biological computers full report
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.doc   Biological computers.doc (Size: 44.5 KB / Downloads: 631)
Abstract:
Biological computers are special types of microcomputers that are
specifically designed to be used for medical applications. The
biological computer is an implantable device that is mainly used for
tasks like monitoring the body's activities or inducing therapeutic
effects, all at the molecular or cellular level.
The biological computer is made up of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid - an
important part in the synthesis of protein from amino acids), DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic Acid - nucleic acid molecule that contains the
important genetic information that is used by the body for the
construction of cells; it's the blue print for all living organisms),
and proteins.
Advantages
The main advantage of this technology over other like technologies is
the fact that through it, a doctor can focus on or find and treat only
damaged or diseased cells. Selective cell treatment is made possible.
The biological computer can also perform simple mathematical
calculations. This could enable the researcher to build an array or a
system of biosensors that has the ability to detect or target specific
types of cells that could be found in the patient's body. This could
also be used to carry out or perform target-specific medicinal
operations that could deliver medical procedures or remedies according
to the doctor's instructions.
This not only makes the healing process easier. It also allows the
doctors to focus only on the damaged, diseased or cancerous cells found
in the patient's body without causing stress to other healthy and
normal cells.
How It Works
Biological computers are made inside a patient's body. The researchers
or doctors merely provide the patient's body with all of the necessary
information or a "blueprint" along which lines the biological computer
would be "manufactured." Once the "computer's" genetic blueprint has
been provided, the human body will start to build it on its own using
the body's natural biological processes and the cells found in the
body.
As of today, reading signals produced by cell activity is not yet
possible due to technological limitations. However, through the use of
a tiny implantable biological computer, these cellular signals could
easily be detected, translated and understood using existing medical
and laboratory equipment.
Through boolean logic equations, a doctor or researcher can easily use
the biological computer to identify all types of cellular activity and
determine whether a particular activity is harmful or not. The cellular
activities that the biological computer could detect can even include
those of mutated genes and all other activities of the genes found in
cells.
As with conventional computers, the biological computer also works with
an output and an input signal. The main inputs of the biological
computer are the body's proteins, RNA, and other specific chemicals
that are found in the human cytoplasm. The output on the other hand
could be detected using laboratory equipment.
Applications
The implantable biological computer is a device which could be used in
various medical applications where intercellular evaluation and
treatment are needed or required. It is especially useful in monitoring
intercellular activity including mutation of genes.
By Jonathan M. Gitlin |
In the lab, we have many interesting and ingenious ways of looking at
biological processes. The biotech revolution has allowed us to develop
methods for detecting and quantifying molecules produced by living
cells; we can detect gene expression and activity, and we can pinpoint
within a cell the precise location of proteins. However, while these
tasks are relatively easy to perform in vitro on a lab bench, imagine
the benefits to medicine if we could apply them in vivo (in a whole,
living animal). Nanotech machines could be injected into a patient that
would then monitor for certain conditions and respond accordingly.
There is a paper, published online today in Nature Biotechnology, that
brings this dream a little bit closer to reality. Scientists at Harvard
and Princeton have detailed the construction of a biological circuit
that uses siRNA to affect boolean logic statements. The circuit works
by having two different mRNA strands that code for the same protein but
contain untranslated regions that correspond to different siRNA
sequences.
Different endogenous inputs will control the expression of the various
siRNAs, thereby affecting which of the two mRNA strands gets expressed;
an example would be inputs A and B targeting one mRNA, and inputs X and
Y inputting the other mRNA, thereby giving the logic expression (A AND
B) OR (X AND Y). Other mRNA strands can be designed to work for (A AND
NOT B), and so on. The output of the mRNA strand that isn't silenced
can be a reporter protein: luciferase or GFP, for example.
Although this research describes relatively simple artificial molecular
machinery, it doesn't take much imagination to see the potential.
Biological machines can be implanted or even built within a patient's
own cells that will act as biosensors, watching out for disease
markers. Should they find such markers, the molecular logic circuits
like this could chose the most appropriate action. That could involve
inducing programmed cell death in the case of cancerous cells or
synthesis of a drug in specific tissues. Obviously such therapies
remain vaporware for now, but that won't remain true for much longer.
arstechnicajournals/science.ars/2007/05/21/designing-
biological-computers
By Bill Christensen
Biocomputers constructed entirely of DNA, RNA and proteins can function
inside the body as "molecular doctors," according to Harvardâ„¢s Yaakov
Kobi Benenson, a Bauer Fellow in the Faculty of Arts and Sciencesâ„¢
Center for Systems Biology.
Each human cell already has all of the tools required to build these
biocomputers on its own, says Harvardâ„¢s Benenson. All that must be
provided is a genetic blueprint of the machine and our own biology will
do the rest. Your cells will literally build these biocomputers for
you.
Benson and colleagues claim to demonstrate that biocomputers can work
in human kidney cells in a culture. Also, they have developed a
conceptual framework by which various phenotypes could be represented
logically. Phenotypes are characteristics that are measurable and that
are expressed in only a subset of the individuals within that
population (like blond hair or brown eyes).
In theory, using a biocomputer as the calculation mechanism,
researchers could build biosensors or medicine delivery systems that
could single out specific cell types in the body. These molecular
doctors could target only cancerous cells, for example, ignoring
healthy ones.
Biomolecular computers have been proved in concept by researchers at
the Weizmann Institute of Science; see the article Biomolecular
Computer: The Tiniest Doc?.
Dr. Leonard Adleman, a computer scientist at USC, discussed the
possiblity of biocomputers as early as 1994. Science fiction fans
didn't have to wait so long; they could read about the intellectual
cells in Greg Bear's 1984 novel Blood Music:
His first E. coli mutations had had the learning capacity of planarian
worms; he had run them through simple T-mazes, giving sugar rewards.
They had soon outperformed planaria...
Removing the finest biologic sequences from the altered E. coli, he had
incorporated them into B-lymphocytes, white cells from his own
blood...Using artificial proteins and hormones as a means of
communication, Vergil had "trained" the lymphocytes in the past six
months to interact as much as possible with each other and with their
environment - a much more complex miniature glass maze.
technovelgyct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=1051
For a scientist who has just staked a claim to the first programmable
and autonomous biological nanocomputer, Professor Ehud Shapiro is
remarkably low-key when asked to predict how such research may
eventually change the world.
He refuses to get drawn into detailed discussions of futuristic
applications for the technology, and prefers to leave prophesying to
others. At the same time, his incremental approach to the embryonic
science of turning DNA into trillions of tiny computers, swimming
inside a test tube, has given Shapiro a keen sense of direction as he
embarks upon a long-term mission.
Shapiro does not see his computer as a potential competitor to silicon
-based electronic computing, as some have suggested. Instead, he
envisions DNA computers as a "molecular computing device that can
operate initially in a test tube and eventually inside an organism and
interact with its biochemical environment."
DNA computing could possibly be used to streamline laboratory analysis
of DNA, by eliminating the need for sequencing. This, he said, could
happen within a decade.
"In the longer term, you may have medical applications in which this
device can operate in vivo, inside a living organism," he says. "Based
on the information it receives from the environment and medical
knowledge encoded in the software it may diagnose the problem and
prescribe a solution, and then it could synthesis that molecule and
output it."
That's as far as Shapiro is willing to venture on the prospects of the
technology.
"I don't have an opinion on nanogurus or nanoapproaches," he says dryly
during an interview in his office at the Weizmann Institute of Science
in Rehovot, Israel. "We know where we are and where we are going to go.
It's just going to be a very long way."
The starting point for Shapiro, who recently published his design for a
molecular computer in Nature magazine, came after his Internet software
company called Ubique was sold to IBM in 1998.
Plotting a path back to academia, Shapiro stumbled upon research being
done in molecular computing, and challenged Yaakov Benenson, a
biochemistry Ph.D. student, to help make it work. Their modest initial
goal was to find a way to use turn DNA into the most elementary
mathematical computing device known as a finite automaton, capable of
answering "yes" or "no" to very basic questions about a bunch of zeroes
and ones.
"We constructed a molecular realization of this mathematical device,"
Shapiro says. "It has input, it has software and it has hardware
components; and when it computes it produces output, which is another
molecule."
To do this, Shapiro and his colleagues used the four components of a
DNA strand known as A, C, G and T to encode the zeroes and ones and
create an input molecule with an exposed "sticky" end. Then, another
DNA strand -- the software -- swoops in to try and hook up with an
exposed edge like a Lego piece attempting to lock into a complementary
block. Each exposed edge has a specific complementary DNA strand.
After hooking up, the hardware gets to work. An enzyme called ligase
seals the link, and another called Fok-1 moves in to snip the strand,
leaving the next section exposed.
The process continues several times until the computer delivers an
answer to the question. There are 765 different possible software
programs that can be used for simple calculations, such as whether
there are an even or odd number of zeroes or ones.
Shapiro's research is the latest step forward in a field founded by
Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
In 1994, Adleman proved that DNA could compute, when he used the stuff
to solve the "traveling salesman" problem, in which the shortest route
between several cities must be mapped without going through the same
city twice.
Conventional computers have extreme difficulty solving the problem,
especially when dealing with many points on a map. This is because
electronic computers are based on sequential logic, which makes them
good at solving a problem requiring lots of computations in a row. But
posed with a puzzle of how to figure out the shortest route between 100
cities -- a problem best cracked by simultaneously performing an
enormous number of short operations -- conventional computers do not
make the grade. Adleman demonstrated that DNA could be an efficient way
to solve such problems.
Shapiro says his DNA computer is fundamentally different from Adleman's
breakthrough. Although Adleman's computer was composed of many
trillions of tiny DNA molecules swimming around in a test tube, Shapiro
says it was essentially a large operation that required active
involvement of scientists.
"The calculation needed to be carried out by humans. In our case, the
computer is just the molecules," says Shapiro, who can put a trillion
of his own biological computers into a drop of solution. "His computer
is measured in meters, ours is measured in nanometers."
Experts point out that Shapiro faces stiff competition and will be
challenged to scale up the work to perform more complex computations.
John Reif, professor of computer science at Duke University, described
Shapiro's work as "ingeniously constructed experiments" that clearly
demonstrated the ability to perform simple computations via solid
experimental protocols.
"But there is a lot of competition out there in the DNA computing
world," he added, singling out DNA computing research at Princeton
University and the University of Wisconsin that has gone beyond the
finite automaton.
"People are really aggressively pushing the limits, so the challenge
for the Israelis is to go in and push those limits as defined by some
of those strong competitors," Reif said.
Shapiro has no illusions. The biggest stumbling block now is the
dependency on natural enzymes, meaning scientists must search for the
right enzymes that could help perform computations on DNA. Science
still has no clue how to create designer enzymes that could pave the
way to dramatic progress.
For his part, alongside the finite automaton, Shapiro has taken an
important theoretical step forward by building a model of a molecular
Turing Machine, which is a representation of a computing device capable
of an infinite number of computations. It is in this green, squarish
model, sitting in a cardboard box in his office, that Shapiro sees the
real potential for molecular computing. The ability to create a
molecular Turing Machine would allow scientists to use DNA to generate
massive computing power. In the meantime, he is keeping focused on the
scientific challenges ahead -- and plans to be tied up in his DNA
strands for a while. "We have made a first small step in this
direction," he says. "I believe this will keep me busy until I retire."
smalltimesarticles/stm_print_screen.cfm?
ARTICLE_ID=267662
Biocomputers constructed entirely of DNA, RNA and proteins can function
inside the body as "molecular doctors," according to Harvardâ„¢s Yaakov
Kobi Benenson, a Bauer Fellow in the Faculty of Arts and Sciencesâ„¢
Center for Systems Biology.
Each human cell already has all of the tools required to build these
biocomputers on its own, says Harvardâ„¢s Benenson. All that must be
provided is a genetic blueprint of the machine and our own biology will
do the rest. Your cells will literally build these biocomputers for
you.
Benson and colleagues claim to demonstrate that biocomputers can work
in human kidney cells in a culture. Also, they have developed a
conceptual framework by which various phenotypes could be represented
logically. Phenotypes are characteristics that are measurable and that
are expressed in only a subset of the individuals within that
population (like blond hair or brown eyes).
In theory, using a biocomputer as the calculation mechanism,
researchers could build biosensors or medicine delivery systems that
could single out specific cell types in the body. These molecular
doctors could target only cancerous cells, for example, ignoring
healthy ones.
Biomolecular computers have been proved in concept by researchers at
the Weizmann Institute of Science; see the article Biomolecular
Computer: The Tiniest Doc?.
Dr. Leonard Adleman, a computer scientist at USC, discussed the
possiblity of biocomputers as early as 1994. Science fiction fans
didn't have to wait so long; they could read about the intellectual
cells in Greg Bear's 1984 novel Blood Music:
His first E. coli mutations had had the learning capacity of planarian
worms; he had run them through simple T-mazes, giving sugar rewards.
They had soon outperformed planaria...
Removing the finest biologic sequences from the altered E. coli, he had
incorporated them into B-lymphocytes, white cells from his own
blood...Using artificial proteins and hormones as a means of
communication, Vergil had "trained" the lymphocytes in the past six
months to interact as much as possible with each other and with their
environment - a much more complex miniature glass maze.
technovelgyct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=1051
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09-10-2010, 05:03 PM


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Biological Computer

Biological Computers are computers which use synthesized biological components to store and manipulate data analogous to processes in the human body.
The result is small yet faster computer that operates with great accuracy.
Main biological component used in a Biological Computer is : DNA
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Biological Computers

Introduction
Biological computers are special types of microcomputers that are specifically designed to be used for medical applications. The biological computer is an implantable device that is mainly used for tasks like monitoring the body's activities or inducing therapeutic effects, all at the molecular or cellular level.
The biological computer is made up of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid - an important part in the synthesis of protein from amino acids), DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid - nucleic acid molecule that contains the important genetic information that is used by the body for the construction of cells; it's the blue print for all living organisms), and proteins.

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18-10-2010, 09:09 AM


Prepared by: Kevin Fulk


Why Should We Care About Biological Computing?

Biological Computing, an innovation with the potential to address the short-comings of silicon-based computing, is already a part of your life. Look in the mirror, and behold a highly advanced biological computer. It is radically different from what most people recognize as a computer, but it is a computer nevertheless. It is also a computer that offers valuable lessons to those who are looking for alternatives to traditional computer design. These are lessons about using biological organisms and their components to solve computational problems. Lessons drawn from this very different computing design help shape an alternative that could eventually replace or complement computers as we know them today. And such work is timely, as the theoretical limits of current computer design grow closer.
Moore’s Law has long offered a roadmap for advances in computing power. In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that computer processing power should double approximately every 12 months, eventually amending this prediction to 18 months.1 Developments in computer chip design have kept up with the current version of Moore’s Law, but this pace cannot continue indefinitely. As we will describe below, the laws of physics impose a physical limit on how much processing power can be achieved with a silicon chip.
Similarly, the ability of medicine to treat diseases more effectively is limited by the ability of current biotechnology to interface with the processes of the body. We do not yet have an effective way for siliconbased computers to interact directly with the chemical processes of the human body in order to diagnose and treat illnesses.
Biological computing has the potential to solve both problems. This paper sets the stage for considering this topic by examining the limitations of the silicon-based computing paradigm and discussing the other alternative paradigms. It then focuses on biological computing in all its varieties and considers the benefits and possible problems of this radically different form of computing. First, let us consider the limitations of current computing technology.

for more details, please visit
bauer.uh.edu/uhisrc/FTB/Biocomputing/FTBBioComp.pdf

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The Biological Computer



.ppt   53988506-Biological-Computer-Ppt.ppt (Size: 240.5 KB / Downloads: 28)

Off Topic?

While “FRANKENSTEIN, OR, THE MODERN PROMETHEUS (1818),” is science fiction. It seems to be founded on some science. The human body does require some amount of electricity and along with the “body,” a brain, or central processor, to mange the many processes it’s been programmed to run. So, it is conceivable that in theory albeit very simplistic terms, the human body can be automated with sufficient power and a brain to carry out instructions.

The Computer Today

Technically, a computer is a programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. When referring to a desktop model, the term "computer" technically only refers to the computer itself -- not the monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Still, it is acceptable to refer to everything together as the computer. If you want to be really technical, the box that holds the computer is called the "system unit."

Medical Applications

Scientists developed tiny implantable biocomputers

Molecular devices’ remarkably precise scans of cellular activity could revolutionize medicine

Researchers at Harvard and Princeton universities have taken a crucial step toward building biological computers, tiny implantable devices that can monitor the activities and characteristics of human cells. The information provided by these “molecular doctors,” constructed entirely of DNA, RNA, and proteins, could eventually revolutionize medicine by directing therapies only to diseased cells or tissues.


Risk-Benefit Analysis: Animated Corpse

The idea of animating a corpse as in Mary’s Shelly’s tale. Assuming it can even be done. Benefits: Understanding the mechanics of the human physiology in a new way.
Risks: The general consensus might consider the idea or practice inhuman. Who would volunteer his/her body? How long would these subjects be kept “alive.” The practice would enrage certain pro-life or pro-dead groups.
DQ would be LOW




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biological computers




.docx   BIOLOGICAL COMPUTING.docx (Size: 97.56 KB / Downloads: 19)

1.INTRODUCTION:

Biological computers have emerged as an interdisciplinary field that draws together molecular biology, chemistry, computer science and mathematics. The highly predictable hybridization chemistry of DNA, the ability to completely control the length and content of oligonucleotides, and the wealth of enzymes available for modification of the DNA, make the use of nucleic acids an attractive candidate for all of these nanoscale applications
A ‘DNA computer’ has been used for the first time to find the only correct answer from over a million possible solutions to a computational problem. Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California in the US and colleagues used different strands of DNA to represent the 20 variables in their problem, which could be the most complex task ever solved without a conventional computer. The researchers believe that the complexity of the structure of biological molecules could allow DNA computers to outperform their electronic counterparts in future.
Scientists have previously used DNA computers to crack computational problems with up to nine variables, which involves selecting the correct answer from 512 possible solutions. But now Adleman’s team has shown that a similar technique can solve a problem with 20 variables, which has 220 - or 1 048 576 – possible solutions.
Adleman and colleagues chose an ‘exponential time’ problem, in which each extra variable doubles the amount of computation needed. This is known as an NP-complete problem, and is notoriously difficult to solve for a large number of variables. Other NP-complete problems include the ‘travelling salesman’ problem – in which a salesman has to find the shortest route between a number of cities – and the calculation of interactions between many atoms or molecules.
Adleman and co-workers expressed their problem as a string of 24 ‘clauses’, each of which specified a certain combination of ‘true’ and ‘false’ for three of the 20 variables. The team then assigned two short strands of specially encoded DNA to all 20 variables, representing ‘true’ and ‘false’ for each one.
In the experiment, each of the 24 clauses is represented by a gel-filled glass cell. The strands of DNA corresponding to the variables – and their ‘true’ or ‘false’ state – in each clause were then placed in the cells.
Each of the possible 1,048,576 solutions were then represented by much longer strands of specially encoded DNA, which Adleman’s team added to the first cell. If a long strand had a ‘subsequence’ that complemented all three short strands, it bound to them. But otherwise it passed through the cell.
To move on to the second clause of the formula, a fresh set of long strands was sent into the second cell, which trapped any long strand with a ‘subsequence’ complementary to all three of its short strands. This process was repeated until a complete set of long strands had been added to all 24 cells, corresponding to the 24 clauses. The long strands captured in the cells were collected at the end of the experiment, and these represented the solution to the problem.

2.THE WORLD’S SMALLEST COMPUTER:

The world’s smallest computer (around a trillion can fit in a drop of water) might one day go on record again as the tiniest medical kit. Made entirely of biological molecules, this computer was successfully programmed to identify – in a test tube – changes in the balance of molecules in the body that indicate the presence of certain cancers, to diagnose the type of cancer, and to react by producing a drug molecule to fight the cancer cells.

3.DOCTOR IN A CELL:

In previous biological computers produced input, output and “software” are all composed of DNA, the material of genes, while DNA-manipulating enzymes are used as “hardware.” The newest version’s input apparatus is designed to assess concentrations of specific RNA molecules, which may be overproduced or under produced, depending on the type of cancer. Using pre-programmed medical knowledge, the computer then makes its diagnosis based on the detected RNA levels. In response to a cancer diagnosis, the output unit of the computer can initiate the controlled release of a single-stranded DNA molecule that is known to interfere with the cancer cell’s activities, causing it to self-destruct.
In one series of test-tube experiments, the team programmed the computer to identify RNA molecules that indicate the presence of prostate cancer and, following a correct diagnosis, to release the short DNA strands designed to kill cancer cells. Similarly, they were able to identify, in the test tube, the signs of one form of lung cancer. One day in the future, they hope to create a “doctor in a cell”, which will be able to operate inside a living body, spot disease and apply the necessary treatment before external symptoms even appear.
The neuron is a functional unit of the body's nervous system that transmits electro-chemical impulses through the system. These electrochemical impulses are the way information is exchanged in our bodies. Think of the neurons as phone or network lines that make up the Internet and the electrochemical impulses as e-mail, and you get idea. Just as e-mail is used to send messages between people, electrochemical impulses are used to send message between different body parts

4.The Biological Bits and Bytes of DNA Computing :

Computers use 1 or 0 and DNA uses 1 ,2 ,3 and four. Or in the geneticists jargon A C T G. We are built of proteins , each protein is assembled from twenty different building blocks called amino acids. The order in which these amino acids are assembled is obtained from the sequence contained in DNA. I am told this leads to 64 different combinations.
DNA computers take advantage of DNA's physical properties to store information and perform calculations. In a traditional computer, data are represented by and stored as strings of zeros and ones. With a DNA computer, a sequence of its four basic nucleotides — adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine — is used to represent and store data on a strand of DNA. Calculations in a traditional computer are performed by moving data into a processing unit where binary operations are performed. Essentially, the operations turn miniaturized circuits off or on corresponding to the zeros and ones that represent the string of data. In contrast, a DNA computer uses the recombinative properties of DNA to perform operations.

4.1 Guinness Book of World Records :

The computer is listed in the 2004 Guinness Book of World Records as the world's smallest biological computing device. Prof Shapiro's device is a development of a biological computer that he first built in 2001. DNA is the software of life: it carries huge quantities of information, programs the operating system of every cell, controls the growth of the whole organism and even supervises the making of the next generation. The first biological computers were used to make mathematical calculations. They may not outperform silicon-based technology in the world of banking, aviation and databases, but the Weizmann team realised that they might be agents of medical treatment.
They could be provided with specific `search and destroy' programmes, administered as drugs, and delivered by the bloodstream to autonomously detect disease in cells. They could even be used in late-stage cancer, to detect and prevent secondary growths That is the dream. However, the biology in the latest experiments was hugely simplified: the little machine identified cancer molecules in a sterile saline solution in a laboratory under ideal conditions.
To actually track down and disable cancer cells in a human body, it would have to survive the hurly-burly of proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and nucleic acids, any of which could block or disable it. "There could be many reactions with many other molecules that may be detrimental to either the computer or the cell in which it operates,'' said Prof Shapiro.

5. COMPUTERS & BIOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY:

The mathematics of DNA has a complexity of 2^64 and before you say no, try to say 18446744073709551616 and mean it. The point of this is, the makers of the chip that is at the heart of the common or garden PC are casting the dies for the next generation of CPUs namely a 64 bit data bus. There are two ways of looking at computer architecture. The simplest way to understand this , is to imagine a road and imagine how many cars you could get to travel along it in an hour. To increase the traffic on the road you either widen it or make the cars go faster or make smaller cars. The next generation of personal computers will have a complexity matching our own. I say this because of genetic algorithms. The fact that most of today's computers are linked up via the internet makes it more likely that once change starts to happen, it will happen fast .
There is an awful similarity between DNA and machine code. The complexity of our machine code gets to the complexity of our DNA. 64 bit processors have twice the exponental complexity 32 bit processors have.
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seminar flower
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19-09-2012, 11:24 AM

Biological Computing


.ppt   DNA.ppt (Size: 1,004 KB / Downloads: 12)

What is Biological Computing ?

Biological computing is the use of living organisms or their component parts to perform computing operations or operations associated with computing, e.g. storage.

Major Researches

DNA Computing

What is DNA?
Source Code to Life
Instructions to building and regulating cells
Composed of 4 nucleotides and bond in pairs
Data store for genetic inheritance
Think of enzymes as hardware, DNA as software
DNA Computing

What is DNA?

Source Code to Life
Instructions to building and regulating cells
Composed of 4 nucleotides and bond in pairs
Data store for genetic inheritance
Think of enzymes as hardware, DNA as software
Biological computer for Diagnosing Cancers
World’s smallest computer, made entirely of biological molecules
Diagnostic biological "computer" network in human cells
Recognizes certain cancer cells
Diagnose the type of cancer
React by producing a drug molecule to fight the cancer cells

Benefits of Biological Computing

Energy efficient
DNA can hold an enormous amount of information
Component materials plentiful, easily obtained, and nontoxic
Massively parallel processing
Unparalleled control over living processes
Adaptation
Self-assembly
Healing
Self-improvement

Potential Problems with Biological Computing

Genetic “robots” too expensive with current technology
Individual computing operations extremely slow
DNA computing can take a lot of DNA that can’t be reused
DNA computing error levels
Ethical and moral issues

Discussion

The biological computation refers to the proposal that living organisms themselves perform computations
Consist of both biological and mechanical material
Built from DNA and Neurons can perform more than a billion operations per second
Able to work out their own way to solve the problem
Biological Computing is about to dominate the world in the near future with its all inventions


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