electronic ticket machine
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22-04-2010, 07:57 PM



.pdf   Bus Ticketing System _abstract.pdf (Size: 86.87 KB / Downloads: 252)

ABSTRACT


Electronic Ticket Machine

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation is introducing ticket machines on buses. The ticket machines would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by KSRTC conductors. It would also end the practice of tearing out tickets and marking fare stages.

Instead, the KSRTC conductor would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and the ticket machine would print out the ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to carry. The parameters are almost like that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine is portable.

The machine can print out 2,300 tickets, including the journey report in order to facilitate inspection by the corporation's checking inspectors. Each machine costs Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 12,000. The KSRTC has budgeted Rs. 2 cores for this innovative step which would have the support of the Information Technology Department. In old days the KSRTC was spending Rs. 85 lakhs on printing tickets. The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice. It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to the boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would provide data on concessions given to various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the computer. More over the depots of the corporation would be fully computerized so we want to add some other modules in our domain for depot's verification.
1. OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT 1.1 INTRODUCTION


Electronic Bus Ticketing

The ticket machines would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by conductors. It would also end the practice of tearing out tickets and marking fare stages. The Conductor would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and the ticket machine would print out the ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to carry. The parameters are almost like that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine is portable. The machine can print out 2,300 tickets, including the journey report in order to facilitate inspection by the corporation's checking inspectors. The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice. It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to the boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would provide data on concessions given to various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the computer. More over the depots of the corporation would be fully computerized so we want to add some other modules in our domain for depot's verification.

This project and implimentation is modularized as the following:
> Management of Route
> Trip Details
> Bus Details
> Bus Stops
> Bus Ticketing
1. Management of Routes

This module include information about how we can Manage the routes for a particular bus services so In the case of Route management module we must know the details about route number, number of stops fare stages and running time of the particular bus more over we want to manipulate and stored these information successfully.


2. Trip information

Each journey is identified as a trip. Each ticket must contain the trip no so that calculation of passenger can be done easily. Here in this section we want to know start time and route no of the bus this information can be manipulate and stored successfully.


3. Bus Detail

In this module all bus details are stored and manipulated, in bus detail module contains minimum charge, type, depot, fare increment, bus number, and passenger's states (child or adult) are manipulate and stored.


4. Bus Stops

Bus Stops module includes information about what are the main bus stops of a particular bus. This module connected to the route of the bus and it is used to store stop number, stop name and fare stages and Route number


5. Bus Ticketing

Ticketing is the most important module in this Project which uses all the tables together and calculates fare for the passengers. Venting the tickets is done using the route number, bus type,

beginning stop, end stop, ticket number, persons(Adult/child)rate, date and time also we want to print the all these information. In order to do the calculation data has to be pulled out from stops, bus, trip and route. Number of passengers & the states are entered by the Venter and to produce the tickets.

2. SYSTEM STUDY AND ANALYSIS


2.1 INTRODUCTION


System analysis is a process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and the information to recommend improvements on the system. It is a problem solving activity that requires intensive communication between the system users and system developers. System analysis or study is an important phase of any system development process. The system is studied to the minutest detail and analyzed. The system analyst plays the role of the interrogator and dwells deep into the working of the present system. The system is viewed as a whole and the input to the system are identified. The outputs from the organizations are traced to the various processes. System analysis is concerned with becoming aware of the problem, identifying the relevant and decisional variables, analyzing and synthesizing the various factors and determining an optimal or at least a satisfactory solution or program of action.

A detailed study of the process must be made by various techniques like interviews, questionnaires etc. The data collected by these sources must be scrutinized to arrive to a conclusion. The conclusion is an understanding of how the system functions. This system is called the existing system. Now the existing system is subjected to close study and problem areas are identified. The designer now functions as a problem solver and tries to sort out the difficulties that the enterprise faces. The solutions are given as proposals. The proposal is then weighed with the existing system analytically and the best one is selected. The proposal is presented to the user for an endorsement by the user. The proposal is reviewed on user request and suitable changes are made. This is loop that ends as soon as the user is satisfied with proposal.

Preliminary study is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, using the information for further studies on the system. Preliminary study is problem solving activity that requires intensive communication between the system users and system developers. It does various feasibility studies. In these studies a rough figure of the system activities can be obtained, from which the decision about the strategies to be followed for effective system study and analysis can be taken.

Here in the project and implimentation E-Ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is carried along with all the steps in system analysis. An idea for creating a better project and implimentation was carried and the next steps were followed.




2.2 FEASIBILITY STUDY


An important outcome of the preliminary investigation is the determination that the system requested is feasible. Feasibility study is carried out to select the best system that meets the performance requirements.


Feasibility study is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of the project and implimentation at the earliest possible time. It involves preliminary investigation of the project and implimentation and examines whether the designed system will be useful to the organization. Months or years of effort, thousand for millions of money and untold professional embarrassment can be averted if an in-conceived system is recognized early in the definition phase.


The different types of feasibility are: Technical feasibility, Operational feasibility, Economical feasibility.



2.2.1 Technical feasibility


Technical Feasibility deals with the hardware as well as software requirements. Technology is not a constraint to type system development. We have to find out whether the necessary technology, the proposed equipments have the capacity to hold the data, which is used in the project and implimentation, should be checked to carryout this technical feasibility.


The technical feasibility issues usually raised during the feasibility stage of investigation includes these
¢ This software is running in windows 2000 Operating System, which can be easily installed.
¢ The hardware required is Pentium based server.
¢ The system can be expanded.



2.2.2 Behavioral Feasibility


This feasibility test asks if the system will work when it is developed and installed.
Operational feasibility in this project and implimentation:
¢ The proposed system offers greater level of user-friendliness.
¢ The proposed system produces best results and gives high performance. It can be implemented easily .So this project and implimentation is operationally feasible.
2.2.3 Economical feasibility
Economical Feasibility deals about the economical impact faced by the organization to implement a new system. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs. The cost of conducting a full system, including software and hardware cost for the class of application being considered should be evaluated. Economic Feasibility in this project and implimentation:
¢ The cost to conduct a full system investigation is possible.
¢ There is no additional manpower requirement.
¢ There is no additional cost involved in maintaining the proposed system.

2.4 EXISTING SYSTEM

Existing system refers to the system that is being followed till now. The existing system requires more computational time, more manual calculations, and the complexity involved in Selection of features is high. The other disadvantages are lack of security of data, Deficiency of Data accuracy, Time consuming etc. To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system needs to be computerized. Here in the Electronic bus ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is carried along with all the steps in system analysis.


2.4.1 Draw backs of existing system.

Here in the Electronic bus ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is carried along with all the steps in system analysis. An idea for creating a better project and implimentation was carried and the next steps were followed.
Lack of security of data.
More man power.
Time consuming.
Consumes large volume of pare work.
Needs manual calculations.
No direct role for the higher officials.
Damage of machines due to lack of attention.

To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system needs to be computerized.



2.5 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities. The proposed system can overcome all the limitations of the existing system. The system provides proper security and reduces the manual work. The existing system has several disadvantages and many more difficulties to work well. The proposed system tries to eliminate or reduce these difficulties up to some extent. The proposed system will help the user to reduce the workload and mental conflict. The proposed system helps the user to work user friendly and he can easily do his jobs without time
lagging.



2.5.1 Advantages of Proposed System


The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. It has got following features
> Ensure data accuracy.
> Minimize manual data entry.
> Minimum time needed for the various processing
> Greater efficiency

> Better Service
> Minimum time required
> The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice
> It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points
> This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand.
> It would provide data on concessions given to various sections.
> Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the
computer.

3. SYSTEM DESIGN

3.1 INTRODUCTION
System Design is the most creative and challenging phase in the system life cycle. Design is the first step into the development phase for any engineered product or system. Design is a creative process. A good design is the key to effective system. System design is a solution how to approach the creation of a new system. System design transforms a logic representation of what is required to do into the physical specification. The specification is converted into physical reality during development.



3.2 LOGICAL DESIGN
The logical flow of a system and define the boundaries of a system. It includes the following steps:
¢ Reviews the current physical system - its data flows, file content, volumes, frequencies etc.
¢ Prepares output specifications - that is, determines the format, content and Frequency of reports.
¢ Prepares input specifications - format, content and most of the input functions.
¢ Prepares edit, security and control specifications.
¢ Specifies the implementation plan.
¢ Prepares a logical design walk through of the information flow, output, input, controls and implementation plan.

¢ Reviews benefits, costs, target dates and system constraints.



3.3 PHYSICAL DESIGN
Physical system produces the working systems by define the design specifications that tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. It includes the following steps.
¢ Design the physical system.
¢ Specify input and output media.
¢ Design the database and specify backup procedures.
¢ Design physical information flow through the system and a physical design Walk through.
¢ Plan system implementation.
¢ Prepare a conversion schedule and target date.
¢ Determine training procedures, courses and timetable.
¢ Devise a test and implementation plan and specify any new hardware/software.
¢ Update benefits , costs , conversion date and system constraints



Design/Specification activities
¢ Concept formulation.
¢ Problem understanding.
¢ High level requirements proposals.
¢ Feasibility study.
¢ Requirements engineering.
¢ Architectural design.



3.4 INPUT DESIGN
Input Design deals with what data should be given as input, how the data should be arranged or code, the dialog to guide the operating personnel in providing input, methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur. Input Design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the input into a computer-based system. This design is important to avoid errors in the data input process and show the correct direction to the management for getting correct information from the computerized system. It is achieved by creating user-friendly screens for the data entry to handle large volume of data. The goal of designing input is to make data entry easier and to be free from errors. The data entry screen is designed in such a way that all the data manipulates can be performed. It also provides record viewing facilities.


When the data is entered it will check for its validity. Data can be entered with the help of screens. Appropriate messages are provided as when needed so that the user will not be in maize of instant. Thus the objective of input design is to create an input layout that is easy to follow.


In this project and implimentation, the input design consists of a log in screen, tab for compression/ decompression, source and destination browsing button, a menu list for selecting the algorithm, Compress/Decompress option, compress/decompress button.
3.5 OUTPUT DESIGN
A quality output is one, which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the information clearly. The objective of output design is to convey information about past activities, current status or project and implimentationions of the future, signal important events, opportunities, problems, or warnings, trigger an action, confirm an action etc. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the system's relationship with the user and helps in decisions making. In output design the emphasis is on displaying the output on a CRT screen in a predefined format. The primary consideration in design of output is the information requirement and objectives of the end users. The major formation of the output is to convey the information and so its layout and design need a careful consideration.


There is an output display screen for showing the compressed/ decompressed file or folder details (Original file size, Compressed/Decompressed file size, distinct characters)

3.7 DATABASE DESIGN
A database is an organized mechanism that has the capability of storing information through which a user can retrieve stored information in an effective and efficient manner. The data is the purpose of any database and must be protected.
The database design is a two level process. In the first step, user requirements are gathered together and a database is designed which will meet these requirements as clearly as possible. This step is called Information Level Design and it is taken independent of any individual Database Management System (DBMS).
In the second step, this Information level design is transferred into a design for the specific DBMS that will be used to implement the system in question. This step is called Physical Level Design, concerned with the characteristics of the specific DBMS that will be used. A database design runs parallel with the system design. The organization of the data in the database is aimed to achieve the following two major objectives.
¢ Data Integrity
¢ Data independence

4.2 TESTING
Testing is a process of executing a program with the interest of finding an error. A good test is one that has high probability of finding the yet undiscovered error. Testing should systematically uncover different classes of errors in a minimum amount of time with a minimum amount of efforts. Two classes of inputs are provided to test the process
1. A software configuration that includes a software requirement specification, a design
specification and source code.
2. A software configuration that includes a test plan and procedure, any testing tool and
test cases and their expected results.
Testing is divided into several distinct operations:
1. Unit Testing
Unit test comprises of a set tests performed by an individual program prior to the integration of the unit into large system. A program unit is usually the smallest free functioning part of the whole system. Module unit testing should be as exhaustive as possible to ensure that each representation handled by each module has been tested. All the units that makeup the system must be tested independently to ensure that they work as required.
During unit testing some errors were raised and all of them were rectified and handled well. The result was quiet satisfactory and it worked well.
2. Integration Testing
Integration testing is a system technique for constructing the program structure while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure that has been dictated by design. Bottom-up integration is the traditional strategy used to integrate the components of a software system into functioning whole. Bottom-up integration consists of unit test followed by testing of the entire system. A sub-system consists of several modules that communicated with other defined interface.


The system was done the integration testing. All the modules were tested for their compatibility with other modules .They test was almost successful. All the modules coexisted very well, with almost no bugs. All the modules were encapsulated very well so as to not hamper the execution of other modules.
3. Validation Testing
After validation testing, software is completely assembled as a package, interfacing errors that have been uncovered and corrected and the final series of software test; the validation test begins. Steps taken during software design and testing can greatly improve the probability of successful integration in the larger system. System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the compute -based system.
4. Recovery Testing
It is a system that forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that the recovery is properly performed.
5. Security Testing
It attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system will in fact protect it from improper penetration. The system's security must of course be tested from in vulnerability form frontal attack.
6. Stress Testing
Stress tools are designed to confront programs with abnormal situations. Stress testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity and volume.






7. Black Box Testing
Black box testing is done to find out the following information as shown in
below:
1. Incorrect or missing functions.
2. Interface errors.
3. Errors or database access.
4. Performance error.
5. Termination error.
The mentioned testing is carried out successfully for this application according to the user's requirement specification.
8. Test Data Output
After preparing test data, the system under study is tested using the test data. While testing the system using test data, errors are again uncovered and corrected by using above testing and corrections are also noted for future use.
6. CONCLUSION & FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

The project and implimentation E-Ticketing is completed, satisfying the required design specifications. The system provides a user-friendly interface. The software is developed with modular approach. All modules in the system have been tested with valid data and invalid data and everything work successfully. Thus the system has fulfilled all the objectives identified and is able to replace the existing system. The constraints are met and overcome successfully. The system is designed as like it was decided in the design phase. This software has a user-friendly screen that enables the user to use without any inconvenience. The ticket machines would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by conductors. Instead, the conductor would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and the ticket machine would print out the ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to carry. The parameters are almost like that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine is portable. It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to the boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would provide data on concessions given to various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the computer.

The application has been tested with live data and has provided a successful result. Hence the software has proved to work efficiently.
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