embedded systems
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09-02-2010, 07:26 PM



.pdf   Embedded Systems.pdf (Size: 2.75 MB / Downloads: 200)
Abstract:
Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software and, perhaps, additional mechanical parts, designed to perform a specific function. The hardware is the microprocessor and the memory is the software part. This is also known as "lnbuilt Intelligence" As the memory in integrated with the processor, the space becomes more compact, the high speed, realiblty, flexibility etc. The most peculiar note is, the failure percentage in embedded system is 1%. The memory part of the embedded system holds the , operations procedures that are to be executed. All these instructions can be altered any time using appropriate software and can be written the system and perform the process. Embedded systems are usually programmed in high level language that is compiled (andlor assembled) into an executable ("machine") code. These are loaded into Read Only Memory (ROM) and called "firmware", "microcode" or a "microkernel". The microprocessor is 8-bit or 16-bit.The bit size refers to the f ' amount of memory accessed by the processor. There is usually no operating system and perhaps 0.5k of RAM. The functions implemented normally have no priorities. As the need for features increases andlor as the need to establish priorities arises, it becomes more important to have some sort of decision making mechanism be part of the embedded system. The most advanced systems actually have a tiny, streamlined OS running the show, executing on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor. This is called RTOS.

EMBEDDESDY STEMS I
I The name gives the meaning -> Togetherness. Embedded I system is a combination of computer hardware, software and, perhaps, additional mechanical parts, designed to perform a specific function. The hardware is the microprocessor and the memory is the software I >art. This is also known as "lnbuilt Intelligence" As the memory in I integrated with the processor, the space becomes more compact, tligh speed, realiblty, flexibility etc. The most peculiar note is, the failure percentage in embedded system is 1%. The memory part of the embedded system holds the , operations 1 procedures that are to be executed. All these instructions can be altered any time using appropriate software and can be written the system and perform the process. 1 Embedded systems are usually programmed in high level language that is compiled (andlor assembled) into an executable ("machine") code. These are loaded into Read Only Memory (ROM) and called "firmware", "microcode" or a "microkernel". The microprocessor is 8-bit or 16-bit.The bit size refers to the f ' amount of memory accessed by the processor. There is usually no operating system and perhaps 0.5k of RAM. The functions implemented normally have no priorities. As the need for features increases andlor as the need to establish priorities arises, it becomes more important to have some sort of decision I making mechanism be part of the embedded system. The most advanced systems actually have a tiny, streamlined OS running the show, executing on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor. This is called RTOS.

Innovation
A long breath-taking research in microelectronics, processor and the memory with the boon of low cost, have developed the embedded systems with number of applications. I { The birth of embedded system is in Florida by the Jacob's Family. The Rice-Sized chip developed by them and each of the Jacob's family member had one naming it as "Verichip". This chip .::as made with Biocompatible materials and it was designed in such a manner to store entire medical history of the holder In this inbuilt memory 1 intelligence basis, the Philips company aunched its products with embedded technology in the fabrics of home to provide information about the members in the home. Now the embedded technology has widen its wings and grown ; to the state of wireless connectivity, networking, monitoring any ; application if it was embedded and connected the networklinternet etc. A java enabled mobile can access data from internet and also ! ' control an air-conditioner in homeloffice
Classification's
The embedded system is classified into four categories, namely: 1. Autonomous 2. Real-Time 3. Networked 4. Mobile Autonomous is a standalone mode device. Many
manufacturing and automobile industries I machineries are covered ~q-rder this category. This type of systems, deadlines or response imes are not critical. For example, a Mono Block Pump can be turned on if the water level in the overhead tank reaches the minimum level. Real-Time systems are time based. They are designed in such a manner that specified task is completed in specified amount of time. These systems are implemented in the areas where the time critical tasks are to be executed in the process control. For instance, when a car is being dashed in then the life guard balloons I has to be blown before the damaging end reaches the life area. If I I this is not carried out in stipulated time then loss of life incurs. , I Networked systems are used to monitor another system plant and send the data's to a centralized system for monitoring. Mobile gadgets are needed to store database locally to their memory. These gadgets are imbibe powerful computing and communication capabilities to perform real-time as well as non-realtime tasks and handle multimedia applications. The gadget, embed / I ! I powerful processor and OS, lot of memory with minimal power consumption.
Embedded Hardware
I All embedded system has a microprocessor or microcontroller for ~rocessing of information and execution of programs, memory in the form of W'.' RAM for storing embedded software programs and data, and I10 interfaces +or external interface. Any additional requirement in an embedded system is dependent on the equipment it is controlling. Very often these systems have a standard serial port, a network interface, 110 interface, or hardware to interact .::t" sensors and activators on the equipment.
Embedded Software C has become the language of choice for embedded programmers, i 5esause it has the benefit of processor independence, which allows the ) Zrqrammer to concentrate on algorithms and applications, rather than on the .j~!ails of processor architecture. However, many of its advantages apply equally to other high-level languages as well. Perhaps the greatest strength of C is that it gives em bedded programmers an extraordinary degree of direct hardware control without sacrificing the benefits of high-level languages. Compilers and , cross compilers are also available for almost every processor with C. I Any source code written in C or C++ or Assembly language must be converted into an executable image that can be loaded onto a ROM chip. The process of converting the source code representation of your embedded software into an executable image involves three distinct steps, and the system or computer on which these processes are executed is called a host computer. First, each of the source files that make an embedded application must be sompiled or assembled into distinct object files. Second, all of the object files that result from the first step must be linked into a final object file called the relocatable program. Finally, the physical memory address must be assigned to the relocatable program. The result of the third step is a file that contains an executable image that 1 is ported on the ROM chip. This ROM chip, along with the processor and other devices and interfaces, makes an embedded system run. There are some very basic differences between conventional programming and embedded programming. First, each target platform is unique. I I Second. there is a difference in the development and debugging of applications
TRENDS
A plethora of processors are available to cater to different a2~lications. 8 - bit, 16 - bit and 32 - bit processors are available 1.vitb different processing powers and memory DSPs are specially designed to handle audio and video sicnals. In audio and video processing unwanted frequencies are removed by filtering. The signals are converted into frequency I eomain using Fourier transforms. The spectrum of the signal is analysed in the frequency domain. This "process requires intensive mathematical computation. The DSP carries out mathematical ' I computation quickly using a "multiplier and accumulator" module. DSPs are used for image compression, video processing, I high-fidelity music processing, etc. DSP- based embedded systems are available for diverse applications on hand. I ROM and RAM devices are easily available nowadays. I Secondary storage devices, such as hard disks, are also being incorporated in embedded systems of mobile communication and computing gadgets. Devices that don't have secondary storage use flash memory and even nowadays, so powerful OS, such as I Windows NT, can be incorporated in embedded systems.
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