electric power transmission
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11-03-2010, 02:00 AM
give project and implimentation report on the above topic
Active In SP
Joined: Mar 2010
11-03-2010, 08:22 AM
Joined: Apr 2012
18-09-2012, 02:46 PM
Electric power transmission
Electric power.docx (Size: 36.61 KB / Downloads: 18)
• Electric power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical power (or more correctly energy), a process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. A power transmission network typically connects power plants to multiple substations near a populated area.
• The wiring from substations to customers is referred to as Electricity Distribution, following the historic business model separating the wholesale electricity transmission business from distributors who deliver the electricity to the homes. Electric power transmission allows distant energy sources (such as hydroelectric power plants) to be connected to consumers in population centers, and may allow exploitation of low-grade fuel resources such as coal that would otherwise be too costly to transport to generating facilities.
• A power transmission network is referred to as a "grid". Multiple redundant lines between points on the network are provided so that power can be routed from any power plant to any load center, through a variety of routes, based on the economics of the transmission path and the cost of power. Much analysis is done by transmission companies to determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line, which, due to system stability considerations, may be less than the physical or thermal limit of the line.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers.
When referring to the power industry, "grid" is a term used for an electricity network which may support all or some of the following three distinct operations:
1. Electricity generation
2. Electric power transmission
3. Electricity distribution
The sense of grid is as a network, and should not be taken to imply a particular physical layout, or breadth. "Grid" may be used to refer to an entire continent's electrical network, a regional transmission network; or may be used to describe a subnetwork such as a local utility's transmission grid or distribution grid.
Electricity in a remote location might be provided by a simple distribution grid linking a central generator to homes. The traditional paradigm for moving electricity around in developed countries is more complex. Generating plants are usually located near a source of water, and away from heavily populated areasThe electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage—at which it connects to the transmission network. The transmission network will move(wheel) the power long distances—often across state lines, and sometimes across international boundaries—until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local distribution network.) Upon arrival at the substation, the power will be stepped down in voltage—from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
This traditional centralized model along with its distinctions are breaking down with the introduction of new technologies. For example, the characteristics of power generation can in some new grids be entirely opposite of those listed above. Generation can occur at low levels in dispersed locations, in highly populated areas, and not outside the distribution grids
GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY IN INDIA
• India is world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption. Due to India's economic rise, the demand for energy has grown at an average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years.
• More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves.
• About 76% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants,
• 21% by hydroelectric power plants
• 4% by nuclear power plants.
• The country has also invested heavily in recent years on renewable sources of energy such as wind energy.
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY
• Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high voltage, generally of 132kV and above. In India bulk transmission has increased from 3,708ckm in 1950 to more than 265,000ckm today.
• The entire country has been divided into five regions for transmission systems, namely, Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. The Interconnected transmission system within each region is also called the regional grid.
• The total installed generating capacity in the country is over 135,000MW and the total number of consumers is over 144 million. Apart from an extensive transmission system network at 500kV HVDC, 400kV, 220kV, 132kV and 66kV which has developed to transmit the power from generating station to the grid substations, a vast network of sub transmission in distribution system has also come up for utilisation of the power by the ultimate consumers.
• High technical losses in the system are primarily due to inadequate investments over the years for system improvement works, which has resulted in unplanned extensions of the distribution lines, overloading of the system elements like transformers and conductors, and lack of adequate reactive power support.
• The commercial losses are mainly due to low metering efficiency, theft & pilferages. This may be eliminated by improving metering efficiency, proper energy accounting & auditing and improved billing & collection efficiency. Fixing of accountability of the personnel / feeder managers may help considerably in reduction of AT&C loss.