blu ray dvd full report
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31-01-2010, 11:27 PM



.doc   Blu Ray DVD report.doc (Size: 511 KB / Downloads: 220)
Introduction
Tokyo Japan, February 19, 2002: Nine leading companies today announced that they have jointly established the basic specifications for a next generation large capacity optical disc video recording format called "Blu-ray Disc". The Blu-ray Disc enables the recording, rewriting and play back of up to 27 gigabytes (GB) of data on a single sided single layer 12cm CD/DVD size disc using a 405nm blue-violet laser.
By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser, the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converges the laser 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0.32um, almost half of that of a regular DVD, achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc.
Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.
Concept of the format establishment :
To realize the large capacity with 12cm disc
- More than 2-hour high definition video recording
- High capacity of more than 4-hour recording by double layer technology.
To cope with digital broadcasting
- High compatibility with digital broadcasting
- To prevent illegitimate duplication of contents
To enhance the Blu-ray Disc world
- Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in variety of media and applications
Main Features of physical format:
Large recording capacity up to 27GB:
By adopting a 405nm blue-violet semiconductor laser, with a 0.85NA field lens and a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection disc layer structure, it can record up to 27GB video data on a single sided 12cm phase change disc. It can record over 2 hours of digital high definition video and more than 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting (VHS/standard definition picture quality, 3.8Mbps)
Easy to use disc cartridge:
An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints
High-speed data transfer rate 36Mbps:
It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasts or high definition images from a digital video camera while maintaining the original picture quality. In addition, by fully utilizing an optical disc's random accessing functions, it is possible to easily edit video data captured on a video camera or play back pre-recorded video on the disc while simultaneously recording images being broadcast on TV.
Recording format:
Like the DVD, the Blu-ray disc uses phase change recording. This must be good news for those who plan to make the new format compatible with its wildly popular predecessor. This recording format will also makes a two-sided disc easily realizable because both writing and reading can be executed by a single pickup.
Multiplexing:
Blu-ray disc utilizes global standards like MPEG-2 Transport Stream compression technology for video and audio multiplexing. This makes it possible for a Blu-ray Disc to record high definition broadcasting and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. Data captured on a video camera while recording images being broadcast on TV can also be edited simultaneously.
Main Features Of Logical format :
Highly compatible with digital broadcasting :
MPEG2 transport stream compression technology for video recording can record digital broadcasting including HDTV while maintaining its original picture quality.
Best data structure for disc recording
Achieving improvement of searching, easy editing functions and play a list playback functions by adapting logical data structure making the best use of
random accessing.
File system for HDTV real time recording
Adapting the file system which can achieve high bit rate recording and playback of HDTV and best use of disc space
Main Specifications
Recording capacity:
23.3GB/25GB/27GB
Laser wavelength:
405nm (blue-violet laser)
Lens numerical aperture(NA):
0.85
Data transfer rate:
36Mbps
Disc diameter:
120mm
Disc thickness:
1.2mm (optical transmittance protection layer: 1mm)
Recording format:
Phase change recording
Tracking format:
Groove recording
Tracking pitch:
0.32um
Shortest pit length:
0.160/0.149/0.138um
Recording phase density:
16.8/18.0/19.5Gbit/inch2
Video recording format
MPEG2 video
Audio recording format:
AC3, MPEG1, Layer2, etc.
Video and audio multiplexing format:
MPEG2 transport stream
Cartridge dimension:
Approximately 129 x 131 x 7mm
The Blue Laser
A blue laser operates in the blue range of the light spectrum, ranging from about 405nm to 470nm. Most blue laser diodes use indium gallium nitride as the material to create the laser light, although the amount of indium included in the material varies. (Some blue laser diodes use no indium.) Some manufacturers create blue LEDs (light-emitting diodes), which create light in a manner similar to lasers with silicon carbide.
Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams, which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor, along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc, in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes. Blue lasers are desirable because blue light has the shortest wavelength among visible light.

A blue laser operates at a shorter wavelength of about 405nm than a red laser at about 650nm. A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, one-millionth of a millimeter, and one-thousandth of a micron. One inch is equal to about 25.4 million nanometers. A human hair is about 50,000nm wide.
Blue Laser Development
Shiju Nakamura is credited with inventing the blue diode laser and blue, green, and white LEDs. Nakamura was working at Nichia Chemical Industries in Japan when he developed the blue laser in 1995. Itâ„¢s a technology many large corporations had been trying to develop for several years.
Nakamura had worked with LEDs and lasers for several years before tackling blue lasers in the late 1980s. Because most research at the time focused on using zinc selenide as the laser material, Nakamura decided to work with gallium nitride. He spent two years perfecting a technique for growing high-quality gallium nitride crystals, something other researchers had been unable to achieve.
Finally, Nakamura had the materials necessary to create blue LEDs, which he did in 1993. He followed with green LEDs and a blue laser diode in the next few years. He says the biggest commercial use for blue lasers should be DVD players.
Putting Blue Lasers to Work
Blue lasers could appear in a variety of business applications, including high-density DVDs, laser printers, and lighting situations.
HD DVDs : HD (high-definition) DVDs using blue laser light could lead to five or six times the storage capacity possible using red laser light on a DVD. Blue laser light could create HD CDs, too.
Because blue lasers can increase the capacity of optical discs by five-fold or more, they give manufacturers a few options for their digital files. Manufacturers could choose to burn additional data onto the disc while keeping the same digital quality, potentially making CDs containing 50 to 75 songs. Manufacturers also could choose to use blue laser to increase the quality level of the video or audio recording. Keep in mind that nearly all DVDs using the MPEG-2 standard automatically contain some compression of the video file, which allows the file to fit on the disc. With an HD DVD, manufacturers could choose to use no compression on the video file, which should improve file quality.
Light bulbs : With green and red lasers already available, development of a blue laser would be the final piece of the laser puzzle among primary colors. By using all three colors of lasers, a researcher could create a device that would mix the laser light and create white light, which, at some point, could replace the common light bulb. If you combine red, green, and blue laser light, you can produce light with greater brilliance and greater efficiency than currently is available with fluorescent lights.
Creating LEDs in this manner can be of particular help in areas where light bulbs are expensive and difficult to replace. An LED can burn for several times as long as a light bulb for about one-fourth the operating cost because most of the LEDâ„¢s energy is involved in creating light, rather than creating heat energy. Traditional light bulbs create a lot of heat along with the light.
LEDs already are used in many traffic lights, where traditional bulbs usually last less than one year, can be tough to see in sunlight, and fail suddenly. LEDs in a traffic light should last at least five years, remain highly visible in sunlight, and gradually fade in intensity rather than failing suddenly.
Medicine : Scientists already are experimenting with blue lasers in discovering certain types of cancer. Using an endoscope, researchers have had some success finding tumors using a blue laser light inside the patientâ„¢s stomach and intestinal tract.
Printing : Laser printers using blue laser light would be smaller and more precise than todayâ„¢s laser printers, which use red laser light. Because of blue laser lightâ„¢s smaller wavelength, the laser mechanism inside a printer that uses blue laser light could be smaller, leading to smaller printers. Print resolution using blue lasers would be at least double that of todayâ„¢s top laser printers, too; some researchers estimate resolution as sharp as 2,400dpi in a blue laser printer. Blue laser could play a role in full-color scanners and fax machines, too.
Security : After the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, fears have increased over additional attacks using biological or chemical weapons. However, blue laser light causes some chemical and biological agents to give off light, even though those agents are invisible to the naked eye, which might let security screening personnel spot a biological agent during a routine search or as the agent comes through customs.
Waiting for HD DVD
The unfortunate news is that all of these applications and developments concerning blue lasers remain in the earliest stages. Some of the applications weâ„¢ve mentioned here could take until the next decade to become commercially viable. You arenâ„¢t going to be able to buy an HD DVD player for a while for several reasons.
First, blue laser devices”like most new types of technology”aren™t cheap to manufacture. It took several years for red and infrared laser devices to become as easily and inexpensively manufactured as they are today; blue laser devices almost certainly will follow that trend in the next few years.
Second, the reliability and durability of blue lasers, at least when compared to red and infrared lasers, is a little shaky. The materials used to create lasers inevitably break down at some point. Although the material in red and infrared lasers, usually gallium aluminum, can last 10,000 hours or more, material in blue lasers, usually indium gallium nitride, typically lasts less than 1,000 hours. Researchers expect to iron out the problem with materials relatively soon, though. Cree claimed in February 2002 that it had created a blue laser with a 10,000-hour lifespan at room temperature. Cree also says its blue laser should be compatible with the Blu-ray Disc standard.
Third, the exacting current specifications for creating optical discs will become even more stringent to account for the smaller pits blue lasers make. Even the tiniest imperfections will be magnified in an optical disc with blue laser technology. Optical disc manufacturers will need some time to improve manufacturing processes.
Finally, consumer demand just isnâ„¢t there yet. Only a fraction of the population is using DVD players or CD burners. Why would someone whoâ„¢s still using a VCR and videotape suddenly begin clamoring for an HD DVD Such changes in the tastes and demands of consumers just take time.
Some experts say consumers will be wary of HD DVD, especially those whoâ„¢ve spent hundreds or thousands of dollars switching their movie collections from videotape to DVD. Some movie studios might be wary of HD DVD initially, too, waiting for improved copy protection before adopting the new technology.
Regardless of the reasons, most experts say any form of HD DVD probably is five to 10 years away from mainstream consumer acceptance. (After all, it might take consumers that long to restock their DVD-purchasing bank accounts.) You can be sure blue laser technology wonâ„¢t sit around waiting for consumer tastes to turn, though. Blue laser has enough potential applications available to keep researchers busy for the next several years.
The Blu-ray Impact
Blu-ray is expected to challenge DVD's run as the fastest selling consumer-electronics item in history. If that happens, the impact would be too big for the major players to discount. For example, the number of films sold on DVD more than doubled last year to over 37 million. In addition, almost 2.4 million DVD players were bought in the past year. As Blu-ray is not compatible with DVD, its success could upset the applecart of many players. If the new format turns out to be much popular, the demand for DVD players could come down drastically. Not withstanding the challenge to DVD makers, the new format is seen as a big step in the quest for systems offering higher data storage. It is expected to open up new opportunities for broadcasting industry. Recording of high-definition television video”an application in which more than 10GB of storage space is filled up with just one hour of video”will get a major boost. Conversely, the format could take advantage of the spread of high-definition television. As Blu-ray Disc uses MPEG-2 Transport Stream compression technology, recording for digital broadcasting would become easier. Its adoption will grow in the broadband era as it offers a technology platform to manage stored content. But the real action will begin when the companies involved develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. As that happens, Blu-ray will move beyond being a recording tool to a variety of applications. Adoption of Blu-ray Disc in PC data storage is already being considered.
Characteristics of Ideal Communication
1. Speed: The blue laser technology will allow DVD recording devices to record data at a speed of 36Mbps. Developing companies such a TDK also stated that they will be able to increase the recording speed up to 72Mbps and 144Mbps. Developing companies such as Toshiba and NEC have been working on this technology and have already developed the blue laser standard.
2. Reliability: Storage mediums used by blue laser burners will provide high reliable backup at affordable prices. Media types will provide a 50 year data life. They will also employ a new dual shutter cartridge to minimize contamination and protect valuable data stored on a disc.
3. Quality: Media storage devices using this technology will have a quality similar to the quality of red laser storage devices. Optical discs have to be used in a safe way. They should be in the case they come in or in the device using it. This is to avoid scratching of the discs which can cause data on a disc to be unreadable. Laser printers would me more precise than regular laser printers that use red laser, because of the shorter wavelength that blue laser has.
4. Ease of Use: DVD recording devices are very simple to use. Even children can use them. There are no complexities to the use of blue laser recording devices. They are used just like any regular red laser DVD recording device. An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints.
5. Cost: The price of an optical disc recording device using blue ray will start off with a high price tag around $1700. Just like any computer related devices that are new the price will decrease as time passes. It has a high storage capacity which is up to 60 GB on a dual sided DVD.
6. Safety and Security: Blue laser light helps in detecting some chemical and biological weapons because it causes them to give off light. So it could be used in airports and other places that have security screening to detect such a weapon.
Comparison of Storage Technologies
While current optical disc technologies such as CD, DVD, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW use a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. The benefit of using a blue laser is that it has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometer) than a red laser (650 nanometer), which means that it's possible to focus the laser beam with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly on the disc and makes it possible to fit more data on the same size disc. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray Disc Recorders will be made compatible with current red-laser technologies and allow playback of CDs and DVDs.
The following diagram shows the comparison between different storage Technologies.
Trends in Storage Technology
The following graph shows the trends in optical storage technology over the years .
How does Blu-ray disc work
History of Technology
1. The challenge to write more information on disk
2. Shiju Nakamura is credited with inventing the blue diode laser and
blue, green, and white LEDs.
3. Nakamura was working at Nichia Chemical Industries in Japan
when he developed the blue laser in 1995.
Description of how this technology works.
Blue lasers have a wavelength of 405 nanometers, shorter than that of red lasers, which have a wavelength of around 650 nanometers and are used for reading and writing DVD and CD discs. The shorter wavelength means that the laser can register smaller dots on a disc and more data can be stored. As a result, blue laser technology has been adopted for the development of next-generation optical discs.
1. Using double infrared frequency to create the wavelength for blue light.
2. A blue laser operates in the blue range of the light spectrum, ranging from about 405nm to 470nm.
3. Most blue laser diodes use indium gallium nitride as the material to create the laser light.
4. Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams, which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely.
5. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor, along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc, in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc.
6. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes.
Companies Involved
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified.
The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate are:
Hitachi Ltd.
LG Electronics Inc.
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.
Pioneer Corporation.
Royal Philips Electronics.
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd..
Sharp Corporation.
Sony Corporation.
Thomson Multimedia.
Future Developments
Despite the impending tug-of war, the industry is excited about the future prospects of this technological innovation. The industry is of the view that Blu-ray has the potential to replicate, if not better, the DVD success story. The expected upswing in high-definition television adoption and broadband implementation could act as the catalyst. Aware that the recession in economies across the globe could come in the way of high-definition television broadband penetration, major players are exploring the ways to make Blu-ray compatible with DVDs. Cost can dampen the sales in the first year. Owing to the patent and the technology involved, Blu-ray is likely to cost more than DVDs. But sooner than later, it will move towards commodity pricing. Once that happens, Blu-ray holds the promise to steal a march over its immediate predecessor.
Conclusion
In conclusion the Blue-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. Blue lasers have a shorter wavelength, which means the laser beam can be focused onto a smaller area of the disc surface. In turn, this means less real estate is needed to store one bit of data, and so more data can be stored on a disc. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. Companies involved in the development will respectively make products that take full advantage of Blue-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blue-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is also being considered. There is a lot of talk about blue-laser-based systems being focused around high-definition television, which has heavy data needs. But Blue-ray Disc groups are also considering development of write-once and read-only formats for use with PCs.
Prototype blue-laser-based optical disc systems have been around for more than a year. However, one problem has hampered development of commercial systems: cost. A sample blue-laser diode currently costs around $1000, making consumer products based on the parts unrealistic. However, Nichia, the major source for blue lasers, is expected to begin commercial production this year and the price of a blue-laser diode is expected to tumble once the company begins turning them out in volume. The DVD forum may or may not invite the blue-ray light into is era but the 27GB disc is not far off in practically disturbing the DVD wave.
References
Research Papers
1) Wobble-address format of the blu-ray disc. By S. Furumiya, S. Kobayashi, B. Stek, H. Ishibashi, T. Yamagami, K. Schep: Presented at ISOM/ODS Hawaii, July 2002 .
2) Millipede- Nanotechnology Entering Data Storage, By P. P. Vettiger, G. Cross, M. Despont, U. Drechsler, U. Dürig, B. Gotsmann, W. Häberle, M. A. Lantz, H. E. Rothuizen, R. Stutz, and G. K. Binnig:
3) 34 GB Multilevel-enabled Rewritable System using Blue Laser and High NA Optics. By H. Hieslmair, J. Stinebaugh, T. Wong, M. O™Neill, M. Kuijper, G. Langereis: Published at ISOM/ODS Hawaiï, July 2002.
Websites
licensing.philips
almaden.ibmst/disciplines/storage/
bluraydisc
blu-raytalk
ABSTRACT
Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of a next-generation optical disc video recording format jointly developed by nine leading consumer electronics companies. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HDTV). Blu-ray makes it possible to record over 2 hours of digital high-definition video (HDTV) or more than 13 hours of standard-definition video (SDTV/VHS picture quality) on a 27GB disc. There are also plans for higher capacity discs that are expected to hold up to 50GB of data.
The Blu-ray Disc technology can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.
Key Characteristics of Blu-ray discs are :
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Main Specifications
3. The Blue Laser
4. Characteristics of Ideal Communication
5. Comparison of Storage Technologies
6. Trends in Storage Technology
7. How Blu-ray works
8. Companies Involved
9. Future Development
10. Conclusion
11. Reference
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am deeply indebted to Prof. P.V. Abdul Hameed, Head of the Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering, MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram for his sincere and dedicated cooperation and encouragement for the seminar and presentation.
I would also like to thank our guide Mr.Berly C.J, Lecturer, Department of ECE, MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram, for his invaluable advice and wholehearted cooperation without which this seminar and presentation would not have been a success.
Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of ECE for their valuable advice and encouragement.
AYSHIN ASHRAF.T
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04-04-2010, 08:12 PM

Presentation On Blu-ray disc


Submitted by
BHARATH. S
ASHWINI.B
BHARGAVI B.S
MANU KUMAR.S
CHANDAN JHA



CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO BLU-RAY DISC
NAMING OF BLU-RAY DISC
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF BLU-RAY DISC
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF BLU-RAY DISC
SPECIFICATION OF BLU-RAY DISC
DISC STRUCTURE
READ WRITE SPEED
DISC CHARACTERISTICS
BLU-RAY DISC FEATURES
BD VS DVD
ADVANTAGES OF BLU-RAY DISC OVER DVD
HIGH DEFINATION
BD VS HD-DVD
CURRENT TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATION OF BLU-RAY DISC
GROW ABLE ADVANTAGES OF BLU-RAY DISC



Introduction to blu-ray disc

Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are high-definition video and Data storage. The disc has the same dimensions as a standard DVD or CD.

The name Blu-ray Disc is derived from the blue laser (violet colored) used to read and write this type of disc. Because of its shorter wave length (405 nm) ,substantially more data can be stored on a blue ray disc than on the DVD format, which uses red (650 nm ) laser. A dual layer blue ray disc can store 50 GB, almost 6 times the capacity of a dual layer DVD (or more than 10 times if single “layer).

Naming of Blu-ray disc :
The blu-ray disc uses blue violet laser with wave length of 405nm.So it is named as Blu-ray.


Benefits of using blue violet laser(405nm)are :-
1- shorter wavelength than red laser (650nm), which makes it
possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision.

2-allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space

3-possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same
size as CD/DVD.

4-with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables
Blu-ray Disc to hold 25GB/50GB.




The Physical Structure of Blu-Ray Disc

Media type : High “density Optical disc

Encoding : MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC (H.264), and VC-1
Capacity: 25 GB (single layer), 50 GB (dual layer)
Read mechanism: 1x@36 Mbps & 2x@72 Mbps
Developed by: Blu-ray Disc Association
Usage: Data storage, High-definition video and
Play Station 3D Games



Technical specification of blu-ray disc:

The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were finished in 2004.
In January 2005, TDK announced that they had developed a hard coating polymer for Blu-ray Discs.
The recording capacity required by application was the important issue. The requirement for CD was 74 minutes of recording capacity and a capacity of about 800MB.
for DVDâ„¢s the requirement as a video disc was the recording of a movie with a length of two hours and fifteen minutes using the standard definition.
In case of blu-ray disc ,the capacity is determined up to 54 GB of high definition of data.




Specification of Blu-ray Disc


Formats

The Blu-ray disc is initially designed in several different formats,
BD-ROM (read “ only): for pre-recorded content.
BD-R (recordable): for storing high definition data on disc.
BD-RW (rewritable):for PC data storage.
BD-RE (rewritable):for high definition television storage.




Compatibility and Recorders:

Blu-ray lasers and Drives are capable of reading DVD formats, ensuring backward compatibility. This makes upgrade and more active to the consumer . The first blu-ray recorder was introduced by the Sony on march 3,2003 .and was introduced to the Japanese market in April that year .At the end of 2004, Sony announced the play station 3 will be shipped with a special blu-ray drive.

Variations:

A one side, single “sided 8 cm BD can hold 15 GB, giving it the capacity of one and a half regular sized (12 cm) single layer double sized DVD™s. This would be ideal format for small portable devices such as small portable movie player and digital video camera™s.


Data Rate:



For high-definition movies a much higher data rate is needed than for standard definition. The following numbers offer a comparison: data bit length :111.75 nm(25 GB )(267 nm for DVD),linear velocity: 7.367 m/s (movie application)(3.49 m/s for DVD), user data transfer rate: (53.948 Mbits)(movie application)(10.08 Mbps for DVD).

Codecs:

The BD-ROM format will likely 3 codec's: MPEG-2 (the standard used for DVDs), MPEG-4â„¢s H.264/AVC codec, and VC-1 based on Microsoft's windows media 9 cosec. The first codec only allows for about two hours of storage on a single layer Blu-ray Disc, but with the addition of the latter two more advanced codec's, a single layer disc can hold almost four hour s high definition MPEG-2 has a data rate of about 25Mbps.


Disc structure

One of the feature that differentiate BD from DVD recording system is the position of the recording layer with disc. For DVD the recording layer sandwiched between two 0.6-mm thick layer of plastic- typically polycarbonate.
Single layer BD read-only disc:


Dual layer Disc

To improve scratch resistance , the cover layer can be optionally protected with an hard coat layer technology. The different layers are shown. A spacing layer is used to separate the two information on disc. Also the different transmission stack are shown,


Read write speed

According to the Blu-ray Disc specification, 1xspeed is defined as 36Mbps.
However, as BD-ROM movies will require a 54Mbps data transfer rate the
Minimum speed were expecting to see is 2x(72Mbps).
Blu-ray also has the potential for much higher speeds, as a result of the
larger numerical aperture (NA) adopted by Blu-ray Disc. The large NA
value effectively means that Blu-ray will require less recording power and
lower disc rotation speed than DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the
same data transfer rate


Disc Characteristics

Numerical Aperature measures the ability of a lens to gather and focus light. As the numerical aperture increases, the focusing power increases and the beam size decreases
Phase change implies that the disc section is either an amorphous or crystalline state. The reflectivity changes accordingly thus representing a binary bit


Blu“ray Disc Features

1:Massive storage capacity: 25 GB (single layer) or 50 GB
(dual layer) on a single-sided disc, compared to 4.7 (single layer)
and 8.5 GB (dual layer) on a single-sided DVD disc

Support high bit rate, high-
definition video at resolutions of up to 1920x1080,compared to DVDâ„¢S in progressive and interlaced formats. About 9hrs of high-definition(HD) video can be stored on a 50GB disc.About 23hrs of standard-definition(SD) video can be stored on a 50GB disc.On average, a single-layer disc can hold High Definition features of 135 minutes using MPEG-2, with additional room for 2 hrs of bonus material in standard definition quality.A dual layer disc will extend this number up to 3hrs in HD quality and 9hrs of SD bonus materials.

3.Compatible with CDs and DVDs: Same size and look
as CD and DVD, enabling Blu-ray Disc drives that can read
and write CDs and DVDs.

4.Robust content protection: Strong protection that
is transparent to end users.


Advantages of blu-ray disc over DVD

It can store 5x the amount of information as normal DVD. Up to 25 GB on a single layer and 50 GB on a dual layer.
Has high definition video (9x16) and high quality audio (Dolby 5.1, 7.1, DTS 5.1).
It can record HDTV without any loss of information or resolution.
It can interact much more dynamically with viewers because of Java ME apps running on the system.
It has access to the internet, so it can download updates or additional information when needed.
Viewers can skip to any part of the disc.

High Definition
To better understand the need for media formats with greater storage lets briefly describe what High Definition is.
Your regular TV signal has about 480 pixel lines, but HD has about 1280 pixel lines that go across your TV
Because of this difference the bandwidth of HD is about 5 times greater than standard video.
Currently a standard movie takes up almost an entire DVD so we need something thatâ„¢s almost 5 times that.


Current technology

Some of the storage devices that are available in the market.
Analog storage technology:
VHS
Digital storage technology:
Floppy disc ,Compact disc and Digital versatile disc.
VHS:
The blu-ray disc was forward in video recording technology as it enables the recording of high definition television(HDTV).
Random access, instantly jump to any spot on disc.
Searching, preview the recorded programs on disc.
Automatically find out an free space to avoid recording over programs.
Improved picture ,ability to record high definition television(HDTV)



Development specification of blu-ray

The blu-ray disc was developed by blu-ray disc association and a group of leading consumer electronics and pc electronics with more than 130 members from all over world.
The board of directory currently consist of:
Apple computers
Helewlett Packard company
LG electronics
Pioneer electronics
Royal-Philips
Samsung electronics co.Ltd
Sharp corporation
Sony corporation
TDK.


Grow able advantages of blu-ray disc


Although Blu-ray canâ„¢t quite fit an entire series of HD-quality material on one disc, it could potentially fit an entire series of standard DVD quality stuff on one. Thatâ„¢s pretty good, considering the storage savings alone.


This is a really good time to be check it out. DRM is the copyright protection scheme the media industry uses to prevent piracy, and the Blu-rayâ„¢s technology in this realm is actually quite exciting. The possibility exists for users to copy the content of a disc a limited number of times,


Backward compatibility :

The Blu-ray Disc Association is encouraging manufacturers to make the players fully backwards compatible. That will allow users to both read and write on CDs, DVDs, and, obviously, Blu-ray discs.

Quality support :

Sony and Philips might be the strongest backers of Blu-ray, but other major corporations.
Blu-ray appears to be winning the format war with the HDTV, there are more major studios releasing discs in the Blu-ray format than the HD-DVD format, and Blu-ray players than HD-DVD (where the only major manufacturer isToshiba).
please read topicideashow-to-blu-ray-dvd-full-report and topicideashow-to-blu-ray-technology for getting more information about Blue ray disk


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Abstract
Blu-Ray is a new generation, high capacity and speed data storage technology. It is supported by several industry leading companies and has a bright future according to professionals.
The name Blu-ray Disc (BD) is derived from the blue-violet laser it uses to read and write to the disc. A Blu-ray. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit.
The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience.
Sony has released 50GB recordable BDs and will soon be releasing 50GB BD media discs.
What is Blu ray technology?
Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson).
The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc
Why the name Blu-ray?
The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of "Blue" (blue-violet laser) and "Ray" (optical ray). According to the Blu-ray Disc Association the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake; the character "e" was intentionally left out so the term could be registered as a trademark.
Mechanism of blu ray tech
Building of blu ray disc

Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1.2 millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store data differently. In a DVD, the data is sandwiched between two polycarbonate layers, each 0.6-mm thick. Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence, in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams. If the beam is split too widely, the disc cannot be read. Also, if the DVD surface is not exactly flat, and is therefore not exactly perpendicular to the beam, it can lead to a problem known as disc tilt, in which the laser beam is distorted. All of these issues lead to a very involved manufacturing process.
Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement. Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement.
The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. Because the data is closer to the surface, a hard coating is placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints.
The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence.
1. The two discs are molded.
2. The recording layer is added to one of the discs.
3. The two discs are glued together.
Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces cost. That savings balances out the cost of adding the protective layer, so the end price is no more than the price of a regular DVD.
Dual layer
 The power conservation allows the development of multi-layer platforms and high-speed recording
 BD-ROM: read-only format BD-R and BD-RE: recordable formats (RE: rewritable; R: recordable once)
 Phase change implies that the disc section is either an amorphous or crystalline state. The reflectivity changes accordingly thus representing a binary bit.
Diagram
How Blu-ray Reads Data
Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be.
Unlike current DVDs, which use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (µm) (1 micron = 10-6 meters) long -- this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Plus, Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns.Numerical aperature measures the ability of a lens to gather and focus light. As the numerical aperture increases, the focusing power increases and the beam size decreases. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information -- about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD.
What Blu-ray formats are planned?
As with conventional CDs and DVDs, Blu-ray plans to provide a wide range of formats including ROM/R/RW. The following formats are part of the Blu-ray Disc specification:
BD-ROM - read-only format for distribution of HD movies, games, software, etc.
BD-R - recordable format for HD video recording and PC data storage.
BD-RE - rewritable format for HD video recording and PC data storage.
 How much video can you fit on a Blu-ray disc?
Over 9 hours of high-definition (HD) video on a 50GB disc.
About 23 hours of standard-definition (SD) video on a 50GB disc. Over two hours of HDTV can be placed on a single layer BD, which correlates to over 13 hours for standard TV. At 1x speed, it takes approximately 1.5 hours to record an entire single layer BD
 How fast can you read/write data on a Blu-ray disc?
Blu-ray also has a higher data transfer rate -- 36 Mbps (megabits per second) -- than today's DVDs, which transfer at 10 Mbps. A Blu-ray disc can record 25 GB of material in just over an hour and a half.
According to the Blu-ray Disc specification, 1x speed is defined as 36Mbps. However, as BD-ROM movies will require a 54Mbps data transfer rate the minimum speed we're expecting to see is 2x (72Mbps). Blu-ray also has the potential for much higher speeds, as a result of the larger numerical aperture (NA) adopted by Blu-ray Disc. The large NA value effectively means that Blu-ray will require less recording power and lower disc rotation speed than DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the same data transfer rate. While the media itself limited the recording speed in the past, the only limiting factor for Blu-ray is the capacity of the hardware. If we assume a maximum disc rotation speed of 10,000 RPM, then 12x at the outer diameter should be possible (about 400Mbps). This is why the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) already has plans to raise the speed to 8x (288Mbps) or more in the future.
Comparison between cd, DVD and blu-rayJust as DVD meant a five to 10 times increase in storage capacity compared to CD, Blu-ray Disc represents an increase over DVD capacity by five to 10 times. This is due, among other reasons, to the usage of a blue instead of a red laser and improved lens a specification, allowing for a much smaller focus laser beam which enables the recording of much smaller and higher density pits on the disc
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Blue-Ray Technology
What is Blue-Ray?

Blue-Ray is the next generation of optical disc format
It has the ability to store 5 times more data on one disc than a traditional DVD and can store up to 25 GB on one single layer disc
Why the name Blue-Ray?
The name comes from the technology used to read the disc
Instead of a regular red laser used to read DVDs and CDs, it uses a blue laser
Despite the difference in lasers, Blue-Ray can easily be made backwards to play traditional CDs and DVDs
History of Blue-Ray
The Blue-Ray disc standard was originally developed by a group of consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blue-Ray Association
– More than 170 companies around the world are participants in the Blue-Ray Disc Association
The Blue-Ray Disc Association announced a release date for may 23, 2006 but it was delayed until June 20, 2006
What is Blue-Ray compatible with?
Sony PS3
Panasonic, Philips, Pioneer, Samsung, Sharp, and Sony all have Blue-Ray disc players or recorders
Panasonic, Philips, Pioneer, and Sony have Blue-Ray PC drives
Prices of Blue-Ray
Samsung Blue-Ray Player
– $700.00 to $750.00
Panasonic Blue-Ray Player
– $1300.00
Philips Blue-Ray Player
– $900.00
Sony Blue-Ray Player
– $1000.00
Pioneer Blue-Ray Player
– $1500.00
Blue-Ray in Game Consoles
Playstation 3 the brand new game console for Sony includes Blue-ray. PS3 costs about $600 dollars, but that’s not bad considering the cheapest Blue- ray players start at $700. Sony's press releases states that it supports DVD (8x), CD (24x), and SACD (2x) formats in addition to BD-ROM, BD-R, and BD-RE.
– SACD stands for super audio CD which allows for much higher digital audio creation.
Blue-Ray Supporters
Apple
Dell
HP
Hitachi
LG
Mitsubishi Electric
Panasonic
Pioneer
Philips
Samsung
Sharp
Sony
Sun Microsystems
TDK
Thompson
Twentieth Centruy Fox
Disc Space (lasers and optics)
Blue-ray disc uses a blue violet laser operating at wavelength 405nm which is similar to the HD DVD to read and write data. Normal DVD’s and CDs use red infrared lasers operating at about the wavelength of 650nm and 780 nm. NM stands for nanometer which is one-billionth of a meter.
Blue-Ray Security
The Blue-ray Disc Association, led by Sony, stated it will simultaneously embrace digital watermarking, programmable cryptography, and a self-destruct code for Blue-ray disc players.
Its solution to the nagging problem of digital rights management is to embrace every option on the table.
Blue-Ray to DVD Comparison
Storage capacity is the key difference between a Blue-ray optical disc and a DVD. Standard DVD capacities peak at around 4.7 GB for DVD-Rs. With up to 50 GB of available storage space, the capacity of commercially available Blue-ray discs is comparable to that of many external PC hard drives used for backing up data.
The Blue-Ray disc is expected to replace existing DVDs just as DVDs replaced VHS tapes
The Blue-ray format has received broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format.
Seven of the eight major movie studios have already announced titles for Blue-ray, including Warner, Paramount, Fox, Disney, Sony, MGM and Lionsgate.
Future Development
Engineers are constantly in work to improve this technology. Quad layer 100 GB discs have already been created. TDK has stated that they have already created a 200 GB disc all on one side, using 6,
33 GB data layers.
Blue-Ray Prototypes
TDK Corp. has prototyped a recordable Blue-ray Disc medium with its capacity increased to 200 GB by stacking six recording layers.
The new medium has the capacity approximately eight times of the existing single-layer Blue-ray Disc medium.
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18-06-2012, 11:41 AM

hi
you can refer these pages to get the details on blu-ray-technology

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topicideashow-to-blu-ray-technology?page=3
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