cooling tower
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cooling232
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16-12-2009, 11:07 AM


Know us:
Established in the year 1995, we manufacture and supply of FRP, Wooden and RCC construction cooling towers under the brand name Creation. We also supply various types of spares and undertake servicing of existing cooling towers or those installed by us. Our other product is Wind driven Energy Saver Ventilator for which we can provide total technical back-up for comfortable environment in the premise.

We are supported by a team of vastly experienced professionals who are experts in the field of cooling towers & Ventilator. Our owner himself leads the team of engineers. He is an experienced technocrat with BE in Mechanical Engineering. His extensive knowledge in designing, manufacturing, testing, installation and commissioning of different types of cooling towers and Ventilator has helped us in making an indelible mark in the industry.

We are catering to the needs of various industries by constantly innovating advance technology through research and development work to manufacture high performing cooling towers with best quality control measures. Over the years, we have earned the reputation for prompt and on-time deliveries.

Infrastructure:
We are a Vadodara (Gujarat), India based company, having state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities for fabricating high performance cooling towers Creation brand Atmospheric Wind Wet ( Natural Draft / Fanless Induced Draft cooling tower ) upto 250 TR capacity ; in Mechanical Draft Wet ( Forced Draft / Induced Draft-Counter Flow & Cross Flow ) cooling tower ; In RCC Wet Cooling Towers upto 5000 TR. Ventilator of various sizes with different material of construction according to application requirements.

Civil construction activity of the cooling towers is taken care by our customers while structural design, mechanical equipments and other accessories are taken care by us.

We are well versed with latest trends & challenges of the industry hence, we have installed sophisticated equipment in our production unit. Our production facilities & professionally qualified engineers empower us to meet industry specific demands.

Quality:
We are customer focused company and all our efforts are directed towards ensuring maximum customer satisfaction though quality product and service. Our quality control system covers the whole spectrum of our operations, right from the procurement of prime quality raw materials and inputs for our products to the dispatching, installation and commissioning. We use proven quality spares from the tested and approved suppliers and vendors only. We have all the devices and expert professionals who check the quality of our products. We ensure consistency in the quality by maintaining similar level of precision in our operations.

Research & Development:
We have a well-resourced research and development unit for improving the quality of our Creation brand of products and for developing new and innovative techniques. Our R&D department carries out research work and analysis in various aspects of cooling towers & Ventilator. We also focus on existing cooling towers and develop efficient methods to carry out repair, reconstruction and maintenance. We maintain a performance data sheet of all the cooling towers supplied or served by us. This data helps us in conducting analytical research of cooling towers. We strive to improve the quality of our cooling towers and to achieve this endeavor, we carry out continuous system analysis on various fronts.

Our Proficient Team:
We nurture a team of well-versed professional engineers, with whom we share a unique harmony. Our employees are not just human resource for us but they are our associates in the path of success, growth and performance excellence. Our team has comprehensive professional experience and are specialized in the industry with the required qualifications. Our talented and dynamic team works in accordance with our client and give full support achieving maximum level of customer satisfaction.

Clients:
We strive to ensure total satisfaction of our clients by providing best quality products and services. We have an extensive list of satisfied clients including some of the big and renowned organizations from government, semi-government, public and private sectors from across the country. Our top quality cooling towers are delivered to the clients in a swift manner and we also provide them with efficient pre and post sales services including maintenance and repairing. Every single cooling towers and Ventilator made by us has received accolades from end users.
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17-02-2011, 03:36 PM



.pdf   COOLING TOWER.pdf (Size: 145.89 KB / Downloads: 229)
INTRODUCTION
What is a Cooling Tower?

Cooled water is needed for, for example, air conditioners, manufacturing processes or power generation. A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. Cooling towers make use of
evaporation whereby some of the water is evaporated into a moving air stream and subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. As a result, the remainder of the water is cooled down significantly (Figure 1). Cooling towers are able to lower the water temperatures more than devices that use only air to reject heat, like the radiator in a car, and are therefore more cost-effective and energy efficient.
Components of a cooling tower
The basic components of a cooling tower include the frame and casing, fill, cold-water basin, drift eliminators, air inlet, louvers, nozzles and fans. These are described below.1
Frame and casing.
Most towers have structural frames that support the exterior enclosures
(casings), motors, fans, and other components. With some smaller designs, such as some glass fiber units, the casing may essentially be the frame.
Fill.
Most towers employ fills (made of plastic or wood) to facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water and air contact. There are two types of fill:
Splash fill: waterfalls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars, continuously breaking into smaller droplets, while also wetting the fill surface. Plastic splash fills promote better heat transfer than wood splash fills.
Film fill: consists of thin, closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads, forming a thin film in contact with the air. These surfaces may be flat, corrugated, honeycombed, or other patterns. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill.
Cold-water basin.
The cold-water basin is located at or near the bottom of the tower, and it
receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. The basin usually has a sump or low point for the cold-water discharge connection. In many tower designs, the coldwater basin is beneath the entire fill. In some forced draft counter flow design, however, the
water at the bottom of the fill is channeled to a perimeter trough that functions as the coldwater basin. Propeller fans are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower. With this design, the tower is mounted on legs, providing easy access to the fans and their motors.
Drift eliminators.
These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise
would be lost to the atmosphere.
Air inlet.
This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower. The inlet may take up an entire side of a tower (cross-flow design) or be located low on the side or the bottom of the tower (counter-flow design).
Louvers.
Generally, cross-flow towers have inlet louvers. The purpose of louvers is to equalize air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. Many counter flow tower designs do not require louvers.
Nozzles.
These spray water to wet the fill. Uniform water distribution at the top of the fill is essential to achieve proper wetting of the entire fill surface. Nozzles can either be fixed and spray in a round or square patterns, or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in some circular cross-section towers.
Fans.
Both axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are used in towers. Generally, propeller fans are used in induced draft towers and both propeller and centrifugal fans are found in forced draft towers. Depending upon their size, the type of propeller fans used is either fixed or variable pitch. A fan with non-automatic adjustable pitch blades can be used over a wide kW range because the fan can be adjusted to deliver the desired air flow at the lowest power consumption. Automatic variable pitch blades can vary air flow in response to changing load conditions.
2. TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS
2.1 Natural draft cooling tower

The natural draft or hyperbolic cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature between the ambient air and the hotter air inside the tower. As hot air moves upwards through the tower (because hot air rises), fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at the bottom. Due to the layout of the tower, no fan is required and there is almost no circulation of hot air that could affect the performance. Concrete is used for the tower shell with a height of up to 200 m. These cooling towers are mostly only for large heat duties because large concrete structures are expensive.
There are two main types of natural draft towers:
Cross flow tower (Figure 2): air is drawn across the falling water and the fill is located outside the tower
Counter flow tower (Figure 3): air is drawn up through the falling water and the fill is therefore located inside the tower, although design depends on specific site conditions
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#3
16-05-2012, 01:06 PM

cooling tower


What is a (wet, atmospheric) cooling tower?

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Common applications for cooling towers are providing cooled water for air-conditioning, manufacturing and electric power generation. The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. A direct, or open-circuit cooling tower is an enclosed structure with internal means to distribute the warm water fed to it over a labyrinth-like packing or "fill." The fill may consist of multiple, mainly vertical, wetted surfaces upon which a thin film of water spreads. An indirect, or closed circuit cooling tower involves no direct contact of the air and the fluid, usually water or a glycol mixture, being cooled. In a counter-flow cooling tower air travels upward through the fill or tube bundles, opposite to the downward motion of the water. In a cross-flow cooling tower air moves horizontally through the fill as the water moves downward. Cooling towers are also characterized by the means by which air is moved. Because evaporation consists of pure water, the concentration of dissolved minerals and other solids in circulating water will tend to increase unless some means of dissolved-solids control, such as blow-down, is provided. Some water is also lost by droplets being carried out with the exhaust air (drift).

What is a (wet, atmospheric) cooling tower?

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. The type of heat rejection in a cooling tower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the water being cooled to evaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest of that water stream. The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises the air's temperature and its relative humidity to 100%, and this air is discharged to the atmosphere. Evaporative heat rejection devices such as cooling towers are commonly used to provide significantly lower water temperatures than achievable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat rejection devices, like the radiator in a car, thereby achieving more cost-effective and energy efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. Think of the times you've seen something hot be rapidly cooled by putting water on it, which evaporates, cooling rapidly, such as an overheated car radiator. The cooling potential of a wet surface is much better than a dry one.
Common applications for cooling towers are providing cooled water for air-conditioning, manufacturing and electric power generation. The smallest cooling towers are designed to handle water streams of only a few gallons of water per minute supplied in small pipes like those might see in a residence, while the largest cool hundreds of thousands of gallons per minute supplied in pipes as much as 15 feet (about 5 meters) in diameter on a large power plant.
The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. While most think of a "cooling tower" as an open direct contact heat rejection device, the indirect cooling tower, sometimes referred to as a "closed circuit cooling tower" is nonetheless also a cooling tower.
A direct, or open circuit cooling tower is an enclosed structure with internal means to distribute the warm water fed to it over a labyrinth-like packing or "fill." The fill provides a vastly expanded air-water interface for heating of the air and evaporation to take place. The water is cooled as it descends through the fill by gravity while in direct contact with air that passes over it. The cooled water is then collected in a cold water basin below the fill from which it is pumped back through the process to absorb more heat. The heated and moisture laden air leaving the fill is discharged to the atmosphere at a point remote enough from the air inlets to prevent its being drawn back into the cooling tower.
The fill may consist of multiple, mainly vertical, wetted surfaces upon which a thin film of water spreads (film fill), or several levels of horizontal splash elements which create a cascade of many small droplets that have a large combined surface area (splash fill).
An indirect, or closed circuit cooling tower involves no direct contact of the air and the fluid, usually water or a glycol mixture, being cooled. Unlike the open cooling tower, the indirect cooling tower has two separate fluid circuits. One is an external circuit in which water is recirculated on the outside of the second circuit, which is tube bundles (closed coils) which are connected to the process for the hot fluid being cooled and returned in a closed circuit. Air is drawn through the recirculating water cascading over the outside of the hot tubes, providing evaporative cooling similar to an open cooling tower. In operation the heat flows from the internal fluid circuit, through the tube walls of the coils, to the external circuit and then by heating of the air and evaporation of some of the water, to the atmosphere. Operation of the indirect cooling towers is therefore very similar to the open cooling tower with one exception. The process fluid being cooled is contained in a "closed" circuit and is not directly exposed to the atmosphere or the recirculated external water.
In a counter-flow cooling tower air travels upward through the fill or tube bundles, opposite to the downward motion of the water. In a cross-flow cooling tower air moves horizontally through the fill as the water moves downward.
Cooling towers are also characterized by the means by which air is moved. Mechanical-draft cooling towers rely on power-driven fans to draw or force the air through the tower. Natural-draft cooling towers use the buoyancy of the exhaust air rising in a tall chimney to provide the draft. A fan-assisted natural-draft cooling tower employs mechanical draft to augment the buoyancy effect. Many early cooling towers relied only on prevailing wind to generate the draft of air.
If cooled water is returned from the cooling tower to be reused, some water must be added to replace, or make-up, the portion of the flow that evaporates. Because evaporation consists of pure water, the concentration of dissolved minerals and other solids in circulating water will tend to increase unless some means of dissolved-solids control, such as blow-down, is provided. Some water is also lost by droplets being carried out with the exhaust air (drift), but this is typically reduced to a very small amount by installing baffle-like devices, called drift eliminators, to collect the droplets. The make-up amount must equal the total of the evaporation, blow-down, drift, and other water losses such as wind blowout and leakage, to maintain a steady water level.
Some useful terms, commonly used in the cooling tower industry:
Drift - Water droplets that are carried out of the cooling tower with the exhaust air. Drift droplets have the same concentration of impurities as the water entering the tower. The drift rate is typically reduced by employing baffle-like devices, called drift eliminators, through which the air must travel after leaving the fill and spray zones of the tower.
Blow-out - Water droplets blown out of the cooling tower by wind, generally at the air inlet openings. Water may also be lost, in the absence of wind, through splashing or misting. Devices such as wind screens, louvers, splash deflectors and water diverters are used to limit these losses.
Plume - The stream of saturated exhaust air leaving the cooling tower. The plume is visible when water vapor it contains condenses in contact with cooler ambient air, like the saturated air in one's breath fogs on a cold day. Under certain conditions, a cooling tower plume may present fogging or icing hazards to its surroundings. Note that the water evaporated in the cooling process is "pure" water, in contrast to the very small percentage of drift droplets or water blown out of the air inlets.
Blow-down - The portion of the circulating water flow that is removed in order to maintain the amount of dissolved solids and other impurities at an acceptable level.
Leaching - The loss of wood preservative chemicals by the washing action of the water flowing through a wood structure cooling tower.
Noise - Sound energy emitted by a cooling tower and heard (recorded) at a given distance and direction. The sound is generated by the impact of falling water, by the movement of air by fans, the fan blades moving in the structure, and the motors, gearboxes or drive belts.
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flake
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#4
05-06-2012, 08:10 PM

Helpful information, I really get a good idea from this article...
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#5
06-06-2012, 10:48 AM

to get information about the topic "cooling tower" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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