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03-01-2010, 04:45 PM



.doc   Bluetooth Technology Seminar Report.doc (Size: 335 KB / Downloads: 1,254)
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Seminar Report On Bluetooth Technology

This article is presented by:
G.H.Raisoni
College Of Engineering & Technology
Dept: Information & Technology

INTRODUCTION
Bluetooth is a radio frequency specification for short range, point to point and point to multi point voice and data transfer. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of cables normally used to connect one device to another by a short range radio link. With the help of blue tooth we can operate our keyboard and mouse without direct connection of CPU. Printers, fax machines, headphone, mouse, keyboard or any other digital devices can be part of Bluetooth system.
In spite of facilitating the replacement of cables, Bluetooth technology works as an universal medium to bridge the existing data networks, a peripheral interface for existing devices and provide a mechanism to form short ad hok network of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures.
Due to their independence on short range radio link, Bluetooth devices do not require a line of site connection in order to communicate. Therefore a computer can print information on a printer if printer is in inside the room. Two blue tooth devices can talk to each other when they come within range of 10 meters to each other.
Bluetooth technology represents an opportunity for the industry to deliver wireless solutions that are ubiquitous across a broad range of devices.
Why the name is Bluetooth?
While many new technologies bear technical names, like RS-232 or IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, the wireless technology, is different. Bluetooth was named for the 10th Century Viking king , Harald Blatand (A.K.A., Bluetooth) who peacefully united all the tiny island kingdoms of Denmark, southern Sweden, and southern Norway into one country . In keeping with its namesake, Bluetooth, the new low-cost radio technology, is designed to unite or connect all different types of devices to effectively work as one. By uniting devices, Bluetooth eliminates the need for cabling in a wide range of products, including cellular phones, PCs, headphones, audio equipment, printers, and many more.



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01-03-2010, 04:22 PM

An Introduction to Bluetooth

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THE BLUETOOTH BLUES
Presented by

HISTORY

The Bluetooth specification was first developed in 1994 by Sven Mattison and Jaap Haartsen, who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund, Sweden

The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20, 1998

The Bluetooth system is named after Harald Blatand, a tenth-century Danish Viking king, who united Denmark and Norway
WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?

Bluetooth is a new communication system for electrical devices in the home. A Bluetooth is a wireless system that uses radio waves for communication. It has the ability to communicate with many different devices at once without interference
Bluetooth is an open standard for short-range transmission of digital voice and data that supports point-to-point and multipoint applications
Bluetooth is based on a low-cost, low power, short range radio link. Bluetooth cuts the cord that used to tie up digital devices. when two Bluetooth devices come within 50 meters range of each other , they establish a connection together
TECHNICAL VIEWPOINT

It operates at 2.45 GHz which is available globally, although slight variation of location and width of band apply.
The range is set at 10 to100 meters to optimize for target market of mobile and business user. The range can, however, be increased.
Gross data rate is 1Mbit/s, with second generation plans to increase to 2 Mbit/s.
One-to-one connections allow maximum data transfer rate of 723 Kbit/s.
It has low power consumption, drawing only 0.3 mA in standby mode. This enables maximum performance longevity for battery powered devices.

POTENTIAL USES OF BLUETOOTH

Phones and pagers
Modems
LAN access devices
Headsets
Notebook computers
Desktop and handheld computers
Printers
Fax machines
Keyboards & Joysticks

BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL STACK

The heart of the Bluetooth specification is the Bluetooth protocol stack By providing well-defined layers of functionality, the Bluetooth specification ensures interoperability of Bluetooth devices and encourages adoption of Bluetooth technology.
Bluetooth is defined as a layered protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable replacement and telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols

CORE SYSTEM PROTOCOL
Radio (RF) protocol

Specifies details of the air interface, the use of frequency hopping, modulation scheme, and transmit power.
Baseband protocol
Concerned with connection establishment within a Piconet, addressing, packet format, timing, and power control
Link Manager protocol (LMP)

Responsible for link setup between Bluetooth devices and ongoing link management
Logical link control and adaptation
protocol (L2CAP)

L2CAP provides both connectionless and connection-oriented services.
Service discovery protocol (SDP)
Device information, services, and the characteristics of the services can be queried to enable the establishment of a connection between two or more Bluetooth devices

ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

RFCOMM
It provides connections to multiple devices by relying on L2CAP to handle multiplexing over single connection
Wireless access protocol (WAP)

It supports the limited display size and resolution typically found on mobile devices by providing special formats for Web pages
Object exchange protocol (OBEX)

OBEX is a protocol designed to allow a variety of devices to exchange data simply and spontaneously.
Telephony control protocol
Bluetooth's Telephony Control protocol Specification (TCS) defines how telephone calls should be sent across a Bluetooth link
Point-to-point protocol (PPP)

The point-to-point protocol is an Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagram over a point-to-point link
CORE ARCHITECTURAL BLOCKS

Channel manager
The channel manager is responsible for creating, managing, and destroying L2CAP channels for the transport of service protocols
L2cap resource manager
The L2CAP resource manager block is responsible for managing the ordering of submission of fragments to the baseband
Device manager
The device manager is the functional block in the baseband that controls the general behavior of the Bluetooth enabled device
Link manager
The link manager is responsible for the creation, modification, and release of logical links
Link controller
The link controller is responsible for the encoding and decoding of Bluetooth packets
PROFILE OVERVIEW

In order to use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. The profiles define the possible applications
each profile specification contains information on the following topics:
Dependencies on other profiles
Suggested user interface formats
Specific parts of the Bluetooth protocol stack used by the profile. To perform its task, each profile uses particular options and parameters at each layer of the stack .


SECURITY

Non secure mode
No security measures are utilized. Any other Bluetooth device can access the data and services of a device.
Service level enforced security
Enacts security measures based on authorization. In this mode, different trust levels can be defined for each of the services offered by the device
Link level enforced security
Requires both authentication and encryption. The Bluetooth device initiates security procedure before the channel is established.


HEALTH CONCERNS

That the carrier waves used by Bluetooth's transmitters use the same frequency range as microwave Ovens (Bluetooth uses 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz).
Actually, the transmitting power is far too weak to be noticeable for humans. When using a wireless phone or a Bluetooth device, some of the emitted RF energy is absorbed by the body. The penetration depth is about 1.5 cm at 2450 MHz which means that the absorption is very superficial.
The radiated output power of Bluetooth devices is low when compared to other widely used mobile devices, so it is assumed that the potential for health risks are also correspondingly lower
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY

One of the 3 IrDA-standards that are used today is called IrDA-Data, and this standard is primarily meant for data transmission. But the main differences as compared to Bluetooth are:
IrDA is not omnidirectional, as is Bluetooth. The IrDA-beam has to be aimed at the receiving antenna.
IrDA must have a free line of sight.
IrDA is point-to-point; only 2 units at a time can communicate
BLUETOOTH vs WI-FI

The popular term for a high-frequency wireless local area network. The consumer-friendly name for the 802.11b engineering standard Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth
Bluetooth has generally lower speed than that of 802.11b wireless LANs.
Bluetooth components (chips and radios) and device adapters are cheaper than wireless LAN components and adapters.
Bluetooth chips have lower power consumption - less drain on battery
CONCLUSION

The hottest new technological wave of the future is Bluetooth. This groundbreaking technology is growing so fast that it will be built in to products. Ease of use combined with increasing availability leads us to believe that Bluetooth will soon become common as big hair.
As Bluetooth technology becomes more main stream, go ahead and take it for a whirl and enjoy a cable less and hands-free environment.
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08-06-2010, 09:08 PM


.ppt   BLUE TOOTH technology presentation.ppt (Size: 4.2 MB / Downloads: 168)


Presented By:
M.HEMA MADHURI
III CSE
05R81A0519
P.ROJA RANI
III CSE
05R81A0529
SRI SUNFLOWER COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


INTRODUCTION

Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.


BLUETOOTH HISTORY

What is Bluetooth
@Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology.
Why this name
@It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.
When does it appear
@ 1994 “ Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories.
@ 5companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.
@First specification released in July 1999.





TYPICAL BLUETOOTH SCENARIO

¢ Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a Pico net.
¢ Point to Point Link
“ Master - slave relationship
“ Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves
¢ Pico net
“ It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7)
“ Each Pico net is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to
“ Each Pico net has max capacity (1 Mbps)



Ad-hoc Network “ the Scatter net

Inter-Pico net communication
Up to 10 Pico nets in a scatter net
Multiple Pico nets can operate within same physical space
This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network



BLUETOOTH COMPONENTS

A complete blue tooth system will require the following components:
A RF portion for receiving and transmitting data
A module with a base band microprocessor.
Memory.
An interface to the host device such as mobile.



RANGE

Data synchronization range is 10-100 meters.
1 Mbps for Version 1.2 and up to 3 Mbps for Version 2.0 +
Enhanced Data Rate (EDR).
Operates on ISM band at 2.4 to 2.485GHZ.
Divides this frequency into 79 channels 1 MHz apart (from
2.402 to 2.480 GHz).




BLUETOOT SECURITY

¢ Security Measures
“ Link Level Encryption & Authentication.
“ Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access.
“ Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).
“ These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys.
“ Further encryption can be done at the application layer.




APPLICATIONS

Blue tooth will be used to replace cables to connect the devices.
Allow devices to find each other and form personal (ad hoc) networks and then share or synchronize data.
Allow devices to access the internet via other devices such as a cell phone, etc.




ADVANTAGES

Inexpensive chips
Low power consumption
Suitable for small devices such as
cordless phones, headsets, etc



FUTURE OF BLUETOOTH

Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated
into consumer products
! Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology
! Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products
! Must provide benefits for consumer
! Must not destroy current product benefits
Key Success Factors
! Interoperability
! Mass Production at Low Cost
! Ease of Use
! End User Experience



CONCLUSIONS

*A new global standard for data and voice
*Eliminate Cables
* Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices
*Future Improvements
~Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization.
~Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.
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22-06-2010, 09:57 PM

¢ Bluetooth Wireless Technology
¢
Presented By:
¢ NIKHIL BUDHIRAJA
¢ roll no 7154




What Is Bluetooth

You're coming back home
after a long, hard day. You've met
some important people and entered notes about the meetings in your PDA. Now, you want to transfer the information to your PC. The traditional way to do this is to pull out the Hotsych cradle, connect the two together, and start the transfer¦...
Consider this scenario instead - the moment you enter your room, you touch a button on your PDA, and the data gets transferred to your PC. NO physical connections, no need to start up synchronization software, not even the need to be near your PC. Wouldn't you like that Say hello
to



¢ INTRODUCTION (Bluetooth = No cables)

¢ Bluetooth is a global de facto standard for wireless connectivity. Based on a low-cost, short-range radio link, Bluetooth cuts the cords that used to tie up digital devices.
¢ When two Bluetooth equipped devices come within 10 meters range of each other, they can establish a connection together. And because Bluetooth utilizes a radio-based link, it doesn't require a line-of-sight connection in order to communicate.



Why the Funny Name

¢ Bluetooth is named after King Harald BlÃ¥tand (Bla: dark skinned, tan: great man) of Denmark who united Denmark and Norway in the 10th century.
¢ Bluetooth is similarly expected to unite the worlds of computing and telecom.



Know your History !

1994 - Ericsson releases
Bluetooth specification.
Early 1998 - Bluetooth Special
Interest Group (SIG) was formed.
July 1999 - Bluetooth 1.0 Specification Release.
2000 - 2001 - Ongoing work on Bluetooth 2.0 Specification.


The Bluetooth SIG


¢ The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group, comprised of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development and promotion of Bluetooth wireless technology and bringing it to market in a broad range of products.
¢ The SIG has over 2500 member companies worldwide.
¢ Bluetooth is an open standard. The Bluetooth standard is available royalty-free at the official Bluetooth website Bluetooth.com


Bluetooth in Action

Bluetooth can give you a new kind of freedom. You might share information, synchronize data, access the Internet, integrate with LANs or even unlock your car - all by simply using your Bluetooth equipped mobile phone.



Bluetooth Makes Life Easier¦..

You arrive at the office and put down your briefcase, while your Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) automatically synchronizes with your desktop PC and transfers files, e-mails and schedule information.

While in a meeting, you access your PDA to send your presentation to the electronic whiteboard. You record meeting minutes on your PDA and wirelessly transfer these to the attendees before they leave the meeting.

Upon arriving at your home, the door automatically unlocks for you, the entry way lights come on, and the heat is adjusted to your pre-set preferences.

An alarm notifies you that your toddler has just left the house
You arrive at the airport. A long line is formed for ticketing and seat assignment. You avoid the line, using your PDA to present an electronic ticket and automatically select your seat. The airline's on-line system checks identification via the "ID-tag" feature built into your PDA and confirms your reserved seat.

You arrive at the hotel. As you enter, you are automatically checked in and your room number and electronic key are transferred to your PDA. As you approach the room, the door automatically opens.



As you approach your vehicle, the door unlocks automatically, the radio tunes in your favorite station, and the seat adjusts to your preferred settings.
As you enter your vehicle, you are reminded of the items on your daily calendar and the results of a recent diagnostic test of your vehicle.

You receive a new message en route, which is verbally transmitted to you via the vehicle's speakerphone



Technical Specifications\

¢ Normal range 10 m
¢ Optional range 100 m
¢ Normal transmitting power 1 mw
¢ Optional transmitting power 100 mw
¢ Receiver sensitivity -70 dBm
¢ Frequency band 2.4 GHz
¢ Gross data rate 1Mbps
¢ Max. Data transfer 721 +56 kbit/3 voice channels
¢ Power consumption, standby 20 µA
¢ Power consumption, max. 30 µA
Packet switching protocol based on a frequency hop scheme with 1600 hops/s


How Do Bluetooth Devices Deal With Interference

¢ Radio waves can pick up noise from nearby devices like microwave ovens especially since the ISM band is unlicensed. This is where a technique called "frequency hopping" comes into the picture.

¢ Bluetooth has chosen to provide an acknowledgment-based scheme with automatic repeat request (ARQ). What is transferred during a Bluetooth communication are packets. With frequency hopping, after the transmission or reception of a packet, the device hops or changes to a different frequency. The signal frequency changes about 1600 times per second.

¢ In addition, it uses smaller packets and the header information in packets which is very critical to the link operation is protected first by a cyclic redundancy check and further a 1/3 rate Forward Error Check (FEC) is applied, which repeats each bit three times.



Security “ How Much Is Too Much

¢ The Bluetooth system is intended to be used as a uniform interface to all of a person's information sources and will thus be expected to transfer sensitive personal data. Security of the data is thus an important issue.
¢ Bluetooth devices are expected to be omnipresent and at some places the access to these devices by public users may have to be restricted. This calls for authentication procedures to be provided.
¢ The scheme used by the Bluetooth standard to tackle these issues is referred to as the challenge response scheme.
¢ The application may itself encrypt its data for added security. That can add to the safety of the data, but the most of the authentication is based on the link level security procedures.


The Dream

You enter a bus and your bus fare is automatically paid by your mobile phone
You could even use your mobile phone to control the locking and alarm on your car, as well as integrate it with the car's stereo so you can talk hands free while you are driving.


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.ppt   Bluetooth Wireless Technology Presentation.ppt (Size: 1.25 MB / Downloads: 90)
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Thanks for sharing...Mann it is really Awesome.... Angel
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.pptx   BLUETOOTH.pptx (Size: 592.66 KB / Downloads: 81)

INTRODUCTION

BLUETOOTH is a Wireless LAN Technology


Bluetooth is a wireless technology that allows enabled devices to sync and transfer information

It is designed for short range RF communication replacing the need for physical cables and infrared beams while maintaining security

It operates in the 2.4 GHz band

Key Features: Robustness, Low power consumption, Low Cost


BLUETOOTH Historical perspective

In 1876, Ericsson initiated Bluetooth technology movement to eliminate wire clutter in homes and offices.

February 1998 - SIG

(Ericsson Mobile, Intel, IBM,
Toshiba and Nokia Mobile)

Technology Overview

Bluetooth technology is the implementation of the protocol defined by IEEE . / 802.15
Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) operable in an area of size of a room or . Hall
The Bluetooth protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.4-2.4835 GHz. To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, it divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide)

It changes channels up to 1600 times per second as it uses Frequency Hopping spread spectrum (FHSS).

Supports data speeds of as much as 721 Kbps & three voice channels


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.doc   BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 317 KB / Downloads: 71)
Introduction to Bluetooth Technology

Bluetooth is a radio frequency specification for short range, point to point and point to multi point voice and data transfer. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of cables normally used to connect one device to another by a short range radio link. With the help of blue tooth we can operate our keyboard and mouse without direct connection of CPU. Printers, fax machines, headphone, mouse, keyboard or any other digital devices can be part of Bluetooth system.

In spite of facilitating the replacement of cables, Bluetooth technology works as an universal medium to bridge the existing data networks, a peripheral interface for existing devices and provide a mechanism to form short ad hok network of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures.

Due to their independence on short range radio link, Bluetooth devices do not require a line of site connection in order to communicate. Therefore a computer can print information on a printer if printer is in inside the room. Two blue tooth devices can talk to each other when they come within range of 10 meters to each other.

Bluetooth technology represents an opportunity for the industry to deliver wireless solutions that are ubiquitous across a broad range of devices.

Why it’s name is Bluetooth?

While many new technologies bear technical names, like RS-232 or IEEE
802.11b, Bluetooth, the wireless technology, is different.


Bluetooth was named for the 10th Century Viking king , Harald Blatand
(A.K.A., Bluetooth) who peacefully united all the tiny island kingdoms of
Denmark, southern Sweden, and southern Norway into one country . In
keeping with its namesake, Bluetooth, the new low-cost radio technology, is
designed to unite or connect all different types of devices to effectively work
as one. By uniting devices, Bluetooth eliminates the need for cabling in a
wide range of products, including cellular phones, PCs, headphones, audio
equipment, printers, and many more.

Bluetooth Definitions

• Piconet: Devices connected in an ad hoc fashion, that is, not requiring predefinition and planning, as with a standard network. Two to eight devices can be networked into a piconet. It is a peer network, that is, once connected, each device has equal access to the others. However, one device is defined as master, and the others as slaves.
• Scatternet: Several piconets may form a larger scatternet, with each piconet maintaining independence.
• Master unit: The master in a piconet whose clock and hopping sequence synchronizes the other devices.
• Slave unit: Devices in a piconet that are not the master.
• MAC address: Three bit address that distinguishes each unit in a piconet.
• Parked units: Piconet devices that are synchronized but don't have MAC addresses.
• Sniff and hold mode: Power-saving mode of a piconet device.
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presented by:
PRANEETH SURAPANENI
NAVYA PUTUMBAKA


.doc   BLUETOOTH.DOC (Size: 73 KB / Downloads: 53)
ABSTRACT
The seemingly endless entanglement of data wires connecting today’s electronic devices has become slightly less jumbled with the introduction of Bluetooth technology and the creation of a wireless data link. This article delves into the implementation and architecture of Bluetooth. It also describes the functional overview and applications of Bluetooth. It gives significant advantages of Bluetooth over other data transfer technologies such as IrDA and Home RF. It illustrates how a
connection is made in Bluetooth between two environments. It mainly emphasizes the architecture of Bluetooth. It gives over all Bluetooth packet structure and different communication and data information protocols such as WAP, UDP, IP,TCP ,RFCOMM, L2CAP etc. It also explains Link Security by Data Encryption. Finally it narrates how Bluetooth will bring a new level of connectivity and convenience when operating electronic devices. These details in the article establish the growing need for Bluetooth technology.
INTRODUCTION
Bluetooth is a method for data communication that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units. Bluetooth is a radio frequency technology utilizing the unlicensed 2.5GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Bluetooth is an open standard for wireless connectivity with supporters mostly from the PC and cell phone industries. Not surprisingly, its primary market is for data and voice transfer between communication devices and PCs. Bluetooth was invented by L.M.Ericson of Sweden in 1994. The standard is named after Harald Blaatand"Bluetooth"2nd,king of Denmark.
WHY BLUETOOTH?
Bluetooth attempts to provide significant advantages over other data transfer technologies such as IrDA and HomeRF. IrDA is already popular in PC to peripherals,but is severely limited by the short connection distance of 1m and the line of sight requirement for communication. Due to its RF nature bluetooth is not subjected to such limitations. In addition to wireless device connections up to 10-100m, devices need not be within line of sight. Also it is designed to be low cost i.e under $10/unit.
Establishing a connection in Bluetooth:
Linking one Bluetoooth device to another to another involves a series of inquiry and paging procedures. The inquiry process entails the following steps:
• The Bluetooth device sends out an inquiry access code packet (inquiry packet) to search and locate these devices.
• The existing Bluetooth devices already within the area (and usually unware of any inquiring devices) will occasionally enter an inquiry scan state of their own to troll for any inquiring devices.
• When a device in the inquiry scan state receives an inquiry packet, it will respond with a frequency hop synchronization (FHS) packet that is sent back to the inquiring device.
Once the inquiry routine is completed, the paging process follows:
• The inquiring Bluetooth device now wants to establish a connection with another Bluetoooth device.
• To successfully locate and page a target Bluetooth device, the paging device estimates the hop frequency and clock of the target Bluetooth device using the FHS packet received during inquiry.
• The paging device “pages” the target device with the target device’s device access code (DAC). The paging device transmits the DAC on several different hop frequencies that it thinks the target device is receiving (as calculated using the FHS packet) and continues to do so until a connection is made.
• While the paging device (the master) is paging, the target (slave) device may be involved in other piconets. Occasionally, it will enter the page scan state and listen for pages directed to it, scanning through 16 different frequencies. When it receives a page from the paging device, it will respond to the page by sending an update of its clock to the paging device.
• Once the paging device receives a page response from the target device, information vital for a connection is exchanged between the two devices. Information exchanged includes the device address and clock of the paging device, which is used to determine the timing and frequency-hop sequence of the newly formed piconet. When all connection information has been communicated, the connection is complete, and the two devices can begin to exchange data with one another.
Bluetooth packet format:
Since Bluetooth is meant to be compatible with many different applications, it must be able to send data with different protocols quickly and efficiently. When data is transmitted at the lowest level, it is first broken down into smaller packets and sent serially with the least significant bit sent first. Each data packet (represented in Figure 2) contains three fields: an access code, a header, and a payload.
Access codes
At the beginning of each Bluetooth packet is an access code. The access code is used primarily for piconet identification and synchronization. The access code identifies the piconet to which each data packet belong; all data packets having both a packet header and payload present will have a 72-b access code; otherwise, the access code is 68-b long. Access codes are also used extensively in Bluetooth with no header or payload present. The access code itself (Figure 3) is divided into three sections-preamble, sync word, and trailer-which are not present in inquiry or device access codes.
Packet header
The packet header, which follows the access code and contains link control information, co9ntain six fields: AM_ADDR, TYPE, FLOW, ARON, SEQN, and HEC (Figure 4).
• AM_ADDR, a 3-b active member address, is used to indicate where the packet is destined. When a slave receives a data packet, it checks the packet header’s AM_ADDR. If it matches its own assigned AM_ADDR, the packet will be decoded; otherwise, it is discarded.
• The 4-b TYPE field indicates the type of packet that has been sent. There are up to 16 different types of Bluetooth packets.
• The FLOW bit is used for flow control. For example, if the receive (RX) buffer of a recipient device is full, it will indicate in its response to the master that it cannot accept any data at that moment. Once it can receive more data, the FLOW bit is changed from 0 to 1.
• ARQN is the acknowledge bit that informs the source whether the previous transaction was successful.
• The sequence (SEQN) bit allows the source and the recipient to keep track of the packets that have been sent. The bit is inverted on each packet transmission and used to prevent the reception of packets that may have been sent twice. Repeat transmission of a packet occurs when the acknowledgement signal of a successful data transaction to the master fails to transmit. The receiving device can simply compare the SEQN bit of the packet that was previously processed to determine whether to discard or accept the packet.
• The header error check, HEC, is used to check the integrity and accuracy of the header during each packet transaction. If the HEC is incorrect, the packet is discard. While the header comprises 18 b, the fact that it is encoded at a rate of one-third the forward error correction (FEC) rate, extends the total bit length to 54 b.
• The payload , which follows the header, can range from 0 to 2,745 b, and contains the actual data of interest. With a packet capable of being sent during every 625 micro second time slot, a maximum bit rate of 723.2 kb/s can be achieved for an ACL, and 64 kb/s can be achieved for an ACL, and 64 kb/s for an SCO.
Bluetooth can handle the transmission of many different applications. This entails dealing with different architectural layers to decompose the application data into a form suitable for transmission over a Bluetooth link, as well as to reassemble the data into its original form at the receiving end.
GENERAL BLUETOOTH ARCHITECHTURE
Facilitating this data transmission is a series of protocols within the Bluetooth system that processes the data for suitable transmission and receipt.
The general structure of a Bluetooth system consists of a microprocessor that handles all the baseband specifications, and several software layers that structure the data so that it may be sent properly over a Bluetooth link. Figure 5 provides a good representation of the architecture.
At the highest architecture level lies the different communication and data information protocols that can communicate over the Bluetooth link, including wireless application protocol (WAP), user datagram protocol (UDP), transport control protocol (TCP), internet protocol (IP), and point-to-point protocol (PPP). While all of these are standalone communication protocols, they can be adapted for transmission over a Bluetooth link. To support these different types of communication protocols, the Bluetooth system architecture must be capable of capable of differentiating and converting data associated with these protocols into data packets that the Bluetooth baseband controller and RF transceiver can send.
One of the protocols within the Bluetooth architecture that is responsible for this adaptation is RFCOMM, which emulates a serial port and can be used by applications that use the serial ports on a Bluetooth device. RFCOMM can take the data from some of the higher level protocols mentioned previously and adapt it so it can be sent down to the baseband and converted into Bluetooth data packets and subsequently sent over a Bluetooth link.
Below RFCOMM lies the logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) that further supports the adaptation of other communication protocols, such as telephony control specification binary (TCS-binary) and the Bluetooth-established service discovery protocol (SDP), as well as performing the multiplexing between all incoming upper-level protocols (RFCOMM, TCS, SDP), as well as performing the multiplexing between all incoming upper-level protocols (RFCOMM, TCS, SDP). In addition to protocol multiplexing, L2CAP is responsible for the segmentation of outgoing data packets so they may be transferred to the baseband processor cannot handle data packets of great size. L2CAP is also responsible for the reassembly of received data packets, which are subsequently sent to one of the higher-level protocols designated to receive this data.
Once the original data has been segmented by L2CAP into subsequent L2CAP packets, the packets are then sent to the host controller interface (HCI), which is responsible for sending data to and receiving data from the lower level Bluetooth hardware (baseband controller) through a physical bus (USB, RS232, PCI), HCI further alters the L2CAP packets so that the data may be transported over one of the physical buses. This data is received by the link manager and baseband controller that assemble it into packets that are communicable using a Bluetooth link.
At the lowest level lie the link manager and baseband controller. The baseband controller performs all low level processing, such as Bluetooth packet composition for transmission and packet decomposition upon reception. Running on the baseband controller is firmware implementing the link manager protocol, which handles link control, is responsible for placing the device in low power states, and performs any encryption of the data transmitted.
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.doc   2007ece038.doc (Size: 508.5 KB / Downloads: 38)
INTRODUCTION:
During the past two decades, the advancement in microelectronics and VLSI technology dipped down the cost of many consumer electronic products to a level which was affordable for the common man. The first quarter of 2001, saw the vending of about 32.5 million PCs. The sale of cellular phones is predicted to reach 1 billion in 2005. With increase in the number of electronic devices, comes in the need of connecting them together for maximum interoperability and utilization. These devices connect with each other using a variety of wires, cables, radio signals and infrared light beams, and an even greater variety of connectors, plugs and protocols. Bluetooth is devised to replace these cables.
Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of the cables used to connect one device to another, with one universal short-range radio link operating in the unlicensed 2.45 GHz ISM band. The main objectives of Bluetooth technology can be described as follows,
 Cable replacement: Getting rid of the various types of cables and wires required for interconnectivity between various devices would enable the lay man to use all electronic devices without wasting time and money.
 Small size: the Bluetooth device is very small so that it can be attached to any device required like the cell phones without adding much to the weight of the system.
 Low cost: Bluetooth is aimed to be a low cost device approximately $5 in the near future.
 Low power: The utilization of power is very less (within 100 mW) as it is short range equipment and so it facilitates the use of small batteries for its usage.
Besides the characteristics mentioned above, Bluetooth can imitate a universal bridge to attach the existing data networks, and also as a mechanism for forming ad-hoc networks. Designed to operate in noisy frequency environments, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust.
HISTORY:
In 1994, Ericsson in Sweden launched an initiative to study a low-power, low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories. After three years, In 1997, Ericsson approached various manufacturers of mobile electronic devices to discuss the development and promotion of this short range wireless radio link as alone this phenomenon could not be implemented.
Thus in 1998, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and NOKIA formed the Special Interest Group (SIG) for the promotion and development of BLUETOOTH technology. The first Bluetooth silicon was also ready in 1998. As we can see that the SIG included two market leaders in mobile telephony, two in laptop computing and one in digital signal processing technology. The biggies being in the game gave an impetus to thousands of companies to join hands with the SIG for the endorsement and expansion of this technology.
One would wonder how Bluetooth got its name. It has an interesting heritage. Bluetooth is named after the 10th century Viking King Harald Blatand (Blatand meaning Bluetooth). He was instrumental in uniting the countries in the Baltic region like Sweden, Denmark, Norway and thus emerging as a powerful force. Bluetooth aims at uniting the computing and telecommunication world and so achieving the same greatness.
WORKING OF BLUETOOTH:
Basically, Bluetooth is the term used to describe the protocol of a short range (10 meter) frequency-hopping radio link between devices. These devices implementing the Bluetooth technology are termed Bluetooth - enabled. Documentation on Bluetooth is divided into two sections, the Bluetooth Specification and Bluetooth Profiles.
• The Specification describes how the technology works (i.e. the Bluetooth protocol architecture),
• The Profiles describe how the technology is used (i.e. how different parts of the specification can be used to fulfill a desired function for a Bluetooth device).
BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE:
As the report is designed mainly for the spread spectrum techniques course, the protocols in the lower level are described more extensively and the upper layer protocols are just mentioned with a very brief description.
Moreover, one should note that the upper layer protocols are totally dependent on the lower level protocols whereas the lower level protocols can function independently even with a totally different set of upper protocols.
Bluetooth Radio: The Bluetooth Radio (layer) is the lowest defined layer of the Bluetooth specification. It defines the requirements of the Bluetooth transceiver device operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band. The Bluetooth air interface is based on three power classes,
• Power Class 1: designed for long range (~100m), max output power of 20 dBm,
• Power Class 2: ordinary range devices (~10m), max output power of 4 dBm,
• Power Class 3 short range devices (~10cm), with a max output power of 0 dBm.
The radio uses Frequency Hopping to spread the energy across the ISM spectrum in 79 hops displaced by 1MHz, starting at 2.402GHz and stopping at 2.480GHz.Some countries use the 79 RF channels whereas countries like Japan use 23 channels. Currently, the SIG is working to harmonize this 79-channel radio to work globally and has instigated changes within Japan, Spain, and other countries. Also, the Bluetooth radio module uses GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) where a binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation and a binary zero by a negative frequency deviation. BT is set to 0.5 and the modulation index must be between 0.28 and 0.35. The receiver must have a sensitivity level for which the bit error rate (BER) 0.1% is met. For Bluetooth this means an actual sensitivity level of -70dBm or better.
Baseband: The Baseband is the physical layer of the Bluetooth. It manages physical channels and links apart from other services like error correction, data whitening, hop selection and Bluetooth security. As mentioned previously, the basic radio is a hybrid spread spectrum radio. Typically, the radio operates in a frequency-hopping manner in which the 2.4GHz ISM band is broken into 79 1MHz channels that the radio randomly hops through while transmitting and receiving data. A piconet is formed when one Bluetooth radio connects to another Bluetooth radio.
Both radios then hop together through the 79 channels. The Bluetooth radio system supports a large number of piconets by providing each piconet with its own set of random hopping patterns. Occasionally, piconets will end up on the same channel. When this occurs, the radios will hop to a free channel and the data are retransmitted (if lost). The Bluetooth frame consists of a transmit packet followed by a receive packet. Each packet can be composed of multiple slots (1, 3, or 5) of 625us. A typical single slot frame typically hops at 1,600 hops/second. Multi-slot frames allow higher data rates because of the elimination of the turn-around time between packets and the reduction in header overhead.
LMP: The Link Manager Protocol is used by the Link Managers (on either side) for link set-up and control.
HCI: The Host Controller Interface provides a command interface to the Baseband Link Controller and Link Manager, and access to hardware status and control registers.
L2CAP: Logical Link Control And Adaptation Protocol supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and reassembly, and the conveying of quality of service information.
RFCOMM: The RFCOMM protocol provides emulation of serial ports over the L2CAPprotocol. The protocol is based on the ETSI standard TS 07.10.
SDP: The Service Discovery Protocol provides a means for applications to discover which services are provided by or available through a Bluetooth device. It also allows applications to determine the characteristics of those available services.
PROFILES:
The profiles have been developed in order to portray how implementations of user models are to be accomplished. The user models describe a number of user scenarios where Bluetooth performs the radio transmission. A profile can be described as a vertical slice through the protocol stack. It defines options in each protocol that are compulsory for the profile. It also defines parameter ranges for each protocol. The profile concept is used to decrease the risk of interoperability problems between different manufacturers' products. For example: The Headset profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary to support the Headset use case. The Fax profile defines to support the Fax use case. There are as many profiles as applications which are growing everyday.
NETWORK TOPOLOGY
The Bluetooth system supports both point to point and point to multipoint connections.
PICONETS: Bluetooth radios connect to each other in piconets, which are formed by a master radio simultaneously connecting up to seven active slave radios [ 3 bit address] in an Ad-hoc manner. There can be up to 256 parked slaves [ 8 bit address] which like the active members are synchronized to the master clock. Each piconet has a unique hopping sequence. To form a piconet, the Bluetooth radio needs to understand two parameters: the hopping pattern of the radio it wishes to connect to and the phase within that pattern. In forming a piconet, the master radio shares its Global ID with the other radios, which then become slaves and provide all the radios with the correct hopping pattern. The master also shares its clock offset (represented by the clock dial) with the slaves in the piconet, providing the offset into the hopping pattern. This information can easily be exchanged via the FHS packet.
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.pptx   ABHISHEK _BLUETOOTH.pptx (Size: 1.21 MB / Downloads: 29)
What Is Bluetooth?
• Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire
• Short range wireless radio technology
- operate range of 10 meters
• “USB without wires”
Advantages (+)
• Wireless (No Cables)
• No Setup Needed
• Low Power Consumption (1 Milliwat)
• Bluetooth Technology is Inexpensive
• Share Voice and Data both
Disadvantages (-)
• Short range (upto 10 meters)
• Small throughput rates Data Rate 780kb/s only
• Mostly for personal use (PANs)
• Security
How Does It Work?
• Bluetooth is a standard for tiny, radio frequency chips that can be plugged into your devices
• These chips were designed to take all of the information that your wires normally send, andtransmit it at a special frequency to something called a receiver bluetooth chip.
• They normally operate at 2.45GHZ in license free globally available ISM radio band.
• Advantage - worldwide availability and compatibility.
• Disadvantage - devices must share the band with other RF emitters including automobile security systems, noise sources such as microwaves
• The Piconet
• Bluetooth devices can interact with one or more other Bluetooth devices in several different ways. The simplest scheme is when only two devices are involved. This is referred to as point-to-point. One of the devices acts as the master and the other as a slave. This adhoc network is referred to as a Piconet.
• As a matter of fact, a Piconet is any such Bluetooth network with one master 2 and one or more slaves.
In, the case of multiple slaves, the communication topology is referred
to as point-to-multipoint.
• In this case, the channel (and bandwidth) is shared among all the devices in the Piconet. Once a Piconet has been established, master-slave roles can be exchanged.
Bluetooth Specifications
• Each channel is divided into time slots 625 microseconds long
• Packets can be up to five time slots wide
• Data in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length
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30-04-2011, 04:45 PM

PRESENTED BY:
Ashish Kumar Maurya


.ppt   maurya bluetooth.ppt (Size: 2.3 MB / Downloads: 42)
BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
Example : The Networked Home
Overview of Bluetooth History
What is Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology.
Why this name?
It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.
When does it appear?
1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories.
5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.
First specification released in July 1999.
BLUETOOTH-DONGLE
SOFTWARE FOR BLUETOOTH

What is Bluetooth?
“Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.”
Ultimate Headset
Cordless Computer
Timeline
1994 : Ericsson study complete
1995 : Engineering work begins
1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate
1998 : Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba
1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A
promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola
2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters
2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.1
2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2
2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)
Technical features
Bluetooth Frequency
Classification
Piconet Structure
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
L2CAP
Service provided to the higher layer:
L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols
Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities
Segmentation & reassembly of large packets
L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length.
File Transfer Profile
Headset Profile
Core Bluetooth Products
Notebook PCs & Desktop computers
Printers
PDAs
Other handheld devices
Cell phones
Wireless peripherals:
Headsets
Cameras
Security
Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access.
Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).
These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys.
A Comparison
Bluetooth vs. IrD
Bluetooth
Point to Multipoint
Data & Voice
Devices can be mobile
Range 10 m
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