digital display technology full report
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ABSTRACT
In the present world, the display technology is usually analog. But, we present the future technology i.e., the digital technology. The analog display technologies limit the full potential of digital video. So, the digital display devices will be in the market soon. In our paper, we emphasize on Digital Light Processing (DLP). This DLP display technology manipulates the light digitally to produce all-digital images. This technology reproduces color images with precision accuracy in a seamless fashion. The picture appears seamless because the mirror pixels used in a DLP system have very tiny spaces. This in turn gives high perceived resolution. The DLP systems are inherently reliable. DLP is a reflective technology, because the image becomes brighter and brighter as the resolution increases. As this is a reflective technology, it is more efficient than competing systems. Hence the world will definitely move over to the new technology i.e., the digital technology and we are sure that the digital technology will have a promising future
Introduction
In this information age, we are surrounded by computers, faxes, modems, pagers, and cellular telephones. These products all rely on digital technology. More recent advances have produced digital cameras, digital camcorders, digital satellite systems (DSS), and the widely anticipated digital video disk (DVD) players, which play digital source material of unprecedented image quality. And of course, who could forget the Internet, the seemingly endless forum of digitized information. Before long, digital VCRs will make their way into the homes of millions of consumers, offering yet another digital solution.
Although many of us realize the benefits of this digital technology, the majority of video displays are still based on the old analog cathode ray tube (CRT), which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary. Why would someone want to go to all the trouble of preserving digital video and graphic data only to have it converted to analog before it is viewed Digital Light Processing (DLP) offers a solution to this problem of unrealized image quality potential. DLP, invented by Texas Instruments, is the new digital display technology. It is the final link in the chain that makes possible a completely digital video information structure. This is especially important as TVs and PCs converge to provide central information and communication media windows.
On April 3, 1997 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), along with the major networks, officially kicked off a plan to begin the conversion process to digital television transmission. DLP brand products will be uniquely positioned as the only all-digital High Definition Television (HDTV) project and implimentationion display systems available to bring viewers the best possible image quality. With DLP, consumers can enjoy the same life-like video realism that the compact disc brought to the audio industry more than 15 years ago.
Digital Light Processing (DLP)
When we compare DLP to todayâ„¢s display technologies, itâ„¢s easy to see why DLP has a promising future. Because the technology is digital, DLP is able to reproduce life-like color images with precision accuracy. Seamless picture reproduction, high brightness, inherent reliability, the ability to show PC graphics and TV video, and other DLP advantages are discussed below.
How DLP Works
DLP display technology digitally manipulates (or processes) light to produce film-like, all-digital images. DLP integrates a project and implimentationion lamp and an electronic video signal from a source such as a VCR or computer, and the processed light produces an all-digital picture.
The key to this complete digital process is the Digital Micro mirror Device (DMD), a thumbnail-size semiconductor light switch. The DMD consists of an array of thousands of microscopic-size mirrors, each mounted on a hinge structure so that it can be individually tilted back and forth. When a lamp and a project and implimentationion lens are positioned in the right places in the system, DLP processes the input video signal and tilts the mirrors to generate a digital image.
Imagine that you are in a football stadium at night and itâ„¢s half-time. All the lights in the stadium are turned off; there is a blimp floating a few hundred feet above the field.

Figure 1. Fans in a stadium reflecting light toward a blimp. (a) Light is project and implimentationed from a spotlight toward fans in the stadium. When cued by a numbered signal, these fans hold up their reflective seat cushions and tiltthem toward or away from a blimp. By doing so, the fans in the stadium are reflecting pixels of light toward the blimp. The result is that the light pattern created by the seat cushions project and implimentations an image onto the surface of the blimp.(b) A distant viewer sees the image on the blimp.
As part of the half-time show, a powerful spotlight placed at the 50 yard line blasts light into the stands. All the fans in one area of the stadium are asked by the announcer to hold up the reflective seat cushions that were in their seats before the game. Each reflective cushion has a different number on the back. The announcer asks you to tilt your seat cushion so that the light from the spotlight reflects directly up to the blimp each time your number appears on the scoreboard screen. If your number is not displayed, you are to tilt the cushion away from the blimp and direct light down to the field. Each fan in the stands now controls a pixel of light. You can imagine that if some fans reflect the light toward the blimp, an image of some sort will appear on its side [Figure 1(a)].
Now imagine a viewer looking toward the stadium and the blimp from a remote distance [Figure 1(b)]. When looking at the blimp, he or she will see an image on the side of the blimp that is generated by the sports fans tilting their reflective seat cushions and reflecting light onto the side of the blimp.
DLP technology accomplishes this same task, but it does so by processing light that is focused onto the DMD (Figure 2). At speeds greater than 1,000 times per second, the mirrors are electronically tilted. Light from a lamp is digitally reflected from the DMD, through a project and implimentationion lens, and onto a screen. Color is added through a color wheel filter system.

Figure 2. DLP system operation. (a) In much the same way the image was formed on the side of the blimp, DLP forms images for video. Shining light on the DMD and tilting the mirrors creates a digital image. Color is added by placing a red, green, and blue color wheel filter system in the optical path. As the wheel spins, the mirrors are tilted on for the exact amount of time required for each color. At any given instant, only one of the primary light colors is hitting the DMD, but when the filter system spins fast enough, the colors blend to create a full-color digital image.(b) A viewer sees an image on the screen from a DLP project and implimentationor.
Seamless Picture
Besides being able to generate images digitally, DLP reproduces these images in a virtually seamless fashion. The picture appears seamless because the mirror pixels used in a DLP system have very tiny spaces between them”1 micrometer gaps, to be exact. This gives DLP a fill factor, or active area, of approximately 90%. In other words, DLP comes closer than andother technology to producing an exact mirror image of an input video or graphic signal (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Actual photographs of (a) liquid crystal display (LCD) pixels and (b) DLP pixels. Projected images are made up of thousands of small pixels; DLP pixels (b) are more uniform and more closely spaced than the polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) pixels seen in view (a). Based on a superior pixel structure, DLP offers a higher fill factor and better image quality.
Using a super video graphics adapter (SVGA) DLP project and implimentationor (800 600 pixels) and a leading SVGA liquid crystal display (LCD) project and implimentationor, the photograph of a polar bear (Figure 4) was used to illustrate DLPâ„¢s superior image quality.

Figure 4. Photograph used to demonstrate DLPâ„¢s seamless picture. This digitized photograph of a polar bear was project and implimentationed with both a DLP and an LCD project and implimentationor to illustrate the seamless, film-like picture quality of DLP (Figure 5).
Figure 5(a) shows the pixelated screen-door effect common to LCD project and implimentationors. The screen-door effect is gone when the image is project and implimentationed with a DLP project and implimentationor [Figure 5(b)]. Rather than looking at an image as if it were behind a screen door, the viewer sees a seamless, digitally generated and project and implimentationed image. Although the resolution, or number of pixels, is the same in each photograph, DLP has a higher perceived resolution because of its seamless advantage.

Figure 5. Actual close-up photographs of both (a), an LCD-project and implimentationed image, and (b), a DLP-project and implimentationed image. An SVGA poly-Si project and implimentationor (a) was compared to an SVGA DLP project and implimentationor (b). The photographic image of the polar bear in Figure 4 was displayed on both project and implimentationors. The LCD and DLP photos shown here were taken under the same conditions, with each project and implimentationor being optimized for focus, brightness, and color. Note the high level of pixelation in the LCD photo compared to that of the seamless DLP photo. DLP offers superior, seamless picture quality because of the high fill factor and close spacing of DMD mirror pixels.
High Brightness
Because DLP is a reflective technology, it is far more efficient than the competing systems. It means that more light gets from the lamp to the screen” an extremely important factor in high-brightness applications. In fact, thermal models predict that for a three-DMD super-extended graphics adapter (SXGA) project and implimentationion system (1,280 1,024 pixels), 10,000 on-screen lumens can be achieved.
Reliability
DLP systems have passed a series of environmental and regulatory tests to simulate thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock, vibration, moisture resistance, and acceleration conditions. Most reliability concerns are focused on the hinges that tilt the mirrors from one position to another. To test reliability, DMDs were subjected to accelerated life cycle tests simulating approximately 20 years of use. Inspection of the devices after the testing showed no broken hinges on any of the devices. Texas Instruments has completed thousands of hours of life cycle and environmental testing to conclude that the DMD and DLP systems are inherently reliable.
Other Display Technologies
In addition to DLP, there are three other primary display technologies: amorphous silicon (am-Si) LCD, polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) LCD, and cathode ray tube (CRT).
¢ LCDs
An LCD acts as a light shutter. It can be best understood as a mechanism capable of modulating or controlling the amount of polarized light that can be transmitted through the panel. Improvements in LCDs have led to increases in transmissivity (light throughput), but LCD technology is still limited to an analog architecture. Am-Si and poly-Si are thin film transistor (TFT) LCDs that require a transistor to control each pixel on the LCD panel. An electric signal applied through the transistor to the LCD pixel changes the pixelâ„¢s polarization. By varying the polarization, the amount of light passing though each pixel can be controlled to produce an image (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Three closely spaced red, green, and blue LCD sub-pixels.
Light can be represented in vertical and horizontal components. If light is directed at a vertically oriented polarizer, the polarizer acts as a filter and allows only the vertical light to pass. On the other side of the system,another polarizer is positioned so that light will pass only in the horizontal direction. With no liquid crystal in the path, the first polarizer would block the horizontal light and pass the vertical. When the vertical light hits the second polarizer, it would also be blocked (because the second polarizer passes only horizontal light). The result would be complete blockage of light, producing a dark pixel. When a liquid crystal is sandwiched between the two polarizers, it acts as a modulator or twister of polarized light. By applying a voltage to the crystal, the light polarization can be altered, allowing various levels of light to pass through the system. Projection systems based on LCD technology use either a single LCD panel or three panels, one for each primary color”red, green, and blue. In the single-panel configuration shown here, small, closely spaced red, green, and blue sub-pixels make up one pixel

*Amorphous Silicon LCD

Am-Si LCDs are built by depositing transistors on a large glass substrate. A transistor is located in the corner of each pixel while a thin conductive grid connects to each pixel on the panel. Pixels are made up of three individually controlled sub-pixel strips (red, green, and blue) to create a pixel capable of producing many color combinations. Am-Si panels are used to create single-panel project and implimentationors, but these project and implimentationors suffer from poor image quality due to the side-by-side sub-pixel color scheme.
*Polycrystalline Silicon LCD
Polycrystalline silicon LCD, more commonly referred to as poly-Si, is a very popular LCD technology for project and implimentationion display. These LCDs are fabricated at high temperatures on quartz substrates. Poly-Si LCD panels are much smaller than am-Si panels. They have smaller transistors and greater fill factors as well, but to date, poly-Si panels are monochromatic (meaning they donâ„¢t have the color stripping found in am-Si panels). Color is created in poly-Si project and implimentationors by using three separate LCD panels, beam-splitting mirrors, and a prism system. White light is split into red, green, and blue components. Each component of light is directed to its own LCD panel, where the light modulation occurs. The modulated light is then recombined by a prism so that the pixels from each panel are overlaid on each other to produce a color image. The challenge for these three-panel poly-Si project and implimentationors is the precision alignment that is necessary to make the separate red, green, and blue image planes converge to produce a uniform, aligned picture.
¢ Cathode Ray Tube Technology
Cathode ray tube technology is used in nearly all of todayâ„¢s computer monitors and televisions. Electron beams are scanned back and forth and directed at a phosphor-emitting surface. When electrons hit this surface, light is emitted. By scanning the beams at rates faster than the eye can detect, a full image can be created.
The problem with CRTs is that they are not digital but analog displays. CRT technology probably will be replaced in the future by emerging LCD and DLP technology. In addition to being based on an old, analog technology, CRTs also lack the brightness necessary for many larger screen applications. Further brightness limitations arise when CRT project and implimentationion systems attempt to drive higher resolution video signals. The CRTâ„¢s brightness decreases as resolution increases, limiting the CRTâ„¢s potential as an optimal solution for HDTV. Because a CRT display system usually relies on three electron guns (Figure 7), one for each primary color (red, green, blue), it also requires constant alignment and tweaking for optimum picture quality.
This leads to increased setup time and maintenance costs during a productâ„¢s lifetime (Figure 7).

Figure 7. The CRT monitor. Input video or graphic signals are sent to three electron guns at the back of the monitorâ„¢s cathode ray tube. Each electron gun shoots a stream of electrons, one for each of the primary colors.The intensity of each stream is controlled by the input signal. The beams pass through a shadow mask to keep them precisely aligned. When the electrons strike the phosphors coating the inside of the screen, the phosphors emit light. A magnetic deflection yoke bends the paths of the electron streams so that they sweep from left to right and top to bottom in a process called raster scanning. The screen is usually redrawn, or refreshed, 60 or more times a second.
CONCLUSION
More and more of todayâ„¢s information is created, edited, and transmitted in the digital domain. The majority of existing display technologies is analog and limits the full potential of digital video. At present, DLP is the only digital project and implimentationion solution available to produce an entirely digital video infrastructure. As PCs and TVs converge and the digital HDTV infrastructure begins to take form, DLP offers consumers the maximum benefit of digital source material by producing life-like, digitally project and implimentationed images of unprecedented picture quality. The colors are truer and brighter, the pictures seamless. Because it is a reflective technology, DLP images will become brighter and brighter as resolutions increase. The DLP technology proved to be successful even in numerous environmental and regulatory tests. Using DLP technology, leading manufacturers are bringing world class project and implimentationors to the market to serve a wide variety of digital display applicati
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] E. Baumann, The Fischer Large-Screen Projection System, J. SMPTE, Vol. 60, pp. 344-356 (April 1953).
[2] R.J. Gove, DMD Display Systems: The Impact of an All-Digital Display, Society for Information Display International Symposium (June 1994).
[3] L.J. Hornbeck and W.E. Nelson, Bistable Deformable Mirror Device, OSA Technical Digest Series, Vol. 8, Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, p. 107 (1988).
[4] W.E. Nelson and L.J. Hornbeck, Micromechanical Spatial Light Modulator for Electrophotographic Printers, SPSE Fourth International Congress on Advances in Non-Impact Printing Technologies, p. 427 (March 20, 1988).
[5] L.J. Hornbeck, Deformable-Mirror Spatial Light Modulators (Invited Paper), Spatial Light Modulators and Applications III, SPIE Critical Reviews, Vol. 1150, pp. 86-102 (August 1989).
[6] T.J. Sheerer, W.E. Nelson, and L.J. Hornbeck, FEM Analysis of a DMD, Seventeenth Nastram User Colloquium, NASA Conf. Pub. 3029, p. 290(1989).

INDEX

Abstract
Introduction
Digital light processing
¢ How DLP works
¢ Seamless picture
¢ High brightness
¢ Reliability
Other display technologies
LCDs
¢ Amorphous Silicon LCDs
¢ Polycrystalline LCDs
Cathode Ray Tube Technology
Conclusion
Bibliography
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