friction stir welding full report
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15-02-2010, 12:47 PM



.ppt   FRICTION STIR WELDING.ppt (Size: 585 KB / Downloads: 1,898)
Introduction



Welding using friction as the major resource
No filler material involved
Welds created by,
a) Frictional heating
b) Mechanical deformation

History

Invented by TWI in 1991 in England
28 organizations worldwide use FSW

Friction Welding


Heat from mechanical energy conversion

Linear friction welding
Rotary friction welding
Material Suitability


Copper and its alloys
Lead
Titanium and its alloys
Magnesium alloys
Zinc
Plastics
Mild steel
Stainless steel
Nickel alloys


Advantages

Diverse materials: Welds a wide range of alloys, including previously un-weldable (and possibly composite materials)
Durable joints: Provides twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds.
Versatile welds: Welds in all positions and creates straight or complex-shape welds
Retained material properties: Minimizes material distortion
Safe operation: Does not create hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing
No keyholes: Pin is retracted automatically at end of weld
Tapered-thickness weld joints: Pin maintains full penetration


Conclusion


An alternative to fusion welding
Advanced technologies are in the offing
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.doc   Friction Stir Welding (FSW).doc (Size: 282 KB / Downloads: 799)


ABSTRACT
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process that involves joining of metals without fusion or filler materials. The frictional heat is produced from a rapidly rotating non-consumable high strength tool pin that extends from a cylindrical shoulder. The process is particularly applicable for aluminium alloys but can be extended to other products also. Plates, sheets and hollow pipes can be welded by this method. The process is also suitable for automation. The weld produced is of finer microstructure and superior in characteristics to that parent metal. FSW finds application in shipbuilding, aerospace, railway, electrical and automotive industry. The limitations of FSW are reduced by intensive research and development. Its cost effectiveness and ability to weld dissimilar metals makes it a commonly used welding process in recent times.

1. Introduction
In late 1991 a very novel and potentially world beating welding method was conceived at TWI. The process was duly named friction stir welding (FSW), and TWI filed for world-wide patent protection in December of that year. TWI (The Welding Institute) is a world famous institute in the UK that specializes in materials joining technology. Consistent with the more conventional methods of friction welding, which have been practiced since the early 1950s, the weld is made in the solid phase, that is, no melting is involved. Compared to conventional friction welding, FSW uses a rotating tool to generate the necessary heat for the process. Since its invention, the process has received world-wide attention and today two Scandinavian companies are using the technology in production, particularly for joining aluminium alloys. Also, FSW is a process that can be automated. It is also a cleaner and more efficient process compared to conventional techniques.

2. Working principle
In friction stir welding (FSW) a cylindrical, shouldered tool with a profiled probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces butted together. The parts have to be clamped onto a backing bar in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. Frictional heat is generated between the wear resistant welding tool and the material of the work pieces. This heat causes the latter to soften without reaching the melting point and allows traversing of the tool along the weld line. The maximum temperature reached is of the order of 0.8 of the melting temperature of the material. The plasticized material is transferred from the leading edge of the tool to the trailing edge of the tool probe and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin profile. It leaves a solid phase bond between the two pieces. The process can be regarded as a solid phase keyhole welding technique since a hole to accommodate the probe is generated, then filled during the welding sequence
3. Description of the rotating tool pin
The non-consumable tool has a circular section except at the end where there is a threaded probe or more complicated flute; the junction between the cylindrical portion and the probe is known as the shoulder. The probe penetrates the work piece whereas the shoulder rubs with the top surface. The tool has an end tap of 5 in 6 mm diameter and a height of 5 to 6 mm (may vary with the metal thickness). The tool is set in a positive angle of some degree in the welding direction. The design of the pin and shoulder assembly plays a major role on how the material moves during the process.
Different types of tools used
Tool mounted on the machine
4. Microstructure Classification
The first attempt at classifying microstructures was made by P L Threadgill (Bulletin, March 1997). This work was based solely on information available from aluminium alloys. However, it has become evident from work on other materials that the behavior of aluminium alloys is not typical of most metallic materials, and therefore the scheme cannot be broadened to encompass all materials. It is therefore proposed that the following revised scheme is used. This has been developed at TWI, but has been discussed with a number of appropriate people in industry and academia, and has also been provisionally accepted by the Friction Stir Welding Licensees Association. The system divides the weld zone into distinct regions as follows:
A. Unaffected material
B. Heat affected zone (HAZ)
C. Thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ)
D. Weld nugget (Part of thermo-mechanically affected zone)
Unaffected material or parent metal: This is material remote from the weld, which has not been deformed, and which although it may have experienced a thermal cycle from the weld is not affected by the heat in terms of microstructure or mechanical properties.
Heat affected zone (HAZ): In this region, which clearly will lie closer to the weld centre, the material has experienced a thermal cycle, which has modified the microstructure and/or the mechanical properties. However, there is no plastic deformation occurring in this area. In the previous system, this was referred to as the "thermally affected zone". The term heat affected zone is now preferred, as this is a direct parallel with the heat affected zone in other thermal processes, and there is little justification for a separate name.
Thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ): In this region, the material has been plastically deformed by the friction stir welding tool, and the heat from the process will also have exerted some influence on the material. In the case of aluminium, it is possible to get significant plastic strain without recrystallisation in this region, and there is generally a distinct boundary between the recrystallised zone and the deformed zones of the TMAZ. In the earlier classification, these two sub-zones were treated as distinct microstructural regions. However, subsequent work on other materials has shown that aluminium behaves in a different manner to most other materials, in that it can be extensively deformed at high temperature without recrystallisation. In other materials, the distinct recrystallised region (the nugget) is absent, and the whole of the TMAZ appears to be recrystallised.
Weld Nugget: The recrystallised area in the TMAZ in aluminium alloys has traditionally been called the nugget. Although this term is descriptive, it is not very scientific. However, its use has become widespread, and as there is no word which is equally simple with greater scientific merit, this term has been adopted. A schematic diagram is shown in the above Figure which clearly identifies the various regions. It has been suggested that the area immediately below the tool shoulder (which is clearly part of the TMAZ) should be given a separate category, as the grain structure is often different here. The microstructure here is determined by rubbing by the rear face of the shoulder, and the material may have cooled below its maximum. It is suggested that this area is treated as a separate sub-zone of the TMAZ.
5. Factors affecting weld quality
¢ Type of metal
¢ Angle of tool
¢ Traversing speed of the tool
¢ Spinning speed of tool
¢ Pressure applied by the pin tool
Research is going on to combine the above factors in order to control the process in a better way.
6. Material suitability
TWI has concentrated most of its efforts to optimizing the process for the joining of aluminium and its alloys. Subsequent studies have shown that cast to cast and cast to extruded (wrought) combinations in similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys are equally possible. The following aluminium alloys could be successfully welded to yield reproducible high integrity welds within defined parametric tolerances:
¢ 2000 series aluminium (Al-Cu)
¢ 3000 series aluminium (Al-Mn)
¢ 4000 series aluminium (Al-Si)
¢ 5000 series aluminium (Al-Mg)
¢ 6000 series aluminium (Al-Mg-Si)
¢ 7000 series aluminium (Al-Zn)
¢ 8000 series aluminium (Al-Li)
7. Other materials
The technology of friction stir welding has been extended to other materials also, on which researches are going on . Some of them are as follows-
¢ Copper and its alloys
¢ Lead
¢ Titanium and its alloys
¢ Magnesium and its alloys
¢ Zinc
¢ Plastics
¢ Mild steel
Companies practicing and developing FSW are spending a lot of money on improving its use for plastics. It has been demonstrated that FSW is a much more efficient and cleaner process than conventional adhesive bonding in plastics. But it is yet to be made cost and material effective. Ceramics is another field where FSW could be very useful in the future.
8. Joint Geometrics
The above figure shows friction stir welded parts
FSW is independent of gravity. Hence, it can be used to weld in any position- vertical, horizontal and even annular. For this reason FSW has been used to make circumferential annular welds in fuel tanks for spaceships. Besides these FSW can also be utilized for normal fillet and corner welds and also double v-butt joints etc.
9. FSW of Mild Steel
Steel can be friction stir welded, but the essential problem is that tool materials wear rapidly. The sample becomes red hot during welding (as shown in the figure). Since the tool gets red hot it is necessary to protect it against the environment using a shielding gas. So generally FSW is avoided for mild steel. This is not such a great disadvantage since there are more efficient methods to weld mild steel. The weld shown is made by Hitachi of Japan.
10. Friction stir welding machines
10. 1 ESAB SuperStir TM machine FW28
The machine has a vacuum clamping table and can be used for non-linear joint lines.
¢ Sheet thickness: 1mm-25mm aluminium
¢ Work envelope: Approx 5 x 8 x 1m
¢ Maximum down force: Approx 60kN (6t)
¢ Maximum rotation speed: 5000rev/min :
¢
10. 2 Modular machine FW22 to weld large size specimens
A laboratory machine was built in October 1996 to accommodate large sheets and to weld prototype structures. The modular construction of FW22 enables it to be easily enlarged for specimens with even larger dimensions.
¢ Sheet thickness: 3mm-15mm aluminium
¢ Maximum welding speed: up to 1.2m/min
¢ Current maximum sheet size: 3.4m length x 4m width
¢ Current maximum working height: 1.15m
¢
10. 3 Moving gantry machine FW21
The purpose built friction stir welding machine FW21 was built in 1995. This machine uses a moving gantry, with which straight welds up to 2m long can be made. It was used to prove that welding conditions can be achieved which guarantee constant weld quality over the full length of long welds.
¢ Sheet thickness: 3mm-15mm aluminium
¢ Maximum welding speed: up to 1.0m/min
¢ Current maximum sheet size: 2m length x 1.2m width
10. 4 Heavy duty Friction Stir Welding machines FW18 and FW14
Two existing machines within TWI's Friction and Forge Welding Group have been modified exclusively to weld thick sections by FSW. The following thickness range has been experimentally investigated but the machines are not yet at their limits.
¢ Sheet thickness: 5mm-50mm aluminium from one side
10mm-100mm aluminium from two sides
5mm thick titanium from one side
¢ Power: up to 22kW
¢ Welding speed: up to 1m/min
10. 5 High rotation speed machine FW20
For welding thin aluminium sheets TWI equipped one of its existing machines with an air cooled high speed head which allows rotation speeds of up to 15,000rev/min.
¢ Sheet thickness: 1.2mm-12mm aluminium
¢ Maximum welding speed: up to 2.6m/min, infinitely variable
10. 6 Friction Stir Welding demonstrator FW16
TWI's small transportable machine produces annular welds with hexagonal aluminium alloy discs. It has been exhibited on fairs in USA, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom in recent years. It is an eye catcher which enables visitors to produce their first friction stir weld themselves. It can be operated with 110V or 220V-240V and has been used by TWI and its member companies to demonstrate the process.
11. Advantages of FSW
¢ The process is environment friendly since no fumes or spatter is generated and no shielding gas is required.
¢ A non consumable tool is used
¢ Since the weld is obtained in solid phase, gravity does not play any part and hence the process can be done in all positions(vertical, horizontal, overhead or orbital)
¢ No grinding, brushing or pickling is required.
¢ Since the temperature involved in the process is quite low, shrinkage during solidification is less
¢ One tool can be typically used for up to 1000 metres of weld length (6000 series aluminium alloy)
¢ No fusion or filler materials is required
¢ No oxide removal necessary as in fusion welding.
¢ The weld obtained is of superior quality with excellent mechanical properties and fine micro structure.
¢ The process is cost effective since mechanical forming after welding can be avoided
¢ Dissimilar metals can be welded.
¢ Automation is possible
12. Applications of FSW
12. 1 Shipbuilding and marine industries
The shipbuilding and marine industries are two of the first industry sectors which have adopted the process for commercial applications. The process is suitable for the following applications:
¢ Panels for decks, sides, bulkheads and floors
¢ Aluminium extrusions
¢ Hulls and superstructures
¢ Helicopter landing platforms
¢ Offshore accommodation
¢ Marine and transport structures
¢ Masts and booms, e.g. for sailing boats
¢ Refrigeration plant
12. 2 Aerospace industry
At present the aerospace industry is welding prototype parts by friction stir welding. Opportunities exist to weld skins to spars, ribs, and stringers for use in military and civilian aircraft. This offers significant advantages compared to riveting and machining from solid, such as reduced manufacturing costs and weight savings. Longitudinal butt welds and circumferential lap welds of Al alloy fuel tanks for space vehicles have been friction stir welded and successfully tested. The process could also be used to increase the size of commercially available sheets by welding them before forming. The friction stir welding process can therefore be considered for:
¢ Wings, fuselages, empennages
¢ Cryogenic fuel tanks for space vehicles
¢ Aviation fuel tanks
¢ External throw away tanks for military aircraft
¢ Military and scientific rockets
¢ Repair of faulty MIG welds
12. 3 Railway industry
The commercial production of high speed trains made from aluminium extrusions which may be joined by friction stir welding has been published. Applications include:
¢ High speed trains
¢ Rolling stock of railways, underground carriages, trams
¢ Railway tankers and goods wagons
¢ Container bodies
12. 4 Land transportation
The friction stir welding process is currently being experimentally assessed by several automotive companies and suppliers to this industrial sector for its commercial application.. Potential applications are:
¢ Engine and chassis cradles
¢ Wheel rims
¢ Attachments to hydro formed tubes
¢ Tailored blanks, e.g. welding of different sheet thicknesses
¢ Space frames, e.g. welding extruded tubes to cast nodes
¢ Truck bodies
¢ Tail lifts for lorries
¢ Mobile cranes
¢ Armour plate vehicles
¢ Fuel tankers
¢ Caravans
¢ Buses and airfield transportation vehicles
¢ Motorcycle and bicycle frames
¢ Articulated lifts and personnel bridges
¢ Skips
¢ Repair of aluminium cars
¢ Magnesium and magnesium/aluminium joints
12. 5 Construction industry
The use of portable FSW equipment is possible for:
¢ Aluminium bridges
¢ Facade panels made from aluminium, copper or titanium
¢ Window frames
¢ Aluminium pipelines
¢ Aluminium reactors for power plants and the chemical industry
¢ Heat exchangers and air conditioners
¢ Pipe fabrication
12. 6 Electrical industry
The electrical industry shows increasing interest in the application of friction stir welding for:
¢ Electric motor housings
¢ Busbars
¢ Electrical connectors
¢ Encapsulation of electronics
12.7 Other industry sectors
Friction stir welding can also be considered for:
¢ Refrigeration panels
¢ Cooking equipment and kitchens and furniture
¢ Gas tanks and gas cylinders, connecting of aluminium or copper coils in rolling mills
13. Limitations
¢ Welding speeds are moderately slower
¢ Work pieces must be rigidly clamped
¢ Backing bar required
¢ Keyhole at the end of each weld
¢ Requirement of different length pin tools when
¢ welding materials of varying thickness
Hole at the end of FSW
14. Retractable pin tool
Two major drawbacks of FSW is the requirement for different length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness and a keyhole at the end of the weld may be overcome with the help of a retractable pin tool developed by NASA. The automatic retractable pin tool uses a computer controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness.
Retractable pin tool
15. FSW equipment manufacturers
Some of the manufacturers of friction stir welding machines are:
¢ Friction stir welding link, U.S.A
¢ General tool company, U.S.A
¢ Hitachi limited, Japan
¢ Smart technology limited, U.K
16. Areas of active development and research
¢ Development of new tool design
¢ Use of process at higher speeds
¢ Research in the use of other materials
¢ Investigation of fundamental characteristics of FSW created joints
17. Conclusion
Such has been the interest in FSW, which was patented not so long ago that considerable effort is being made in transferring the technological benefits from aluminium to other materials. Efforts are on to make the process more flexible. In the new millennium there is no doubt that the automotive sector will find an increasing number of uses for this process as its cost effectiveness and ability to weld dissimilar material combinations with minimal distortion is more widely appreciated. The process has been an excellent substitute for alloys that have inherent fusion welding problems.
18. Bibliography
Friction stir welding
-University of Cambridge, H.K.D.H Bhadesia.
TWI world centre for materials joining technology -
-Friction stir welding at TWI, Stephan Kallee and Dave Nicholas.
Friction stir welding
-An improved way to join metals, William Palmer.
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. WORKING PRINCIPLE
3. DESCRIPTION OF THE ROTATING TOOL PIN
4. MICROSTRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION
5. FACTORS AFFECTING WELD QUALITY
6. MATERIAL SUITABILITY
7. OTHER MATERIALS
8. JOINT GEOMETRICS
9. FSW OF MILD STEEL
10. FRICTION STIR WELDING MACHINES
11. ADVANTAGES OF FSW
12. APPLICATIONS OF FSW
13. LIMITATIONS OF FSW
14. RETRACTABLE PIN TOOL
15. FSW EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS
16. AREAS OF ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH
17. CONCLUSION
18. BIBLIOGRAPHY
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perumalla
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30-08-2010, 10:26 AM

if you fing about formability of FSW tailored blanks,
please send to me
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07-10-2010, 11:20 AM


.ppt   WELDING.ppt (Size: 309.5 KB / Downloads: 255)
WELDING



-Welding is a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler material.

-Welding is used for making permanent joints.
-It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft frames, railway wagons, machine frames, structural works, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work and ship building.

TYPES

-Plastic Welding or Pressure Welding
The piece of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic state and forced together by external pressure
(Ex) Resistance welding
-Fusion Welding or Non-Pressure Welding
The material at the joint is heated to a molten state and allowed to solidify
(Ex) Gas welding, Arc welding

Classification of welding processes:

(i). Arc welding
Carbon arc
Metal arc
Metal inert gas
Tungsten inert gas
Plasma arc
Submerged arc
Electro-slag
(ii). Gas Welding
Oxy-acetylene
Air-acetylene
Oxy-hydrogen
(iii). Resistance Welding
Butt
Spot
Seam
Projection
Percussion


(iv)Thermit Welding
(v)Solid State Welding
Friction
Ultrasonic
Diffusion
Explosive
(vi)Newer Welding
Electron-beam
Laser
(vii)Related Process
Oxy-acetylene cutting
Arc cutting
Hard facing
Brazing
Soldering


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The Process

Definition:

Friction welding is a solid state process that is achieved through frictional heat. This heat is generated by a controlled rubbing of two components until material reaches its plastic state, at which time plasticized material begins to form layers that intertwine with one other. The friction welding machine controls this rubbing through a series of unique parameters for rotational speed (rpm’s), axial force and time. Once these parameters are established, they are recorded, stored and repeated with each cycle of the machine.

The Process Description:
1. Parts are loaded into welder, one in rotating spindle and the other in a stationary clamp. (Special tooling may be required if parts don’t have a natural axis of symmetry.);

2. Components in spindle is brought up to pre-determined rotational speed and then a pre-determined axial force is applied;

3. These conditions are maintained for a pre-determined amount of time until desired temperatures and material conditions exist;&

4. Rotational speed is then stopped and increased axial force is applied until desired upset is obtained. Components are then unloaded and cycle is repeated.

Friction welding is a process that is currently used in many different industries. The key is to fully understand the process and its advantages, then have the ability to visualize how it could be utilized in specific applications you may have. American Friction Welding offers any technical support necessary to assist you in that process. We extend an open invitation for you to tour our facility and see the process first hand.

The Types of Friction Welding
Friction Welding (FW) is a group of solid-state welding processes using heat generated through mechanical friction between a moving work piece, with the addition of an upsetting force to plastically displace material. Many dissimilar metal combinations can be joined and there are a number of process variations including:
• Spin Welding- "Four different phases can be distinguished in the vibration welding process; the solid friction phase, the transient phase, the steady-state phase and the cooling phase.
In the solid friction phase, heat is generated as a result of the friction between the two surfaces. This causes the polymer material to heat up until the melting point is reached. The heat generated is dependent on the applied tangential velocity and the pressure.
In the second phase, a thin molten polymer layer is formed which grows as a result of the ongoing heat generation. In this stage heat is generated by viscous dissipation. At first only a thin molten layer exists and consequently the shear-rate and viscous heating contributions are large. As the thickness of the molten layer increases the degree of viscous heating decreases.
Thereafter, (start of third phase) the melting rate equals the outward flow rate (steady state). As soon as this phase has been reached, the thickness of the molten layer is constant. The steady-state is maintained until a certain "melt down depth" has been reached at which point the rotation is stopped.
At this point (phase 4) the polymer melt cools and solidification starts, while film drainage still occurs since the welding pressure remains. After all the material has solidified, drainage stops and the joint are formed."
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dileep89
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08-02-2011, 08:24 PM

pls send me friction stir welding report...
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05-03-2011, 02:33 PM

Presented by:
Clinton M Mathews
N Subbaiyan
Vivek Varughese Thomas
T Suresh


.ppt   friction stir welding.ppt (Size: 1.05 MB / Downloads: 175)
FRICTION STIR WELDING
INTRODUCTION
• Welding is the joining of two similar or dissimilar metals.
• Friction is the resistive force that occurs when two surfaces travel along each other when forced together.
• It causes physical deformation and heat buildup.
FUSION WELDING
• Fusion welding is a group of processes that bond metals together by heating a portion of each piece above the melting point and causing them to flow together.
• Usually uses a filler material to insure the joint is filled
• All fusion welding processes have three requirements.
 Heat
 Shielding
 Filler material
Friction stir welding process
• Friction stir welding is a new solid state joining process.
• Here a cylindrical shouldered tool along with a profiled probe is rotated and fed at a constant traverse rate in to the joint.
• Frictional heat generated between the wear resistant welding tool and the work piece along with mechanical mixing heat causes the stirred material to soften without reaching the melting point and allows the traversing of the tool along the weld line.
• The plasticised material is transferred from the leading edge of the tool to its trailing edge and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin profile thus leaving a solid bond between two phases
Working
• Microstructure classification of friction stir welding
Micro structural Zones
 Unaffected material or parent metal: This is material remote from the weld, which has not been deformed, and which although it may have experienced a thermal cycle from the weld is not affected by the heat in terms of microstructure or mechanical properties.
 Heat affected zone (HAZ): This region lies closer to the weld centre there is no plastic deformation occurring in this area.
 Thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ): In this region, the material has been plastically deformed by the friction stir welding tool, and the heat from the process will also have exerted some influence on the material
 Weld Nugget : The stir zone (also nugget,) is a region of heavily deformed material that roughly corresponds to the location of the pin during welding. 4] A unique feature of the stir zone is the common occurrence of several concentric rings which has been referred to as an ‘onion-ring’ structure.
Process advantages
• Low distortion, even in long welds.
• Excellent mechanical properties as proven by fatigue, tensile and bend tests.
• No arc, fume, spatter and porosity
• low shrinkage.
• Can operate in all positions.
• Non consumable tool.
• No filler wire, gas shielding.
• Can weld aluminium and copper of >50mm thickness on one pass
Limitations of Friction stir welding
• Work pieces must be rigidly clamped
• Backing bar required (except for self reacting and directly opposed tools)
• Key holes at the end of each weld
• Cannot make joints that require metal deposition
• Less flexible than manual and arc processes
Applications of friction stir welding
1. Ship building and marine industries
– Panels for decks, bulk heads and floors
– Hulls and superstructures
– Helicopter landing platforms
– Mast and booms (sailing boat)
– Applications of friction stir welding
2. Aerospace industry
– cryogenic fuel tank for space vehicles
– Aviation fuel tanks
– Military and scientific rockets
– Various primary and secondary structural component
3. Railway and Land transport.
– high speed trains
– railway tankers and goods wagon
– wheel rims
– motor cycle and bicycle frames

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gowtham277
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16-03-2011, 11:44 AM

description about the forces given to tool in machine and te machine details
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18-03-2011, 12:32 PM

PRESENTED BY:
SAJIN M V


.ppt   2-1Friction Welding (another copy).ppt (Size: 5.81 MB / Downloads: 94)
FRICTION WELDING
The friction welding process is a solid state welding process where heat is imparted to the work pieces by mechanical means via the frictional rubbing of the mutual pieces together under a load and accompanied by deformation of the parts.
Definition of Friction Welding
• Friction welding is a solid state joining process that produces coalescence by the heat developed between two surfaces by mechanically induced surface motion.
Categories of Friction Welding
• Continuous drive
• Inertia
Continuous Drive Friction Welding
• One of the workpieces is attached to a rotating motor drive, the other is fixed in an axial motion system.
• One workpiece is rotated at constant speed by the motor.
• An axial or radial force is applied.
• The work pieces are brought together under pressure for a predeter-mined time, or until a preset upset is reached.
• Then the drive is disengaged and a break is applied to the rotating work piece.
Friction Welding Joint Design
• The joint face of at least one of the work piece must have circular symmetry (usually the rotating part).
• Typical joint configurations shown at right.
Friction Stir Welding
• Parts to be joined are clamped firmly.
• A rotating hardened steel tool is driven into the joint and traversed along the joint line between the parts.
• The rotating tool produces friction with the parts, generating enough heat and deformation to weld the parts together.




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.docx   ppt of Friction stir welding.docx (Size: 78.52 KB / Downloads: 71)
WHAT IS FRICTION STIR WELDING:-
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a highly important and recently developed joining technology that produces a solid phase bond. It uses a rotating tool to generate frictional heat that causes material of the components to be welded to soften without reaching the melting point and allows the tool to move along the weld line. Plasticized material is transferred from the leading edge to trailing edge of the tool probe, leaving a solid phase bond between the two parts.
Friction welding is a process in which the heat for welding is produced by direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy, at the interface between the workpieces. The thermal energy developed from the interaction of two surfaces, rubbed together under pressure and relative motion, can be harnessed to provide conditions suitable for welding and material processing. The friction welding process has, to a large extent, been restricted to round, square, or rectangular bars for the last five decades since its inception.
Friction Stir Welding - Applications Shipbuilding and marine industries
The shipbuilding and marine industries are two of the first industry sectors which have adopted the process for commercial applications. The process is suitable for the following applications:
Panels
• for decks, sides, bulkheads and floors
• Aluminium extrusions
• Hulls and superstructures
• Helicopter landing platforms
• Marine and transport structures
• Refrigeration plant
Aerospace industry
At present the aerospace industry is welding prototype and production parts by friction stir welding. Opportunities exist to weld skins to spars, ribs, and stringers for use in military and civilian aircraft. The friction stir welding process can therefore be considered for:
• Wings.
• Aviation fuel tanks
• Military and scientific rockets
• Various primary and secondary structural components
Railway industry
The commercial production of high speed trains made from aluminium extrusions which may be joined by friction stir welding has been published. Applications include:
• High speed trains
• Rolling stock of railways, underground carriages, trams
• Railway tankers and goods wagons
• Container bodies
Land transportation
The friction stir welding process is currently being used commercially, and is also being assessed by several automotive companies and suppliers to this industrial sector for its commercial application. Existing and potential applications include:
• Engine and chassis cradles
• Wheel rims
• Truck bodies
• Tail lifts for lorries
• Mobile cranes
• Fuel tankers
• Motorcycle and bicycle frames
Other industry sectors
Friction stir welding can also be considered for:

• Electric motor housings (in production)
• Refrigeration panels
• Cooking equipment and kitchens
• White goods
• Gas tanks and gas cylinders
• Connecting of aluminium or copper coils in rolling mills
• Furniture
• Many other applications
Friction Stir Welding - Process advantages
The process advantages result from the fact that the FSW process (as all friction welding of metals) takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials to be joined. The benefits therefore include the ability to join materials which are difficult to fusion weld, for example 2000 and 7000 aluminium alloys.
• Low distortion, even in long welds
• Excellent mechanical properties as proven by fatigue, tensile and bend tests
• No arc
• No fume
• No porosity
• No spatter
• Low shrinkage
• Can operate in all positions
• Energy efficient
• Non-consumable tool
• No filler wire
• Can weld aluminium and copper of >50mm thickness.
The limitations of the FSW process are being reduced by intensive research and development. However, the main limitations of the FSW process are at present:
• Workpieces must be rigidly clamped
• Keyhole at the end of each weld
• Cannot make joints which required metal deposition (e.g. fillet welds)
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.doc   Friction Stir Welding.doc (Size: 206 KB / Downloads: 84)
1. INTRODUCTION
A very and potentially world beating solid phase welding method duly named FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW) was invented in 1991 by Wayne Thomas and colleagues at The Welding Institute (TWI) UK originally for use with aluminum but is now feasible for harder metals such as steels, it is a one or two sided solid phase joining process and can be used for long butt, "T" and lap joints.
Friction stir welding is currently being used to produce components in the Delta family of rockets, as well as in shipbuilding rail car manufacturing, construction and other related industries.
Friction stir welding is a relatively simple process a specially shaped cylindrical tool with a profiled probe, made from a hard and wear resistant material relative to the materials being welded is rotated and plunged into the abutting edges of the parts to be joined. After entry of the profiled probe to almost the thickness of the materials and to allow the tool shoulder to just penetrate into the plate, the rotating tools develops frictional heating of the materials causing it to the plasticized and flow from the front of the tool to the back where it cools and consolidates to produce a high integrity weld in the solid phase.
The process proves predominance for welding non heat treatable or powder metallurgy aluminum alloys, to which the fusion welding can not be applied friction stir welding is highly significant advancement in aluminium welding technology that can produce stronger, lighter and more efficient welds that any previous process without smokes and protective guards by FSW m/c up to 16m long welds can be achieved.
2. NECESSITY OF FRICTION STIR WELDING
The increasing demand for the weight optimization and the recyclability of the materials in aerospace, marine, railways and automotive sectors have pushed the demand for lighter materials like aluminium. Until recently, the production of long butt and lap welded joints in aluminium alloy has only been possible by fusion welding processes (i.e. arc, electron-beam laser, TIG, MIG etc). When applied to the aluminium, the fusion welding processes are expensive and often difficult to use. Also whole process is time consuming, cumbersome. Mismatch can lead to porosity, crack, inclusion and voids. As process involves the melting of materials to be joined, the shrinkage is one of the major problems. This leads to metallurgical changes in the characteristics of the parents materials such as ductility, hardness, and could leave residual; stresses. Fusion welding also involves a heats source and a filler matter. The process starts with the surface preparation.
Comparatively, the FSW does not suffer from these hassles. The need for surface preparation, gas shelled and in process precaution are eliminated as is solid state process. In such a way all these problem look to FSW process for possible solution.
3. MACHINE PROCEDURE
Friction Stir Welding is a highly significant advancement in aluminium welding technology that can produce stronger, lighter and more efficient welds than any previous process. The welds are created by the combined frictional heating and mechanical deformation due to rotating tool. The tool has a circular section except at the end where there is threaded probe or more complicated flute, the junction between the cylindrical portion and the probe is known as the shoulder. The probe penetrate the workpiece whereas the shoulder rubs with the surface. The heat is generated primarily by friction between a rotating-translating tool, the shoulder of which rubs against the workpiece.
This heat causes the latter to soften without reaching the melting points and allows travels from the leading edge of the tool to the trailing edge of the tool probe and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin profile it leaves a solid phase bond between the two pieces after cooling.
The process can be regarded as a solid phase keyhole welding technique since a hole to accommodate the probe is generated, then filled during the welding sequence/Also `Auto Adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding addresses the keyhole closeout issue. This disclosure provides the capability to retract the pin while keeping the shoulder in contact with the material being joined, thus closing out the FSW keyhole.
3.1 TOOL
Some types of tools are illustrated above. Each tool has a shoulder whose rotation against the substrate generates most of the heat required for welding. The pin of the tool is plunged in to the substrate and helps stir the metal in the solid state
4. COMPONENTS OF FSW SYSTEM
This FSW system includes seven sub components:
1. A base foundation unit (BFU).
2. A hydraulically controlled elevation platform (EP).
3. The hydraulically adjustable pin tool (HAPT)
4. Fixturing
5. A roller mechanism
6. The real time adaptive computer numerical control (CNC) and
7. Automatic process control system (APCS)
1. The Base Foundation Unit is unique to accommodate the internal mechanical entities of the system. It is designed to operate under the radial and axial loads associated with the FSW process.
2. The hydraulically controlled Elevation Platform is the result of novel applications of existing technologies to create and elevation feature with three axes of movement, specially designed to function under operating pressures. This movement is necessary to attain the proper pin tool location with respect to the center of the weld joint.
3. The HAPT is stand - alone piece of hardware, which was integrated into the FSW system.
4. The Automatic process control system component was specially designed to function as an integrated controller for a variety of functions and data gathering operations.
5. The novelty of the FSW system for welding and weld repair is the fact that the seven sub components act as one integrated welding system.
Also the maintenance of this equipment is minimal requiring no special or operator maintenance training. In addition, this machine tool is ideal suited to automation and integration with other machine tool operations.
Another advantages of this equipment is extremely energy efficient. This can weld sheet of thickens 3mm to 50mm in a single pass with speeds upto 750 mm/min depending upon thickness of material. These machines can accommodate the lengths upto 16m long.
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19-09-2012, 08:15 PM

I NEED MOR DETAIS ABOUT FRICTION STAIR WELDING.........
TO.LOGUNAGU@GMAIL.COM
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31-01-2013, 09:57 PM

how to do FSW in chapter methodology - flow chart and chart gannt??
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02-02-2013, 12:05 PM

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how to make literature review in proposal...
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