This paper develops the anti-lock braking control system integrated with active suspensions applied to a two wheeler. In emergency, although the braking distance can be reduced by the control torque, the braking time and distance can be further improved if the normal force generated from active suspension systems is considered simultaneously.
Fuzzy Logic based Integrated Control of Anti-lock Brake System and Collision Avoidance System using CAN for Electric Vehicles-This paper investigates the integrated control of Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Collision Avoidance System(CAS) in electric vehicle. Fuzzy logic techniques are applied for integral control of two subsystems. Control algorithm is implemented and tested in a prototype electric vehicle in laboratory environment using free scale HCS12 microcontroller.
Control Prototyping for an Anti-Lock Braking Control System on a Scaled Vehicle- This paper describes the design, simulation, implementation , and testing of wheel slip regulation in anti-lock brake systems on a one-fifth scaled vehicle. A sliding mode control design is presented, and simulation and test results demonstrate acceptable controller performance. Of note to control design is the use of a cascaded control scheme to simplify the wheel slip regulation problem, with the brake torque output of the vehicle controller
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Jayanthks
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#6
06-05-2011, 02:00 PM

Sir, can u send more information about automatic car braking systemRolleyes
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#7
12-05-2011, 04:28 PM

Presented By:
Koushik Paul


.ppt   Seminar on ABS By-Koushik Paul1.ppt (Size: 6.42 MB / Downloads: 356)
ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM [ ABS ]
Introduction To Brakes
It is one of the most important device.
Used to retard or stop the vehicle.
Kinetic energy translated to heat energy.
Kinetic energy increases with the square of the velocity.
K.E.=1/2mv²
Introduction to ABS
Wheel lockup during braking causes skidding which in turn cause a loss of traction and vehicle control
This reduces the steering ability to change direction. So the car slides out of control.
With ABS system, the driver can brake hard, take the evasive action and still be in control of the vehicle in any road condition at any speed and under any load.
History of abs
ABS was first developed for AirCraft in1929.
By French Automobile & Aircraft Pioneer Gabriel Voisin.
The German Companies BOSCH & Mercedes-Benz pioneered the first electronic version for use on Mercedes-Benz Cars in1936.
In 1960 A fully mechanical system used in the Ferguson P99 racing car, the Jensen FF and the Ford Zodiac, but saw no further use; the system proved expensive and, in automobile use, somewhat unreliable.
In 1975 Ford also introduced ABS on the Lincoln Continental Mark III and the Ford LTD station wagon, called “Sure Trak”.
History of abs
In 1978 Bosch And Mercedes-Benz Introduced the first completely Electronic 4-Wheel Multi-Channel ABS system in trucks and the Mercedes-Benz S-Class.
In 1988 BMW became the world's first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce an electronic/hydraulic ABS system, this on their BMW K100.
In 1992 Honda launched its first ABS system  this on the ST1100 Pan European.
construction
A-Wheel Speed Sensor
B-ABS control Module
C-pressure Release Valves
D-Brake caliper
Working principle o f abs
Anti lock braking system is made up of a central (ECU) Electronic Control Unit and four wheel speed sensors connected to each wheel of vehicle and two hydraulic valves located in the brake hydraulics. The electronic control unit monitors the rotating speed of four wheels on a constant basis and when this system finds a vehicle wheel rotating speed slower than the other three, where a situation arises such as an impending wheel lock.
There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions:
In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the  master cylinder is passed right through to the brake.
In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the the brake pedal harder.
III. In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake.
Working principle o f abs
The ABS system causes the valves to constantly reduce hydraulic pressure to brakes of the significantly lowered speed wheel thereby causing reduction of braking force on the affected wheel.
By this process, the lower speed wheel starts turning faster than other three wheels and when the electronic control unit finds that the wheel is turning faster than the other three, automatically brake hydraulic pressure to the affected wheel is increased by the ABS system so that braking force is reapplied and the wheel slows down.
This complete process performed by the ABS system is repeated continuously throughout the drive on mostly uneven roads and can be easily detected by the driver of the car with the help of brake pedal pulsation
Abs Diagram
Now let's put the parts together to see how anti-lock brakes work as a whole. This diagram provides both a closeup view & an example of where the brakes are located.
Types of abs
There are mainly three types of ABS used in the car.
Four-channel, four-sensor ABS: This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force.
Three-channel, three-sensor ABS: This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle.
One-channel, one-sensor ABS: This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle.
How abs works in car
% of using vehicle Vs year
Application in indian car
Maruti Suzuki Swift
Maruti Suzuki Ritz
Skoda Superb
Honda Accord
Honda City
Hyundai Verna
Hyundai i20
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24-05-2011, 09:06 AM

Simulation Of Antilock Braking System
An antilock breaking control system integrated with active system applied to a two wheeler is described in this paper. The anti-lock braking systems (ABS), active suspension systems ,traction control systems etc are used in the automobile indusrty for improving the passenger safetyand inprove the vehicular stability. The concept of integrating the antilock breaking system with the active suspension has been new. A slip-ratio control system for the ABS has also been proposed.
In a convetional breaking system if the driver applies a brake hard due t panic breaking, the wheels may get locked and the vehicle will skid. Antilock brake systems provide the capability for shorter stopping distances and the ability to steer and to maintain control during hard braking. Better lateral stability is achieved by pumping the rear brake. The rear wheel lockup is prevented and the rear end skidding is prevented. The stopping distance is shortened by providing the average braking force. The weather conditions, Road surfaces, driver proficiency, vehicle speed, tire tread wear, suspension components and tire inflation etc are the factors that affect the braking.
NEED OF ABS:
When sudden hard brake is applied, the wheels lock up and the drivers steering inputs won’t be transferred because the locked up wheels do not ransfer lateral forces. The ABS detects it early and if any of the wheels show a tendency to lock up while braking. It maintains a constant brake pressure level and helps to stop the vehicle.
Get the report here:

.pdf   Simulation Of Antilock Braking System.pdf (Size: 299.82 KB / Downloads: 276)
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12-08-2011, 02:48 PM


.pptx   Anti Lock Braking System (ABS).pptx (Size: 2.17 MB / Downloads: 93)
Anti Lock Braking System (ABS)
Introduction

Wheel lockup during braking causes skidding which in turn cause a loss of traction and vehicle control
This reduces the steering ability to change direction. So the car slides out of control
With ABS system, the driver can brake hard, take the evasive action and still be in control of the vehicle in any road condition at any speed and under any load
Fundamentals of ABS
Anti-lock brake systems prevent brakes from locking during braking
On slippery roadways the wheel approach lock up, ABS brakes at this time takes over
ABS brakes modulates brake line pressure and, hence, braking force
Car with and without ABS
Tire Characteristics
Friction-Slip Curve
ABS Design Concept
Retention of vehicle stability and steering ability
Minimum reaction into steering wheel
ABS must utilize available tire-road friction optimally
ABS must adapt quickly to changes in tire-road friction levels.
ABS must minimize the yaw moment
ABS must provide stable braking while turning.
ABS is not a substitute for poor brake balance
ABS malfunctioning must be communicated with the driver
Abs Control Concept
The control of the different brake systems can be accomplished in following three manners:
Single-wheel control
Select-low control
Select-high control
Schematic Diagram of ABS
Types of ABS
Vacuum-powered systems
Separate ABS systems
Integrated ABS systems
Vacuum-powered ABS systems
Vacuum powered ABS systems are not used in the modern vehicles
In 1983, Chrysler and Mitsubishi used vacuum as the power source
It consists of a pressure control section, a vacuum powered pressure drive unit, and solenoid valve
Separate ABS systems
Since the reintroduction of ABS systems between the late ‘70s and mid-‘80s both separate and integrated systems have been used.
In 1978 the separate ABS 2S design manufactured by Bosch and was the first anti-lock brake system to go into mass production with Mercedes Benz automobiles
Contd..
Integrated ABS system
Teves, in 1985 was the first company to introduce a compact integrated ABS system
ABS System Components
Wheel speed sensors
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
Hydraulic modulator
Electric circuit
Wheel Speed Sensor
The wheel speed sensors signal the wheel speed to the ECU
ECU and Hydraulic Modulator
The ECU receives, amplifies and filters sensors signals, as well as measures and differentiates speeds
The hydraulic modulator converts the ECU commands for pressure modulation in the wheel brakes by use of solenoid valves
In-Use Factors and Operation of ABS Systems
Brake Fluid
Tire Size
Brake Fluid Level
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14-02-2012, 01:14 PM

to get information about the topic automatic braking system full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-automatic-braking-system-abs

topicideashow-to-automatic-braking-system-using-fuzzy-logic

topicideashow-to-fabrication-of-auto-braking-system-for-pre-crash-safety-using-sensor

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topicideashow-to-automatic-braking-system-abs?pid=54435#pid54435

topicideashow-to-automatic-braking-system-abs?page=2

topicideashow-to-anti-locking-braking-system-full-report

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01-04-2012, 10:28 PM

full report about highway speed sensing and automatic breaking system
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25-07-2012, 10:07 AM

to get information about the topic "HIGHWAY SPEED SENSING AND AUTOMATIC BREAKING SYSTEM" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-highway-speed-sensing-and-automatic-breaking-system

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18-10-2012, 11:05 AM

you can refer these page details of "automatic braking system"link bellow

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topicideashow-to-automatic-braking-system-using-fuzzy-logic
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