basics of IPV6
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13-10-2010, 12:08 PM

basucs of IP V6

Need of IPv6

As we are nearly out of the four billion addresses available in IPv4, IPv6 could be the solution to many problems.

IPv6 addresses are four times the size of IPv4 addresses.

An IPv4 address has 32 bits, while IPv6 address has 128 bits.

For IPv4, this pool is 32-bits (232) in size and contains 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses.

The IPv6 address space is 128-bits (2128) in size, containing 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses.

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.ppt   Basics of IPv6.ppt (Size: 278 KB / Downloads: 59)
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.zip   Internet Protocol version 6 (Size: 319.58 KB / Downloads: 32)


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Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4, the first implementation used in the Internet and still in dominant use currently. It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol was the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460.
IPv6 has a vastly larger address space than IPv4. This results from the use of a 128-bit address, whereas IPv4 uses only 32 bits. The new address space thus supports 2128 (about 3.4×1038) addresses. This expansion provides flexibility in allocating addresses and routing traffic and eliminates the primary need for network address translation (NAT), which gained widespread deployment as an effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion.
IPv6 also implements new features that simplify aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) when changing Internet connectivity providers. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from Link Layer media addressing information (MAC address).
Network security is integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6, but found widespread optional deployment first in IPv4 (into which it was back-engineered). The IPv6 specifications mandate IPsec implementation as a fundamental interoperability requirement.
In December 2008, despite marking its 10th anniversary as a Standards Track protocol, IPv6 was only in its infancy in terms of general worldwide deployment. A 2008 study by Google Inc. indicated that penetration was still less than one percent of Internet-enabled hosts in any country. IPv6 has been implemented on all major operating systems in use in commercial, business, and home consumer environments.
Motivation and origins
The first publicly used version of the Internet Protocol, Version 4 (IPv4), provides an addressing capability of about 4 billion addresses (232). This was deemed sufficient in the early design stages of the Internet when the explosive growth and worldwide proliferation of networks was not anticipated.
During the first decade of operation of the TCP/IP-based Internet, by the late 1980s, it became apparent that methods had to be developed to conserve address space. In the early 1990s, even after the introduction of classless network redesign, it became clear that this would not suffice to prevent IPv4 address exhaustion and that further changes to the Internet infrastructure were needed. By the beginning of 1992, several proposed systems were being circulated, and by the end of 1992, the IETF announced a call for white papers (RFC 1550) and the creation of the "IP Next Generation" (IPng) area of working groups
The Internet Engineering Task Force adopted IPng on July 25, 1994, with the formation of several IPng working groups.By 1996, a series of RFCs were released defining Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), starting with RFC 2460.
The technical discussion, development and introduction of IPv6 was not without controversy and the design has been criticized for lack of interoperability with IPv4 and other aspects, for example by noted computer scientist D. J. Bernstein.
Incidentally, the IPng architects could not use version number 5 as a successor to IPv4, because it had been assigned to an experimental flow-oriented streaming protocol (Internet Stream Protocol), similar to IPv4, intended to support video and audio.
It is widely expected that IPv4 will be supported alongside IPv6 for the foreseeable future. IPv4-only nodes are not able to communicate directly with IPv6 nodes, and will need assistance from an intermediary; see Transition mechanisms below.

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