automatic irrigation system
Active In SP
Joined: Mar 2010
24-03-2010, 06:54 PM
controlling motor with microcontroller deending upon whether the field is wet or dry
Active In SP
Joined: Aug 2010
28-08-2010, 11:57 AM
could u plz provide me with the full seminar and presentation report??
Active In SP
Joined: Feb 2011
22-02-2011, 03:17 PM
JADHAV.doc (Size: 63.5 KB / Downloads: 350)
Automatic Irrigation System
1) Used in the field of agriculture as a new technology.
2) Used in conventional farming areas.
3) Used in the garden system.
B) Present theory:
The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. Op-amp's are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry.
The Microcontroller was used to control the whole system it monitors the sensors and when more than two sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet. The microcontroller does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors, and this signals operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM.
C) Proposed Work:
From this project and implimentation we provide a new technology for automation of agriculture field. Also avoid the waste of water which occurs in the older irrigation system. From this project and implimentation we can reduce the manpower. The Project presented here waters your plants automatically and regularly when you are out for vocation.
In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system.
In the conventional irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. The project and implimentation makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project and implimentation a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer .This project and implimentation is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The heart of the project and implimentation is the AT89C2051 microcontroller. This is safest and no manpower is required. Require smaller water sources, for example, less than half of the water needed for a sprinkler system. This is very useful to all climatic conditions any it is economic friendly.
3) Scope of Project:
In our India 70% people doing farming. This project and implimentations helps the farmer to overcome the drawbacks of traditional irrigation system. From this project and implimentation we provide the new technology for farmer to improve the quality of their irrigation system. This project and implimentation helps those farmers which do not have sufficient water for their farming.
D)Proposed circuit diagram of project and implimentation:
E) Approximate cost of project and implimentation:
The approximate cost of project and implimentation is near about the Rs.- 3000/- which is sufficient for our project and implimentation.
Active In SP
Joined: Feb 2011
07-04-2011, 12:51 PM
AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATION.doc (Size: 4.01 MB / Downloads: 160)
We live in a world where everything can be controlled and operated automatically, but there are still a few important sectors in our country where automation has not been adopted or not been put to a full-fledged use, perhaps because of several reasons one such reason is cost. One such field is that of agriculture. Agriculture has been one of the primary occupations of man since early civilizations and even today manual interventions in farming are inevitable. Greenhouses form an important part of the agriculture and horticulture sectors in our country as they can be used to grow plants under controlled climatic conditions for optimum produce. Automating a greenhouse envisages monitoring and controlling of the climatic parameters which directly or indirectly govern the plant growth and hence their produce. Automation is process control of industrial machinery and processes, thereby replacing human operators.
1.1 CURRENT SCENARIO
Greenhouses in India are being deployed in the high-altitude regions where the sub- zero temperature up to -40° C makes any kind of plantation almost impossible and in arid regions where conditions for plant growth are hostile. The existing set-ups primarily are:
1.1.1 MANUAL SET-UP:
This set-up involves visual inspection of the plant growth, manual irrigation of plants, turning ON and OFF the temperature controllers, manual spraying of the fertilizers and pesticides. It is time consuming, vulnerable to human error and hence less accurate and unreliable.
1.1.2 PARTIALLY AUTOMATED SET-UP:
This set-up is a combination of manual supervision and partial automation and is similar to manual set-up in most respects but it reduces the labor involved in terms of irrigating the set-up.
1.1.3 FULLY- AUTOMATED:
This is a sophisticated set-up which is well equipped to react to most of the climatic changes occurring inside the greenhouse. It works on a feedback system which helps it to
respond to the external stimuli efficiently. Although this set-up overcomes the problems caused due to human errors it is not completely automated and expensive.
1.2 PROPOSED MODEL FOR AUTOMATION OF GREENHOUSE
The proposed system is an embedded system which will closely monitor and control the microclimatic parameters of a greenhouse on a regular basis round the clock for cultivation of crops or specific plant species which could maximize their production over the whole crop growth season and to eliminate the difficulties involved in the system by reducing human intervention to the best possible extent. The system comprises of sensors, Analog to Digital Converter, microcontroller and actuators.
When any of the above mentioned climatic parameters cross a safety threshold which has to be maintained to protect the crops, the sensors sense the change and the microcontroller reads this from the data at its input ports after being converted to a digital form by the ADC. The microcontroller then performs the needed actions by employing relays until the strayed-out parameter has been brought back to its optimum level. Since a microcontroller is used as the heart of the system, it makes the set- up low-cost and effective nevertheless. As the system also employs an LCD display for continuously alerting the user about the condition inside the greenhouse, the entire set-up becomes user friendly.
Thus, this system eliminates the drawbacks of the existing set-ups mentioned in the previous section and is designed as an easy to maintain, flexible and low cost solution.
2. SYSTEM MODEL
2.1 BASIC MODEL OF THE SYSTEM
2.2 PARTS OF THE SYSTEM:
i. Sensors (Data acquisition system) a. Temperature sensor (LM35) b. Humidity sensor (HH10D)
c. Light sensor (LDR)
d. Moisture sensor
ii. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC 0808/0809)
iii. Microcontroller (AT89S52)
iv. Liquid Crystal Display (Hitachi's HD44780)
v. Actuators – Relays
vi. Devices controlled
a. Water Pump (simulated as a bulb)
b. Sprayer (simulated as a bulb)
c. Cooler (simulated as a fan)
d.Artificial Lights (simulated as 2 bulbs)
2.2.1 TRANSDUCERS (Data acquisition system):
This part of the system consists of various sensors, namely soil moisture, humidit y, temperature and light. These sensors sense various parameters- temperature, humidity, soil moisture and light intensity and are then sent to the Analog to Digital Converter.
2.2.2 ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER (ADC):
The analog parameters measured by the sensors are then converted to corresponding digital values by the ADC.
The microcontroller is the heart of the proposed embedded system. It constantly monitors the digitized parameters of the various sensors and verifies them with the predefined threshold values and checks if any corrective action is to be taken for the condition at that instant of time. In case such a situation arises, it activates the actuators to perform a controlled operation.
An array of actuators can be used in the system such as relays, contactors, and change over switches etc. They are used to turn on AC devices such as motors, coolers, pumps, fogging machines, sprayers. For the purpose of demonstration relays have been used to drive AC bulbs to simulate actuators and AC devices. A complete working system can be realized by simply replacing these simulation devices by the actual devices.
2.2.5 DISPLAY UNIT:
A Liquid crystal display is used to indicate the present status of parameters and the respective AC devises (simulated using bulbs). The information is displayed in two
modes which can be selected using a push button switch which toggles between the modes. Any display can be interfaced to the system with respective changes in driver circuitry and code.
2.3 STEPS FOLLOWED IN DESIGNING THE SYSTEM:
Three general steps can be followed to appropriately select the control system:
Step #1: Identify measurable variables important to production.
It is very important to correctly identify the parameters that are going to be measured by the controller’s data acquisition interface, and how they are to be measured.
The set of variables typically used in greenhouse control is shown below:
Sl. No. Variable to be monitored Its Importance
1 Temperature Affects all plant metabolic functions.
2 Humidity Affects transpiration rate and the plant's thermal
3 Soil moisture Affects salinity, and pH of irrigation water
4 Solar Radiation Affects photosynthetic rate, responsible for most
thermal load during warm periods
Table 2.1 Importance of the various parameters
An electronic sensor for measuring a variable must readily available, accurate, and reliable and low in cost. If a sensor is not available, the variable cannot be incorporated into the control system, even if it is very important. Many times variables that cannot be directly or continuously measured can be controlled in a limited way by the system. For example, fertility levels in nutrient solutions for greenhouse production are difficult to measure continuously.
Step #2: Investigate the control strategies.
An important element in considering a control system is the control strategy that is to be followed. The simplest strategy is to use threshold sensors that directly affect actuation of devices. For example, the temperature inside a greenhouse can be affected by controlling heaters, fans, or window openings once it exceeds the maximum allowable limit. The light intensity can be controlled using four threshold levels. As the light intensity decreases one light may be turned on. With a further decrease
in its intensity a second light would be powered, and so on; thus ensuring that the plants are not deprived of adequate sunlight even during the winter season or a cloudy
More complex control strategies are those based not only on the current values of the controlled variables, but also on the previous history of the system, including the rates at which the system variables are changing.
Step #3: Identify the software and the hardware to be used.
It is very important that control system functions are specified before deciding what software and hardware system to purchase.
The model chosen must have the ability to:
1. Expand the number of measured variables (input subsystem) and controlled devices (output subsystem) so that growth and changing needs of the production operation can be satisfied in the future.
2. Provide a flexible and easy to use interface.
3. It must ensure high precision measurement and must have the ability resist noise.
Hardware must always follow the selection of software, with the hardware required being supported by the software selected. In addition to functional capabilities, the selection of the control hardware should include factors such as reliability, support, previous experiences with the equipment (successes and failures), and cost.
Active In SP
Joined: Apr 2011
27-04-2011, 06:08 PM
Automatic irrigation system with manual operation problems. Computer-controlled flow, water volume, length of time on the water, reduce maintenance, because it removes excess pressure, may explode lines.
Joined: Jul 2011
24-01-2012, 10:53 AM
to get information about the topic automatic irrigation system full report,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
Joined: Jul 2011
31-01-2012, 04:02 PM
Automatic Irrigation System
Automatic Irrigation System.doc (Size: 222.5 KB / Downloads: 42)
The Automated Irrigation Control System is a system that monitors and controls the soil moisture content of a blueberry fields. The block diagram that the signal from soil moisture sensor will be conditioned and amplified by operational amplifier before it reaches microcontroller’s analog-to digital converter. According to this input information, the microcontroller will decide when to turn on the water pump and how long to keep it on. The operator can also communicate with the microcontroller through the keypad and a LCD display to change settings, such as on time and off time.
Working of project and implimentation:
The area which is to be irrigated will be divided into a plurality of discrete zones of possible different soil conditions, where each zone includes at least one sprinkler head, soaker hose or other water dispensing device and a solenoid valve having an "on" state and an "off" state for controlling the flow of water to such device for that zone and which comprises a moisture sensor disposed in the soil in each of the zones and, when interrogated, produces an electrical signal proportional to the level of moisture in the soil proximate that sensor- A microcontroller is coupled in controlling relationship to the solenoid valves in each of the plural zones and is effective to periodically transmit the interrogation signals to each of the moisture sensors. The moisture sensors then respond by transmitting the aforementioned electrical signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller includes circuitry and software for selectively actuating the solenoid valves in the plurality of zones to an "on" state at predetermined times during a weekly period, unless the moisture sensor for that given zone indicates a predetermined sufficient level of moisture present.
1 .Are relatively simple to design and install
2. This is very useful to all climatic conditions any it is economic friendly
3. This makes increase in productivity and reduces water consumption
4. Here we are micro controllers so there is error free
5. This is safest and no manpower is required. Permit other yard and garden work to continue when irrigation is taking place, as only the immediate plant areas are wet .6. Reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching.
7. Reduce the chance of plant disease by keeping foliage dry.
8. May be concealed to maintain the beauty of the landscape, and to reduce vandalism and liability when installed in public areas.
9. Require smaller water sources, for example, less than half of the water needed for a sprinkler system.
• It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.
• Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in preventing soil consolidation.
• In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining.
• Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
• To reduce the length of wiring in the farm, bus or ring structure to transfer data to each valve (with decoding circuit) may be used. Thus only 2 wires exist through out the farm.
• To eliminate the wires in the farm, data can be transmitted using radio frequency signals where each valve is provided with radio receiver and decoding circuit. Here data (code to distinguish each valve) are broadcast and received by every valve and decoded and only the valve having same code is turned ON.
• To increase the performance acknowledgment from each valve to system must be obtained so that in case of any error in data or malfunction in valve, it can be detected and can be informed to the farmer.
• The device can display the calendar so that farmer can select particular date and time to start irrigation from the calendar.
• To provide power for each valve re-chargeable batteries connected to solar panels can be provided.
• The system is provided with the predefined table containing water level requiring for each type of crop so by just selecting the crop and type of soil the system can take care of irrigation throughout the season effectively.
Joined: Apr 2012
20-09-2012, 10:24 AM
Automatic Irrigation System
END.doc (Size: 2.48 MB / Downloads: 36)
Feeding water to plants can be done automatically by using the circuit. When the soil moisture level falls to a predetermined value, determined by VR-1, the motor pump will start automatically and after few time. When water reaches at moisture level, the pump stops automatically. The above circuit can be used when someone is going out of station for few days.
The circuit comprises an IC-555 timer. When water reaches at moisture level bringing X & Y in water connection, the resistance between them falls lower than R-1. This bring Pin No. 4 to a positive potential. As a result the circuit starts working and output from Pin-3 gives sufficient current for T-1 biasing (NPN Transistor). Thus it starts conducting and energize the relay. As, the motor is connected with upper strip of relay, connection for the same disconnects and motor gets stops. Thus when the circuit is working, motor is disconnected with mains supply and Vice-versa. One can use same device with water tanks to maintain the upper level.
The probes can be two thick wires or rods of approx. 6 inch in length and should be straight and parallel. Which may fixed at non-conducting board. The distance between two rods observes the sensitivity of the circuit.
In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the electron flow increases to maximum in one direction, decreases back to zero. It then increases in the other direction and then decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction only. Rectifier converts alternating current to flow in one direction only. When the anode of the diode is positive with respect to its cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current to flow. But when its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse biased and does not allow current to flow. This unidirectional property of the diode is useful for rectification. A single diode arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow during positive half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles. Double diodes arranged back-to-back might act as full wave rectifiers as they may allow the electron flow during both positive and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make a full wave bridge rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used to smooth out the pulsations in amplitude of the output voltage from a rectifier. The property of capacitor to oppose any change in the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the electric field of the capacitor and of inductors to oppose any change in the current flowing through them by storing energy in the magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove pulsation of the direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of combination of capacitor, inductors and resistors may be also be used to increase to action of filtering.
USE OF DIODES IN RECTIFIERS:
Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India, in the form of alternating voltage. The supply has a voltage of 220V (rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In the USA, it is 110V at 60 Hz. For the operation of most of the devices in electronic equipment, a dc voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio requires a dc supply for its operation. Usually, this supply is provided by dry cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator in place of dry cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac voltage into dc voltage and thus eliminates the need for dry cells. Nowadays, almost all-electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of the equipment is called Power Supply. In general, at the input of the power supply, there is a power transformer. It is followed by a diode circuit called Rectifier. The output of the rectifier goes to a smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply.
Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for rectification is called ‘Rectifier’. A rectifier permits current to flow only during the positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage by eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied AC voltage. Thus pulsating DC is obtained. To obtain smooth DC power, additional filter circuits are required.
A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of diodes. But, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device consisting of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector- the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and selenium rectifier are also commonly used.
FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage by using two diodes in the circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 V rms (18 V p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume further that two equal-valued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the ac source. The 18 V p-p appears across the two resistors connected between points AC and CB, and point C is the electrical midpoint between A and B. Hence 9 V p-p appears across each resistor. At any moment during a cycle of vin, if point A is positive relative to C, point B is negative relative to C. When A is negative to C, point B is positive relative to C. The effective voltage in proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in Fig. The voltage applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in polarity at any given instant.
A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge rectifier. It requires four diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the positive half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D4 are conducting and diodes D1 and D3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current flows through the secondary winding, diode D2, load resistor RL and diode D4. During negative half-cycles of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, and the diodes D2 and D4 do not conduct. The current therefore flows through the secondary winding, diode D1, load resistor RL and diode D3. In both cases, the current passes through the load resistor in the same direction. Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed across the load.
The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an output voltage that always has the same polarity: but however, this output is not suitable as DC power supply for solid-state circuits. This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output voltage. This should be removed out before the output voltage can be supplied to any circuit. This smoothing is done by incorporating filter networks. The filter network consists of inductors and capacitors. The inductors or choke coils are generally connected in series with the rectifier output and the load. The inductors oppose any change in the magnitude of a current flowing through them by storing up energy in a magnetic field. An inductor offers very low resistance for DC whereas; it offers very high resistance to AC. Thus, a series connected choke coil in a rectifier circuit helps to reduce the pulsations or ripples to a great extent in the output voltage. The fitter capacitors are usually connected in parallel with the rectifier output and the load. As, AC can pass through a capacitor but DC cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothed. When the voltage across its plates tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current. Thus, the fluctuations in the output voltage are reduced considerable. Filter network circuits may be of two types in general:
Thinking To Register
06-02-2013, 01:44 PM
hey... i want documentation about automatic plant irrigation...