embedded system digita lbike operating system full report
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24-01-2010, 02:55 PM

.pdf   embedded system digita lbike operating system full report.pdf (Size: 96.63 KB / Downloads: 348)


Now a days consumer products like washing machine, microwave oven, and

cellphone to industries digital technology plays a major role. But we

have not yet used this technology in bikes. What my idea of making u se

of this tech. in bikes is a complete digital bike operating system sans

key. According to my invention key is not required to operate a bike

(The operation includes starting & locking the bike, fuel tank cap

opening) & also the petrol knob need no t to be turned on for petrol

flow. All are done automatically by pressing a single button. To start

the bike a four -digit password has to be entered. A keypad is provided

for this purpose. After the acceptance of the password, we can operate

the bike . Some safety features are also introduced .If others try to

operate the bike with out the permission from the bike owner they will

fail in their attempt and immediately an alarm which is fixed in the

bike starts louding and at the same time a receiver will indicate it to


In the past it was much easier to distinguish an embedded system from

general purpose computer than its today. Clearly the increase in

hardware performance and low cost blurred the demarc ation line.

Embedded specifies the integration and system is one which responds to

input producing required output. Gadgets are increasingly becoming

intelligent and autonomous. MP3 players, mobile phones and automotive

brakes are some of the common exampl es built with intelligence. The

intelligence of smart devices resides in embedded systems.

Two major areas of differences are cost and power consumption. Since

many embedded systems are produced in
the tens of thousands to millions of units range, reducing cost is a

major concern.
Embedded systems often use a (relatively) slow processor and small

memory size to minimize costs. The slowness
is not just clock speed. The whole architecture of the computer is

often intentionally simplified to lower costs. For
example, embedded systems often use peripherals controlled by

synchronous serial interfaces, which are ten to
hundreds of times slower than comp arable peripherals used in PCs.

Programs on an embedded system often must
run with real-time constraints with limited hardware resources: often

there is no disk drive, operating system,
keyboard or screen. A flash drive may replace rotating media, and a sm

all keypad and LCD screen may be used
instead of a PC's keyboard and screen.Firmware is the name for software

that is embedded in hardware devices, e.g.
in one or more ROM/Flash memory IC chips.Embedded systems are routinely

expected to maintain 100% reali bility
while running continuously for long periods, sometimes measured in

years. Firmware is usually developed and
tested to much stricter requirements than is general purpose software

which can usually be easily restarted if a
problem occurs.

The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a

microcontroller. Some l arge or old systems use general
purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers.
All embedded systems have start -up code. Usually it disables

interrupts , sets up the electronics, tests the computer
(RAM, CPU and software), and then starts the application code. Many

embedded systems recover from short -term
power failures by restarting (without recent self -tests). Restart

times under a tenth of a second are common. Many
designers have found one of more hardware plus software -controlled

LEDs useful to indicate errors during
development. A common scheme is to have the electronics turn off the

LED(s) at reset, whereupon the software
turns it on at the first opportunity, to prove that the hardware and

start -up software have performed their job so far.
After that, the software blinks the LED(s) or sets up light patterns
during normal operation, to indicate program execution progress and/or

errors. This serves to r eassure most
technicians/engineers and some users.

Embedded systems are classified as
1. Autonomous
2. Real time
3. Network enabled
4. Mobile
Applications of Embedded system may base upon:
1. Microprocessor
2. Microcontroller
3. Signal processors (DSP, ASP, MSP ) design
Embedded system can be easily understood from the block below:
Breakthroughs in developments of micro electronics, processors speeds

and memory elements accompanied with
dropping prices have resulted powerful embedded systems with number of



1. ABC chip by Philips semiconductors “ digital enabled cordless phone

using embedded DSP cores.
2. Embedded DRAM gets pure logic performance “ vendors of gigabit

Ethernet controllers turni ng into embedded
3. Large number of small batteries on silicon chips in the near future.
4. Atmel announces new memory solution for embedded application “ low

cost high security chips with data
encryption and synchronous protocols.

There are several basically different types of software architectures

in common use.
1.The control loop
In this design, the software simply has a loop. The loop calls

subroutines. Each subroutine manages a part of the
hardware or software. Interrupts generally set flags, or update

counters that are read by the rest of the software.A
simple API disables and enables interrupts. Done right, it handles

nested calls in nested subroutines, and restores the
preceding interrupt state in the outermost enable. This is one of the

simplest methods of creating an exokernel.
2. No preemptive multitasking
This system is very similar to the above, except that the loop is

hidden in an API. One defines a series of tasks, and
each task gets its own subroutine stack. Then, when a task is idle, it

calls an idle routine (usually called "pause",
"wait", "yield", or etc.).
3. Preemptive timers
Take any of the above systems, but add a timer system that runs

subroutines from a timer interrupt. This adds
completely new capabilities to the system. For the first time, the

timer routines can occur at a guaranteed time.Also,
for the first time, the code can step on its own data structures at

unexpected times. The timer routines must be treated
with the same care as interrupt routines.
4. Preemptive tasks
Take the above nonpreemptive task system, and run it from a preemptive

timer or other interrupts.
Suddenly the system is quite different. Any piece of task code can

damage the data of another task ”they must be
precisely separated. Access to shared data must be rigidly controlled

by some synchronization strategy,
5. User interfaces
User interfaces for embedded systems vary wildly, and thus deserve some

special comment.Designers recommend
testing the user interface for usability at the earliest possible

instant. A quick, dirty test is to ask an executive
secretary to use cardboard models drawn with magic markers, and

manipulated by an engineer. The videotaped
result is likely to be both humorous and very educational . In the

tapes, every time the engineer talks, the interface
has failed: It would cause a service call.

The main feature of this bike is there is no key required to start &

lock the bike & also th ere is no need to turn on the
petrol knob for petrol flow. All are done automatically by pressing a

single button.

It is often quite natural for everyone to leave the bike key somewhere

and search for it while going out.
Particularly in the morning while getting ready to go office or college

searching the bike key leads us to a big
tension and finally if we lost the key we have to go to a mechanic to

replace with a new key. Sometimes some may
forget to lock the bike, which leads to theft. Some ma y forget to open

the petrol knob for petrol flow, which leads
the bike automatically, switched off amidst heavy traffic.These kinds

of problems are fully solved by this project and implimentation
and theft proof techniques are also introduced

Presented by¦,
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03-12-2010, 08:20 PM

sir can u send me detailed information about it as a project and implimentation
seminar surveyer
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Joined: Sep 2010
04-12-2010, 08:19 AM

please download the attached file from the first post

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