green concrete full report
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.pptx   GREEN CONCRETE.pptx (Size: 4.18 MB / Downloads: 2,357)


A TECHINACAL PAPER ON GREEN CONCRETE
New Technology In Concrete



CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

GREEN LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES
GREEN CEMENT WITH REDUCED ENV. IMPACT
PRODUCTION OF GREEN CONCRETE
SUITABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES
ADVANTAGES
APPLICATION OF GREEN CONCRETE
LIMITATIONS
SCOPE IN INDIA
CONCLUSION
REFERRANCES



INTRODUCTION

The concrete is made with concrete wastes which is eco-friendly so called as Green concrete.
The other name for green concrete is resource saving structures with reduced environmental impact for e.g. Energy saving ,co2 emissions, waste water.
Green concrete is a revolutionary topic in the history of concrete industry. This was first invented in Denmark in the year 1998 by Dr.WG.





GREEN CEMENT WITH REDUCED ENV. IMPACT

The cement is based on an intermediate product, clinker, which is produced with minor additions of mineralizes (CaSO4 and CaF2) to the kiln resulting in 5% reduction in energy consumption and 5-10% increase in 28-day strength of the cement.
cement with reduced environmental impact. (mineralized cement, limestone addition, waste-derived fuels).
By replacing cement with fly ash, micro silica in larger amounts.



PRODUCTION OF GREEN CONCRETE

Concrete with inorganic residual products (stone dust, crushed concrete as aggregate.)
ceramic wastes used as green aggregates.
By replacing cement with fly ash, micro silica in larger amounts.
To develop new green cements and binding materials (i.e. by increasing the use of alternative raw materials and alternative fuels, and by developing/improving cement with low energy consumption).
To use residual products from the concrete industry, i.e. stone dust (from crushing of aggregate) and concrete slurry (from washing of mixers and other equipment).
To use new types of cement with reduced environmental impact. (mineralized cement, limestone addition, waste-derived fuels).



Green lightweight aggregates

Synthetic lightweight aggregate produced from environmental waste is a viable new source of structural aggregate material.
The uses of structural grade lightweight concrete reduce considerably the self-load of a structure and permit larger precast units to be handled.
Water absorption of the green aggregate is large but the crushing strength of the resulting concrete can be high.
The 28-day cube compressive strength of the resulting lightweight aggregate concrete with density of 1590 kg/m3 and respective strength of 34 MPa.Most of normal weight aggregate of normal weight concrete is natural stone such as limestone and granite.


SUITABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE IN STRUCTURES

Reduce the dead weight of a facade from
5 tons to about 3.5 tons.
Reduce crane age load, allow handling,
lifting flexibility with lighter weight.
Good thermal and fire resistance, sound
insulation than the traditional granite rock.
Improve damping resistance of building.
speed of construction, shorten overall construction period.



ADVANTAGES

Reduction of the concrete industry's CO2-emmision by 30 %.
Increased concrete industry's use of waste products by 20%.
NO environmental pollution and sustainable development.
Green concrete requires less maintenance and repairs.
Green concrete having better workability than conventional concrete.
Good thermal resistant and fire resistant.
Compressive strength behaviour of ceracrete with water cement ratio is similar to conventional concrete.
Flexural strength of green concrete is almost equal to that of conventional concrete.



LIMITATION

By using stainless steel, cost of reinforcement increases.
Structures constructed with green concrete have comparatively less life than structures with conventional concrete.
Split tension of green concrete is less than that of conventional concrete.



SCOPE IN INDIA

Green concrete is a revolutionary topic in the history of concrete industry.
As green concrete is made with concrete wastes it does take more time to come in India because industries having problem to dispose wastes.
Also having reduced environmental impact with reduction in CO2 emission.



CONCLUSION

Green concrete having reduced environmental impact with reduction of the concrete industries co2 “emissions by 30%.
Green concrete is having good thermal and fire resistant.
In this concrete recycling use of waste material such as ceramic wastes, aggregates, so increased concrete industryâ„¢s use of waste products by 20% . hence green concrete consumes less energy and becomes economical.
So definitely use of concrete product like green concrete in future will not only reduce the emission of co2 in environment and environmental impact but also economical to produce.


REFERRNCES

Indian concrete journal volume 77 -January -2003-N0.-1 Green concrete technology by R.M. Swamy on page no. 878
Green concrete using industrial wastes. Proceedings, National conferences on advances in building materials. Vellore Institutes of technology, Vellore.
Devdas Manoharan.p.Senthamarai.R.M. Concrete using ceramic insulators scraps as coarse aggregates. Proceedings, 6th International conferences on conc. Tech, Amman, Jordan.
Galvind, Munch-Petersen, Green concrete structural concrete.
Websites:
greenconcrete.dk/
diamondbidewarehousegreen concrete.html.
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21-06-2010, 08:21 PM

please give the full report of green concrete
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22-06-2010, 08:58 PM

More details about green concrete can be found in these pdf's:
icjonlineviews/POV_KH_Obla.pdf
scribddoc/7281516/Green-Concrete
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.ppt   Green_MaterialsGroup_Anderson.ppt (Size: 821.5 KB / Downloads: 419)
green concrete full report

Evolutionary Cement
An evaluation and suggestion for a sustainable concrete industry
John Anderson
CEE, UC Berkeley


Overview of Green Concrete

Environmental aspects of concrete
CO2 in Ordinary Portland Cement
Alternative binders
Alkali activated cements
Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Other alternatives
Challenges and opportunities for green cement




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17-03-2011, 04:04 PM

PRESENTED BY:
Abhinav Srivastava


.docx   Seminar Report - Green Concrete.docx (Size: 264.48 KB / Downloads: 367)
1. INTRODUCTION
Green concrete is a revolutionary topic in the history of concrete industry. This was first invented in Denmark in the year 1998. Green concrete has nothing to do with colour. It is a concept of thinking environment into concrete considering every aspect from raw materials manufacture over mixture design to structural design, construction, and service life. Green concrete is very often also cheap to produce, because, for example, waste products are used as a partial substitute for cement, charges for the disposal of waste are avoided, energy consumption in production is lower, and durability is greater. Green concrete is a type of concrete which resembles the conventional concrete but the production or usage of such concrete requires minimum amount of energy and causes least harm to the environment.
The CO2 emission related to concrete production, inclusive of cement production, is between 0.1 and 0.2 t per tonne of produced concrete. However, since the total amount of concrete produced is so vast the absolute figures for the environmental impact are quite significant, due to the large amounts of cement and concrete produced. Since concrete is the second most consumed entity after water it accounts for around 5% of the world’s total CO2 emission (Ernst Worrell, 2001). The solution to this environmental problem is not to substitute concrete for other materials but to reduce the environmental impact of concrete and cement. Pravin Kumar et al, 2003, used quarry rock dust along with fly ash and micro silica and reported satisfactory properties.
The potential environmental benefit to society of being able to build with green concrete is huge. It is realistic to assume that technology can be developed, which can halve the CO2 emission related to concrete production. With the large consumption of concrete this will potentially reduce the world’s total CO2 emission by 1.5-2%. Concrete can also be the solution to environmental problems other than those related to CO2 emission. It may be possible to use residual products from other industries in the concrete production while still maintaining a high concrete quality. During the last few decades society has become aware of the deposit problems connected with residual products, and demands, restrictions and taxes have been imposed. And as it is known that several residual products have properties suited for concrete production, there is a large potential in investigating the possible use of these for concrete production. Well-known residual products such as silica fume and fly ash may be mentioned.
The concrete industry realised at an early stage that it is a good idea to be in front with regard to documenting the actual environmental aspects and working on improving the environment, rather than being forced to deal with environmental aspects due to demands from authorities, customers and economic effects such as imposed taxes. Furthermore, some companies in concrete industry have recognised that reductions in production costs often go hand in hand with reductions in environmental impacts. Thus, environmental aspects are not only interesting from an ideological point of view, but also from an economic aspect.
1.1. Environmental Goals
Green Concrete is expected to fulfil the following environmental obligations:
• Reduction of CO2 emissions by 21 %. This is in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol of 1997.
• Increase the use of inorganic residual products from industries other than the concrete industry by approx. 20%.
• Reduce the use of fossil fuels by increasing the use of waste derived fuels in the cement industry.
• The recycling capacity of the green concrete must not be less compared to existing concrete types.
• The production and the use of green concrete must not deteriorate the working environment.
• The structures do not impose much harm to the environment during their service life.
2. GENESIS
Considering the time elapsed since the commencement of the use of concrete, green concrete is very young a material. It was invented in 1998 in Denmark.
The increasing awareness and activity to conserve the environment and the realisation that concrete production too releases a considerable amount of CO2 in the atmosphere were strong initiatives to catalyse the genesis of Green Concrete.
In 1997, the Kyoto Conference took place, in which several countries, after deliberating over the then environmental conditions laid down several guidelines which would be the directive principles to the participating countries on their environment related practices. The guidelines – Kyoto Protocol, as they are called, needed the countries to cut down their CO2 emissions to a certain degree as assigned. The given goal has to be achieved by the year 2012. Since then several countries started to focus on several available options but Denmark focused on cement and concrete production because approximately 2% of Denmark’s total CO2 emission stems from cement and concrete production.
Realising the necessity of such a technology and the prospects associated the Danish government soon released a proposal. The proposal is in accordance with the International and European Conventions and Protocol, with the nationally agreed goals that comply with these. An important aspect is Denmark’s obligation to reduce the CO2-emission as previously mentioned. The proposal covers the following environmental aspects: Greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication, acidification, materials harmful to the environment and health, water and resources. The above mentioned priorities were included in a large Danish project and implimentations about cleaner technologies in the life cycle of concrete products. Furthermore, priorities have been made for the other participating countries, i.e. Greece, Italy, and The Netherlands, and for Europe and the International World. Although there are differences in the political environmental priorities, all agree that five environmental impacts given highest priority are:
• CO2
• Energy
• Water
• Waste
• Pollutants
These, coupled with the cost reduction benefits allured the concrete producers to incorporate green concrete into their paradigm.
Cement and concrete may have an important role to play in enabling the developed countries to fulfil their obligation to reduce the total CO2 emission by 21 % compared to the 1990-level before 2012, as agreed at the Kyoto conference. This is because the volume of concrete consumption is large. Approx. 1 m3 of concrete per capita are produced annually globally. The CO2 emission related to concrete production, inclusive of cement production, is between 0.1-0.2 tons per ton produced concrete. This corresponds to a total quantity of CO2 emission of 0.6 - 1.2 m tons per year. Approximately 5% of world’s total CO2 emission stems from cement and concrete production.
The potential environmental benefit to society of being able to build with green concrete is huge. It is realistic to assume that technology can be developed which can halve the CO2 emission related to concrete production. With the large consumption of concrete this will potentially reduce Denmark’s total CO2 emission by 0.5 % (Glavind, 2000). The somewhat soft demands in the form of environmental obligations result in rather specific technical requirements for the industry - including the concrete industry. These technical requirements include among others new concrete mix designs, new raw materials, and new knowledge (practical experience and technical models) about the properties of the new raw materials and concrete mix designs.
Due to growing interest in sustainable development engineers and architects were motivated more than ever before to choose concrete that is more sustainable. However this is not as straight forward as selecting an energy star rated appliance or a vehicle providing high gas mileage. On what “measurement” basis can engineers and architects compare materials and choose one that is more sustainable or specify a material in such a way as to minimize environmental impact?
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) seems to offer a solution. LCA considers materials over the course of their entire life cycle including material extraction, manufacturing, construction, operations, and finally reuse/recycling. LCA takes into account a full range of environmental impact indicators—including embodied energy, air and water pollution (including greenhouse gases), potable water consumption, solid waste and recycled content just to name a few. Building rating systems such as LEED and Green Globes are in various stages of incorporating LCA so that they can help engineers and architects select materials based on their environmental performance or specify materials in such a way as to minimize environmental impact.
Every 1 ton of cement produced leads to about 0.9 tons of CO2 emissions and a typical cubic yard (0.7643 m3) of concrete contains about 10% by weight of cement. There have been a number of articles written about reducing the CO2 emissions from concrete primarily through the use of lower amounts of cement and higher amounts of supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as fly ash and slag. Table 1 has been developed based on data presented by Marceau et al, 2002.

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.pptx   GREEN CONCRETE.pptx (Size: 679.07 KB / Downloads: 276)
GREEN CONCRETE
INTRODUCTION

 Green concrete is made with industrial wastes which make it eco-friendly.
 The concept of “Green Concrete“ was first originated in Denmark in the year 1998 by Centre for Resource Saving Concrete Structures.
 The CO2 emission related to concrete production, inclusive of cement production, is between 0.1 and 0.2 t per tonne of produced concrete.
 From cement and concrete production a total quantity of 6,00,000-1,200,000 t CO2 per year is emitted.
 The solution to this environmental problem is not to substitute concrete for other materials but to reduce the environmental impact of concrete and cement.
HOW TO PRODUCE?
This can be divided into two groups:
 Concrete mix design:
 cement with reduced environmental impact
 minimizing cement content
 substituting cement with pozzolanic materials such as
fly ash and microsilica
 Cement and concrete production:
CEMENT WITH REDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
 The cement industry contributes about 5% to global CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies.
 CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation.
 Emission mitigation options include energy efficiency improvement, new processes, a shift to low carbon fuels, application of waste fuels.
2 .MINIMIZING CEMENT CONTENT
 One method of minimizing the cement content in a concrete mix is by using packing calculations to determine the optimum composition of the aggregate.
 A high level of aggregate packing reduces the cavities between the aggregates, and thereby the need for cement paste.
 This results in a better environmental profile, due to a smaller amount of cement.
3.SUBSTITUTING CEMENT WITH POZZOLANIC MATERIALS SUCH AS FLY ASH AND MICROSILICA
 Another way of minimizing the cement content in concrete is to substitute parts of the cement with other pozzolanic materials.
 Both of these materials are residual products and both have a pozzolanic effect.
CEMENT AND CONCRETE PRODUCTION
 It is also possible to reduce the environmental impact of concrete by reducing the environmental impact of cement and concrete production.
AGGREGATE CONSERVATION
 It has been estimated that annually roughly 1 billion tonnes of concrete and masonry rubble is generated.
 At present, only small quantities of aggregate derived from recycled concrete and masonry are being used.
 Recycled-concrete aggregate, particularly the recycled masonry aggregate, has a higher porosity than natural aggregate.
WATER CONSERVATION
 Fresh, clean water is getting more and more scarce every day.
 As one of the largest industrial consumers of fresh water, it’s imperative for the concrete industry to use water more efficiently.
 Most recycled industrial waters or even brackish natural waters are suitable for making concrete. This is even more true for curing water.
 Large savings in curing water can be realized by the application of textile composites.
PRODUCTION OF GREEN CONCRETE
 Three different ways to produce green concrete:
 concrete with minimal clinker content.
 concrete with green types of cements and binders.
 concrete with inorganic, residual products.
INORGANIC RESIDUAL PRODUCTS
2. Concrete slurry

• Concrete slurry is a residual product from concrete production, i.e. washing mixers and other equipment.
• The concrete slurry is can be either a dry or wet substance and can be recycled either as a dry powder or with water.
• The concrete slurry can have some pozzolanic effect, and might therefore be used as a substitute for part of the cement or for other types of pozzolanic materials such as fly ash.
3. Combustion ash from water-purifying plants
 This type of combustion ash has the same particle size and shape as fly ash particles.
 The content of heavy metals in the slurry is expected to be approximately at the same level as for fly ash.
 The slurry can have some pozzolanic effect, and might therefore be used as a substitute for part of the cement or for other types of pozzolanic materials such as fly ash.
4. Smoke waste from waste combustion
• This smoke waste can have some pozzolanic effect.
• The content of heavy metals is significantly higher than that of ordinary fly ash.
 5. Fly ash from sugar production
• The fly ash from this source is not expected be very different from ordinary fly ash.
RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO GREEN CONCRETE
 Compressive and Split tensile Strength
 Workability
Durability studies
To investigate the water absorption, permeability and resistance to sulphate attack for both conventional concrete and green concrete.
1.Water Absorption
2. Permeability
CO2 emissions for different designs of concrete columns
 MOTORWAY BRIDGE IN DENMARK
 STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT
ADVANTAGES
 30% CO2 reduction
 20% residual products as aggregate
 New types of residual products used
 No environmental pollution and sustainable development
 Good thermal and fire resistant
 Permeability is less compared to that of conventional concrete
 Durability of concrete is higher than that of conventional concrete
 Higher workability
CONCLUSION
 During the last few decades society has become aware of the deposit problems connected with residual products.
 It may be possible to use residual products from other industries in the concrete production while still maintaining a high concrete quality.
 The aggregates required for such type of green concrete is available worldwide yet its utilization is still limited.
 Due to the benefits of green type concrete it appears to offer a promising way to sustainable environment in developing countries.
 Finally, I would like to close with a quote from the German poet Goethe:“Knowing is not enough, we must practice; willingness is not enough, we must act.”
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02-10-2012, 12:01 PM

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i needed brief information about this
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