blu-ray disc
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rithika7
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#1
01-04-2010, 12:15 PM


pls post the full report of blu-ray disc
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reports-crawler
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#2
02-04-2010, 12:32 PM

Hi,
visit this thread for more about blu ray disc:
topicideashow-to-blu-ray-technology?pid=8506
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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project report helper
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#3
28-10-2010, 10:13 AM


.doc   Report_Final.doc (Size: 276 KB / Downloads: 137)

blu-ray disc

Guided By: Darshan Tank Prepared By: Saurabh Agrawal 09IT003



ABSTRACT

Optical discs share a major part among the secondary storage
devices. Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical disc format.
The technology utilizes a blue laser diode operating at a
wavelength of 405nm to read and write data. Because of the
blue laser it can store enormous amount of data than was ever
possible.
Data is stored on a BD in the form of tiny ridges on the surface
of an opaque 1.1mm thick substrate. This lies beneath a
transparent 0.1mm protective layer. With the help of Blu-ray
recording devices it is possible to record up to 2.5 hrs. of very
high quality audio and video on a single BD.
Blu-ray also promises some added security, making ways for
copyright protections. BD can have a unique ID written on them
to have copyright protection inside the recorded streams.
Blu-ray Disc takes the DVD technology one step further just by using a laser with a nice colour


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seminar surveyer
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#4
01-01-2011, 05:39 PM




.doc   Blue Ray Disk.doc (Size: 119.5 KB / Downloads: 100)

ABSTRACT:
The thrust for an advanced format of data storage on optical disc led to revolutionary introduction of BLU-RAY DISC. This advances in the race against its competitors DVD (Digital Video Disc) & AOD (Advanced Optical Disc) in that it has high storage capacity, advanced security and privacy features and the A/V high quality O/P (generally video) of the media files stored on it make’s it quite unique & gives an edge over the others, letting BD to be widely adaptable in every application possible.
suprisingly, the necessity for a next generation disc had begun in 1994 even before the advent of the DVD in the market in 1996. The then scientists predicted the limitations of the DVD format & begun working on BD even before DVD's release.
This paper essentially is confined with the structure, construction, reading issues & advantages of the Blu-Ray Disc. To be effective, at every stage the disc is compared with DVD

INTRODUCTION:
BD --> Blu-Ray Disc
The founding stones for the Blu Ray Disc technology were laid in 2002 by the Blu Ray Disc Association (BDA) in an attempt to overcome the drawbacks in DVD's. This attempt has almost reached the zenith & the world now is shortly about to use a disc of an incredible storage capacity & with almost all the apex features incorporated, that ensures user security and privacy and enables one to operate the disc in the most efficient and convenient way ever imagined.

WHY BD?
Early in 1997, a new technology emerged that brought digital sound and video into homes all over the world almost thrashing out the then conventional CD's. It was called DVD, and it revolutionized the movie industry. This format ruled the market for over a span of 5 years, but now is facing some very tight challenges. Here are some reasons why there’s been a rush to change from the current format of DVD:

SIZE : A single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of information. That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image, takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition, consumers are going to need playback systems with a lot more storage capacity, which a DVD cannot support. Also, more space on a single disc invariably results in higher disc size. This bulky size of the disc is neither convincing nor convenient.

SECURITY : CSS is toast, thanks to some smart programmers in Europe and some foolish programmers at the now-defunct Xing Technologies. The group that created the DeCSS software figured out how to break the encryption by reverse engineering Xing's DVD decryption key, which wasn't properly protected. The end result is that DVDs can be copied as easily as music CDs. The market hates the fact that the DVD format is now vulnerable and there's nothing they can do about it, and are eager for a new format that is much more secure.

QUALITY : The final reason for the change is video quality. DVD video is presented in 480p, or 480 lines per screen, progressive scanned video. High Definition TV (HDTV) is presented in 720p or 1080i. You won't notice any difference without a high definition television, but if you do have an HDTV set, the improvement in quality is very noticeable. The quality of the video o/p of the media files on a DVD or a CD is not up to the mark.

SOLUTION :
The industry is set for yet another revolution with the introduction of Blu-ray Discs (BD). With their high storage capacity, Blu-ray discs can hold and playback large quantities of high-definition video and audio, as well as photos, data and other digital content. Also incorporated are some advanced security and privacy options and convenient accessibility features.
A single sided blu ray disc has the capacity to store information of about 27 gigabytes, that’s about the size of 13 hr standard definition movie or more than 2.5 hrs of a high definition movie. While the double layered one can store to about 54 gigabytes. This enormous storage capability is considered to be the major plus point of the blu ray disc to that of the conventional DVD’s in the market right now.

BLU-RAY DISC: Blu ray disc is the next generation digital video disc. It has an edge over the traditional dvd's & lesser used cd's that it has more storage capacity with the size of the disc being constant. Also we'll discuss now the other features of this disc which makes it quite unique & gives it a chance to be well adapted in all sorts of applications everywhere.

STRUCTURE:
The structure of the Blu-Ray disc is shown as below. It differs from the traditional DVD that, in a DVD the data is sandwiched between two 0.6mm polycarbonate layers. While in the case of a BD the data layer is placed on a 1.1mm polycarbonate layer. To prevent the data on the top of the disc from getting erased, the data layer is covered by a 0.1 mm protection layer. This makes the size of all the CD's DVD's & the BD's constant. This packing of the data has many advantages which will be discussed in the later sections.

TECHNOLOGICAL AID :
1) Laser and optics
Blu-ray systems use a "blue" (technically blue-violet) laser operating at a wavelength of 405 nm to read and write data. Conventional DVDs and CDs use red and infrared lasers at 650 nm and 780 nm respectively.
The blue-violet laser's shorter wavelength makes it possible to store more information on a 12 cm CD/DVD sized disc. The minimum "spot size" on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction, and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. By decreasing the wavelength, using a higher numerical aperture (0.85, compared with 0.6 for DVD), higher quality, dual-lens system, and making the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser beam can be focused much more tightly at the disk surface. This produces a smaller spot on the disc and allows more information to be physically contained in the same area. In addition to the optical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding, allowing for even more data to be packed in. (See compact disc for information on optical discs' physical structure.)
2) Hard-coating technology
Because the Blu-ray standard places data so close to the surface of the disc, early discs were susceptible to dust and scratches & fingerprints and had to be enclosed in plastic caddies for protection. Such an aggravation, the consortium worried, would hobble Blu-ray's adoption in the face of the rival HD DVD standard; HD DVDs can be handled bare (caddy less) like CDs and DVDs, making them familiar to consumers as well as attractive to manufacturers and distributors who might be deterred by additional costs.
The solution to this problem arrived in January 2004 with the introduction of a clear polymer that gives Blu-ray discs unprecedented scratch resistance. The coating, developed by TDK Corporation under the name "Durabis," allows BD’s to be cleaned safely with only a tissue—a procedure that can damage CDs, DVDs, and (presumably) HD DVDs, which are manufactured by the same process as these older optical media. Bare BD’s with the coating are reportedly able to withstand attack by a screwdriver.
Durabis is a brand name for a clear polymer coating developed by the TDK Corporation. One of its principal applications at first will be for scratch-resistance in Blu-ray and other optical disks. It is claimed to be tough enough to resist screwdriver damage and make scratched optical disks (CD and DVDs) a thing of the past.
In order to meet Blu-ray's specifications, TDK's coating had to be less than 0.1 mm thick, be hard enough to resist considerable damage and yet be transparent enough to be easily read. This process essentially spin-coats two layers onto discs. One is for protection against scratches and the other protects against stains and oils.
3) Codec’s
The BD-ROM format specifies at least three video codec’s: MPEG-2, the standard used for DVDs; MPEG-4's H.264/AVC codec; and VC-1, a codec based on Microsoft's Windows Media 9. The first of these only allows for about two hours of high-definition content on a single-layer BD-ROM, but the addition of the two more advanced codec’s allows up to four hours per layer.
For audio, BD-ROM supports linear (uncompressed) PCM, Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, DTS, DTS-HD, and Dolby Lossless (a lossless compression format also known as MLP).
In order to remain backwards compatible, BD-RE (and by extension BD-R) will by and large support the MPEG2 codec. For users recording digital television broadcasts, the Blu-ray's baseline data rate of 36Mbit will be more than adequate to record high definition broadcasts. Support for new codec’s will evolve as new codec’s are encapsulated by broadcasters into their MPEG2 transport streams and consumer set top boxes capable of decoding them are rolled out.
4) Java Software Support
At the 2005 Java One trade show, it was announced that Sun Microsystems' Java cross-platform software environment would be included in all Blu-ray players as a mandatory part of the standard. Java will be used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD video discs, which uses pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures and is considerably more primitive. Java creator James Gosling, at the conference, suggested that the inclusion of a Java virtual machine as well as network connectivity in BD devices will allow updates to Blu-ray discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features that are not included on the disc at pressing time. This Java Version will be called BD-J and will be a subset of the GEM (Globally Executable MHP) standard. GEM is the world-wide version of the Multimedia Home Platform standard.
5) Compatibility
While it is not compulsory for manufacturers, the Blu-ray Disc Association recommends that Blu-ray drives should be capable of reading DVDs, ensuring backward compatibility.
JVC has developed a three layer technology that allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/DVD combo disc. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer to purchase a disc which could be played on current DVD players, and reveal its HD version when played on a new BD player.
6) Security
Blu-ray has an experimental security feature titled BD+ that allows for dynamically changing encryption schemes. Should the encryption be compromised, manufacturers can update the encryption scheme and put it on all new discs, preventing a single crack from opening up the entire specification for the duration of its lifetime. It also uses the Mandatory Managed Copy system allowing users to securely rip a file into a secure format, a feature originally requested by HP. The lack of a dynamic encryption model is what made DeCSS so disastrous in the industry's eyes: once CSS was cracked, all DVDs from then on were crack able.
The Blu-ray Disc Association also agreed to add digital watermarking technology to the discs. Under the name "ROM-Mark," this technology will be built into all ROM-producing devices, and prevent content from being reproduced in the event that a watermark is detected. Through licensing, the BDA believes that it can eliminate the possibility of mass producing BD-ROMs without authorization.

CONCLUSION :
It would definitely take a considerable time for the Blu-Ray disc to hit the market & completely takeovers the DVD share hold. Because of the low level compatibility (BD readers able to read both the DVD’s and the CD’s), the task might become a little simpler. But, the high cost of the reader might hinder its quick development. Anyways soon or later this mass storage optical device is going to replace the DVD & let the user experience a world high quality & disc space (Quality & Quantity ensured) with high level of security and privacy ensured.




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seminar surveyer
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Posts: 3,541
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#5
04-01-2011, 12:52 PM




.doc   blu ray disk.doc (Size: 116 KB / Downloads: 78)

K.SIVAKARTHIK
College ID Number : Y7CE245


CH.SRINIVAS
College ID Number : Y7CE249



ABSTRACT:
The thrust for an advanced format of data storage on optical disc led to revolutionary introduction of BLU-RAY DISC. This advances in the race against its competitors DVD (Digital Video Disc) & AOD (Advanced Optical Disc) in that it has high storage capacity, advanced security and privacy features and the A/V high quality O/P (generally video) of the media files stored on it make’s it quite unique & gives an edge over the others, letting BD to be widely adaptable in every application possible.
suprisingly, the necessity for a next generation disc had begun in 1994 even before the advent of the DVD in the market in 1996. The then scientists predicted the limitations of the DVD format & begun working on BD even before DVD's release.
This paper essentially is confined with the structure, construction, reading issues & advantages of the Blu-Ray Disc. To be effective, at every stage the disc is compared with DVD.


INTRODUCTION:
BD --> Blu-Ray Disc
The founding stones for the Blu Ray Disc technology were laid in 2002 by the Blu Ray Disc Association (BDA) in an attempt to overcome the drawbacks in DVD's. This attempt has almost reached the zenith & the world now is shortly about to use a disc of an incredible storage capacity & with almost all the apex features incorporated, that ensures user security and privacy and enables one to operate the disc in the most efficient and convenient way ever imagined.

WHY BD?
Early in 1997, a new technology emerged that brought digital sound and video into homes all over the world almost thrashing out the then conventional CD's. It was called DVD, and it revolutionized the movie industry. This format ruled the market for over a span of 5 years, but now is facing some very tight challenges. Here are some reasons why there’s been a rush to change from the current format of DVD:


SIZE :
A single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of information. That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image, takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition, consumers are going to need playback systems with a lot more storage capacity, which a DVD cannot support. Also, more space on a single disc invariably results in higher disc size. This bulky size of the disc is neither convincing nor convenient.

SECURITY :
CSS is toast, thanks to some smart programmers in Europe and some foolish programmers at the now-defunct Xing Technologies. The group that created the DeCSS software figured out how to break the encryption by reverse engineering Xing's DVD decryption key, which wasn't properly protected. The end result is that DVDs can be copied as easily as music CDs. The market hates the fact that the DVD format is now vulnerable and there's nothing they can do about it, and are eager for a new format that is much more secure.

QUALITY :
The final reason for the change is video quality. DVD video is presented in 480p, or 480 lines per screen, progressive scanned video. High Definition TV (HDTV) is presented in 720p or 1080i. You won't notice any difference without a high definition television, but if you do have an HDTV set, the improvement in quality is very noticeable. The quality of the video o/p of the media files on a DVD or a CD is not up to the mark.

SOLUTION :
The industry is set for yet another revolution with the introduction of Blu-ray Discs (BD). With their high storage capacity, Blu-ray discs can hold and playback large quantities of high-definition video and audio, as well as photos, data and other digital content. Also incorporated are some advanced security and privacy options and convenient accessibility features.
A single sided blu ray disc has the capacity to store information of about 27 gigabytes, that’s about the size of 13 hr standard definition movie or more than 2.5 hrs of a high definition movie. While the double layered one can store to about 54 gigabytes. This enormous storage capability is considered to be the major plus point of the blu ray disc to that of the conventional DVD’s in the market right now.

BLU-RAY DISC:
Blu ray disc is the next generation digital video disc. It has an edge over the traditional dvd's & lesser used cd's that it has more storage capacity with the size of the disc being constant. Also we'll discuss now the other features of this disc which makes it quite unique & gives it a chance to be well adapted in all sorts of applications everywhere.

STRUCTURE:
The structure of the Blu-Ray disc is shown as below. It differs from the traditional DVD that, in a DVD the data is sandwiched between two 0.6mm polycarbonate layers. While in the case of a BD the data layer is placed on a 1.1mm polycarbonate layer. To prevent the data on the top of the disc from getting erased, the data layer is covered by a 0.1 mm protection layer. This makes the size of all the CD's DVD's & the BD's constant. This packing of the data has many advantages which will be discussed in the later sections.




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