geopolymer concrete full report
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GEO POLYMER CONCRETE-Concrete without cement

Whatâ„¢s wrong with cement concrete?

Many concrete structures deteriorate after 20 years.

Cement production releases high amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere(1tonne of cement production releases 1tonne of CO2) thus contributing to 7% of world CO2 emissions.

Cement is one of the most energy intensive material.

How to reduce the use of cement

Partially replace the use of cement in concrete.
example: high volume fly ash concrete

Develop alternate materials.
example:Geopolymer concrete

Geopolymer Concrete

Hardened cementitious paste made from flyash and alkaline solution.
Combines waste products into useful product.
Setting mechanism depends on polymerization.
Curing temp is between 60-90 degree celcious.


Source materials :
Alkaline liquids
combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate or potassium silicate.

2.Geopolymer Concrete Tonguerocess

Alkaline solutions induce the Si and Al atoms in the source materials ,example fly ash , to dissolve.

Gel formation is assisted by applying heat.

Gel binds the aggregates ,and the unreacted source material to form the Geopolymer concrete.


Cutting the worldâ„¢s carbon.
The price of fly ash is low.
Better compressive strength.
Fire proof.
Low permeability.
Excellent properties within both acid and salt environments.

4.Applications of GPC

Pre-cast concrete products like railway sleepers,electric power poles etc.

Marine structures

Waste containments etc..


The reduced CO2 emissions of Geopolymer cements make them a good alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement.

Produces a substance that is comparable to or better than traditional cements with respect to most properties.

Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties within both acid and salt environments
Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete has excellent compressive strength and is suitable for Structural applications.
bharathi murugan
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10-06-2010, 11:18 AM

sowjanya nt
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12-09-2010, 07:12 PM

1.Can you give me a brief description on the preparation of geopolymer?
2.Geopolymerisation process(what is the necessity of temperature of 60-80c)if possible some pics
3.Is the cost of geopolymer more or less compared to ordinary cement?
4.Is it in use now?if so where?one example
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18-10-2010, 03:46 PM

.docx   Thesis Leterature review.docx (Size: 1.93 MB / Downloads: 517)


The thesis is mainly concerned with the investigation of geopolymer concrete with the primary aim of addressing the economic, financial and environmental issues associated with the production and use of ordinary Portland cement. Manufacture of Portland cement is known to produce a much higher volume of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere, therefore finding a suitable alternative can bring a desirable solution to mitigate the environmental problems caused by the cement production. The thesis gives a review of geopolymer concrete and critically analyses the economic and environmental benefits of geopolymer concrete over Portland cement concrete. Portland cement utilises waste industrial materials such as fly ash from thermal power stations to provide concrete solutions to waste management as well as environmental remediation problems.
Geopolymer concrete products are known to have far better durability and strength properties than Portland cement properties. These properties are investigated in the laboratory and verified. Finally the thesis looks at the factors which may hamper the use of geopolymer concrete as an alternative to Portland cement concrete. It is believed that in some countries, the geopolymer concrete does not comply with some regulatory standards, in particular those that define minimum clinker content levels or chemical composition in contents. The issues are investigated and addressed by the thesis.

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I am Ashok doing Masters Degree
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hi Ashok, welcome to seminar and presentationproject and
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following post contains a full document report on this topic. please go through the following link.

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Geopolymer Concrete
Geopolymer concrete—an innovative material that is characterized by long chains or networks of inorganic molecules—is a potential alternative to conventional port¬land cement concrete for use in transportation infrastructure construction. It relies on minimally processed natural materials or industrial byproducts to significantly reduce its carbon footprint, while also being very resistant to many of the durabil¬ity issues that can plague conventional concrete. However, the development of this material is still in its infancy, and a number of advancements are still needed. This TechBrief briefly describes geopolymer concrete materials and explores some of their strengths, weaknesses, and potential applications.
Geopolymer materials represent an innovative technology that is generat¬ing considerable interest in the construction industry, particularly in light of the ongoing emphasis on sustainability. In contrast to portland cement, most geopolymer systems rely on minimally processed natural materials or industrial byproducts to provide the binding agents. Since portland cement is responsible for upward of 85 percent of the energy and 90 percent of the carbon dioxide attributed to a typical ready-mixed concrete (Marceau et al. 2007), the potential energy and carbon dioxide savings through the use of geopolymers can be considerable. Consequently, there is growing interest in geopolymer applications in transportation infrastructure.
Although geopolymer technology is considered new, the technology has ancient roots and has been postulated as the building material used in the construction of the pyramids at Giza as well as in other ancient construction (Davidovits 1984; Barsoum and Ganguly 2006; Davidovits 2008). More¬over, alkali-activated slag cement is a type of geopolymer that has been in use since the mid-20th century.
What Is a Geopolymer?
The term geopolymer was coined by Davidovits in 1978 to represent a broad range of materials characterized by chains or networks of inorganic mol¬ecules (Geopolymer Institute 2010). There are nine different classes of geo¬polymers, but the classes of greatest potential application for transportation infrastructure are comprised of aluminosilicate materials that may be used to completely replace portland cement in concrete construction (Davidovits 2008). These geopolymers rely on thermally activated natural materials (e.g., kaolinite clay) or industrial byproducts (e.g., fly ash or slag) to provide a source of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al), which is dissolved in an alka¬line activating solution and subsequently polymerizes into molecular chains and networks to create the hardened binder. Such systems are often referred to as alkali-activated ce¬ments or inorganic polymer cements.
As stated by Rangan (2008), “the polymerization process involves a substantially fast chemical reac¬tion under alkaline conditions on silicon-aluminum minerals that results in a three-dimensional poly¬meric chain and ring structure….” The ultimate structure of the geopolymer depends largely on the ratio of Si to Al (Si:Al), with the materials most of¬ten considered for use in transportation infrastruc¬ture typically having an Si:Al between 2 and 3.5 (Hardjito et al. 2004; Davidovits 2008). This type of geopolymer will take one of the following three basic forms (where “sialate” is an abbreviation for silicon-oxo-aluminate) (Davidovits 2008):
Poly (sialate) Si:Al = 1, which has [-Si-O-Al- • O-] as the repeating unit.
Poly (sialate-siloxo) Si:Al = 2, which has [-Si- • O-Al-O-Si-O-] as the repeating unit.
Poly (sialate-disiloxo) Si:Al = 3, which has • [-Si-O-Al-O-Si-O-Si-O-] as the repeating unit.
Although the mechanism of polymerization is yet to be fully understood, a critical feature is that water is present only to facilitate workability and does not become a part of the resulting geopolymer structure. In other words, water is not involved in the chemi¬cal reaction and instead is expelled during curing and subsequent drying. This is in contrast to the hy¬dration reactions that occur when portland cement is mixed with water, which produce the primary hydration products calcium silicate hydrate and cal¬cium hydroxide. This difference has a significant im-pact on the mechanical and chemical properties of the resulting geopolymer concrete, and also renders it more resistant to heat, water ingress, alkali–aggre¬gate reactivity, and other types of chemical attack (Davidovits 2008; Lloyd and Rangan 2009).
Conceptually, the formation of geopolymers is quite simple. In the case of geopolymers based on aluminosilicate, suitable source materials must be rich in amorphous forms of Si and Al, including those processed from natural mineral and clay de¬posits (e.g., kaolinite clays) or industrial byproducts (e.g., low calcium oxide ASTM C618 Class F fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag) or combina¬tions thereof. In the case of geopolymers made from fly ash, the role of calcium in these systems is very important, because its presence can result in flash setting and therefore must be carefully controlled (Lloyd and Rangan 2009). The source material is mixed with an activating solution that provides the alkalinity (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydrox¬ide are often used) needed to liberate the Si and Al and possibly with an additional source of silica (so¬dium silicate is most commonly used).
The temperature during curing is very important, and depending upon the source materials and ac¬tivating solution, heat often must be applied to fa¬cilitate polymerization, although some systems have been developed that are designed to be cured at room temperature (Hardjito et al. 2004; Davidovits 2008; Rangan 2008; Tempest et al. 2009). Figure 1, for example, shows the compressive strength of two geopolymer mixtures, illustrating the importance of curing temperature on 7-day strength development (Hardjito et al. 2004).
To date, there are no widespread applications of geopolymer concrete in transportation infrastruc¬ture, although the technology is rapidly advanc¬ing in Europe and Australia. One North American geopolymer application is a blended portland-geopolymer cement known as Pyrament® (pat¬ented in 1984), variations of which continue to be successfully used for rapid pavement repair. Other portland-geopolymer cement systems may soon emerge. In addition to Pyrament®, the U.S. military is using geopolymer pavement coatings designed to resist the heat generated by vertical takeoff and landing aircraft (Hambling 2009).
In the short term, there is potential for geopoly¬mer applications for bridges, such as precast struc¬tural elements and decks as well as structural retro¬fits using geopolymer-fiber composites. Geopolymer technology is most advanced in precast applications due to the relative ease in handling sensitive mate¬rials (e.g., high-alkali activating solutions) and the need for a controlled high-temperature curing en¬vironment required for many current geopolymer systems. To date, none of these potential applica¬tions has advanced beyond the development stage, but the durability attributes of geopolymers make them attractive for use in high-cost, severe-environ¬ment applications such as bridges. Other potential near-term applications are precast pavers and slabs for paving.
Current Limitations
Although numerous geopolymer systems have been proposed (many are patented), most are difficult to work with and require great care in their produc¬tion. Furthermore, there is a safety risk associated with the high alkalinity of the activating solution, and high alkalinity also requires more processing, resulting in increased energy consumption and greenhouse gas generation. In addition, the polym¬erization reaction is very sensitive to temperature and usually requires that the geopolymer concrete be cured at elevated temperature under a strictly controlled temperature regime (Hardjito et al. 2004; Tempest et al. 2009; Lloyd and Rangan 2009). In many respects, these facts may limit the practical use of geopolymer concrete in the transportation infrastructure to precast applications.
Considerable research is under way to develop geopolymer systems that address these technical hurdles, creating a low embodied energy, low car¬bon dioxide binder that has simi¬lar properties to portland cement. In addition, current research is focusing on the development of user-friendly geopolymers that do not require the use of highly caustic activating solutions.
Future Developments
User-friendly geopolymer ce¬ments that can be used under conditions similar to those suit¬able for portland cement are the current focus of extensive world-wide research efforts. These ce¬ments must be capable of being mixed with a relatively low-alkali activating solution and must cure in a reasonable time under ambient conditions (Da¬vidovits 2008). Until such cements are developed, geopolymer applications in transportation infra¬structure will be limited. The production of versa¬tile, cost-effective geopolymer cements that can be mixed and hardened essentially like portland ce¬ment would represent a “game changing” advance¬ment, revolutionizing the construction of transpor-tation infrastructure.
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am doing engg...i want to know about geopolymer concrete..

i will be grateful if u send me the report
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to get information about the topic "geopolymer concrete" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow




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i want to know some more info about geopolymer concrete & some images of it in detail

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geopolymer concrete

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Institute of Glass and Ceramics of Institute of Chemical
Technology Prague and Department of Building
Technology and department of Structural Mechanics of
Czech Technical University in Prague have been
involved in the research of alkali-activated materials
for many years now and, specifically, since 1973.
At present, the attention has been focused on the technological
and materials research into geopolymer materials
and particularly concretes. Geopolymer materials
based on rejected (mostly brown coal) fly ash have been
investigated. The results obtained within the framework
of the research project and implimentations indicate that the geopolymer
concrete is an economically advantageous material
exhibiting an excellent resistance. Recapitulative data
obtained during the investigation into the polymer concretes
were divulged in a variety of communications
[1-4] and several patents were filed too. The ulterior
research activity has not neglected drawbacks exhibited
by the geopolymer concrete either, e.g. its tendency to
the formation of efflorescences.
The investigation into the durability of geopolymer
materials must also deal with their long-term properties
(of the order of several centuries). As regards the materials
based on Portland cement, fundamental long-term
material data related to medieval and ancient constructions
are available (covering a period of about 2 000
years). The data refer to materials with hydration products
comparable to those of Portland cement. These are
materials in which highly hydraulic lime or mixed
Roman cement was used as a binder.
Davidovits [5,6] formulated a hypothesis about the
use of geopolymer binders during the construction of
ancient (and particularly Egyptian) monuments that are
more than 4 000 years old. In his opinion, the "concrete"
technology was used during the erection of Egyptian
pyramids for laying geopolymer mixes (with a limestone
aggregate) into formwork; individual blocks were
thus produced step by step. The hypothesis is corroborated
by analysis of inscriptions on ancient Egyptian
steles. The above worker argues that the pictures of
hieroglyphs should rather be interpreted in technical
terms than in the literary ones (as this has been done so
far). These deliberations accompanied by the interpretation
of analyses (microscopy, IR and NMR spectroscopy)
of sparse specimens from ancient Egyptian constructions
were published in papers [5,6].
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