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16-02-2011, 03:17 PM
. About BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Formed in oct. 2000, is world’s 7th largest telecommunications company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, internet, broadband, carrier services. Within a span it has become the one of the largest public sector unit in India.
BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the rural –urban digital divide ICT sector. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat it reach with its wide network giving services I every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai.
BSNL cellular service cellone, has more than 20.7 million cellular customers, garnering 24 % of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone Subscribers i.e. 85 % share of the subscribers and 92 % share in revenue terms.
BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same Backbone and broadband access network. At present there are 0.6 million Data one broadband customers.
The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of the telecom services and the desire to excel has made BSNL the no. 1 telecom company of India.
The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems
Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Today, it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide, and nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States. It is forecasted that cellular systems using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. By the year 2005, forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide. It has even been estimated that some countries may have more mobile phones than fixed phones by the year 2000The concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. The idea of cell-based mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. However, the Nordic countries were the first to introduce cellular services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981. Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. The AMPS standard was adopted by Asia, Latin America, and Oceanic countries, creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular.
In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital, like today's newer systems. One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost-efficient manner. As a result, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital systems over analog systems include ease of signaling, lower levels of interference, integration of transmission and switching, and increased ability to meet capacity demands. Table 1 charts the worldwide development of mobile telephone systems.
Year Mobile System
1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450
1983 American Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
1985 Total Access Communication System (TACS)
1986 Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900
1991 American Digital Cellular (ADC)
1991 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
1992 Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800
1994 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)
1995 PCS 1900—Canada
1996 PCS—United States
Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen.
1982 GSM formed
1986 field test
1987 TDMA chosen as access method
1988 memorandum of understanding signed
1989 validation of GSM system
1990 Pre operation system
1991 commercial system start-up
1992 coverage of larger cities/airports
1993 coverage of main roads
1995 coverage of rural areas
The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s, particularly in Europe. The lack of a technological standardization prompted the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) to create the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) in 1982 with the objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across EuropeIn 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland. By the end of 1993, over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries.[ The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call quality, and so is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was built into the system from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipmentThe key advantage of GSM systems to consumers has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls, such as the Short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"). The advantage for network operators has been the ease of deploying equipment from any vendors that implements the standard. Like other cellular standards, GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services so that subscribers can use their phones on GSM networks all over the world.Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution About GSM
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