hybrid cars full report
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A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle using an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for vehicle propulsion. The HV pollutes less and uses less fuel. The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components. The HV provides better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle because the engine is smaller and may be run at speeds providing more efficiency
A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle using an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for vehicle propulsion. The HV pollutes less and uses less fuel. The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components. The HV provides better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle because the engine is smaller and may be run at speeds providing more efficiency.
The term most commonly refers to petroleum-electric hybrid vehicles, also called Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which use internal combustion engines and electric batteries to power electric motors. Modern mass-produced hybrids prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking. As well, when cruising or in other situations where just light thrust is needed, "full" hybrids can use the combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning a generator (often a second electric motor) to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. This contrasts with all-electric cars which use batteries charged by an external source such as the grid, or a range extending trailer. Nearly all hybrids still require gasoline and diesel as their sole fuel source though other fuels such as ethanol or plant based oils have also seen occasional use. A number of other hybrid vehicles use hydrogen fuel.
The term hybrid when used in relation with cars also has other uses. Prior to its modern meaning of hybrid propulsion, the word hybrid was used in the United States to mean a vehicle of mixed national origin; generally, a European car fitted with American mechanical components. This meaning has fallen out of use. In the import scene, hybrid was often used to describe an engine swap. Some have also referred to flexible-fuel vehicles as hybrids because they can use a mixture of different fuels â€ typically gasoline and ethanol alcohol fuel.
In 1898 Ferdinand Porsche designed the Lohner-Porsche carriage, a series-hybrid vehicle that broke several Austrian speed records, and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. Over 300 of the Lohner-Porsche carriages were sold to the public. However this is more an example of electrical transmission than a hybrid vehicle.
The 1915 Dual Power made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker had a four cylinder internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Below 15 mph (25 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (55 km/h) top speed. About 600 were made up to 1918.
There have also been air engine hybrids where a small petrol engine powered a compressor. Several types of air engines also increased the range between fill-ups with up to 60% by absorbing ambient heat from its surroundings.
In 1959 the development of the first transistor-based electric carâ€the Henney Kilowattâ€heralded the development of the electronic speed control that paved the way for modern hybrid electric cars. The Henney Kilowatt was the first modern production electric vehicle and was developed by a cooperative effort between National Union Electric Company, Henney Coachworks, Renault, and the Eureka Williams Company. Although sales of the Kilowatt were dismal, the development of the Kilowatt served was a historical "who's who" of electric propulsion technology.
A more recent working prototype of the electric-hybrid vehicle was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt and also brother of author Herman Wouk ). Wouk's work with electric hybrid vehicles in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid"). Wouk installed a prototype electric-hybrid drivetrain into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, but the program was killed by the EPA in 1976 while Eric Stork, the head of the EPA at the time, was accused of a prejudicial coverup. Since then, hobbyists have continued to build hybrids but none was put into mass production by a major manufacturer until the waning years of the twentieth century.
The regenerative-braking hybrid, the core design concept of most production hybrids, was developed by Electrical Engineer David Arthurs around 1978 using off-the shelf components and an Opel GT. However the voltage controller to link the batteries, motor (a jet-engine starter motor), and DC generator was Mr. Arthurs'. The vehicle exhibited ~75 mpg fuel efficiency and plans for it (as well as somewhat updated versions) are still available through the Mother Earth News web site. The Mother Earth News' own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 mpg.
The Bill Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program in September 29, 1993 that involved Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, USCAR, the DoE, and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle. The NRC cited automakersâ„¢ moves to produce hybrid electric vehicles as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines, as called for under Goal 2. Based on information received from automakers, NRC reviewers questioned whether the Big Three would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective, pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004, as set out in Goal 3.
The program was replaced by the hydrogen focused FreedomCAR initiative of George W. Bush's administration in 2001. The focus of the FreedomCAR initiative being to fund research too high risk for the private sector to engage in with the long term goal of developing emission / petroleum free vehicles.
In the intervening period, the widest use of hybrid technology was actually in diesel-electric locomotives. It is also used in diesel-electric submarines, which operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars. However, in this case the goal was to allow operation underwater without consuming large amounts of oxygen, rather than economizing on fuel. Since then, many submarines have moved to nuclear power, which can operate underwater indefinitely, though a number of nations continue to rely on diesel-electric fleets.
The Prius has been in high demand since its introduction. Newer designs have more conventional appearance and are less expensive, often appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering 50% better fuel efficiency. The Honda Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, for instance, but delivers about 50 US mpg (4.7 L/100km). The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. The Honda Insight, while not matching the demand of the Prius, is still being produced and has a devoted base of owners. Honda has also released a hybrid version of the Accord.
2005 saw the first hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) released, Ford Motor Company's Ford Escape Hybrid. Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patents from Toyota related to hybrid technology, although Ford's engine was independently designed and built. In exchange for the hybrid licences, Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota. Toyota announced model year 2005 hybrid versions of the Toyota Highlander and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a differential. Toyota also plans to add hybrid drivetrains to every model it sells in the coming decade.
For 2007 Lexus offers a hybrid version of their GS sport sedan dubbed the GS450h with "well in excess of 300hp". The 2007 Camry Hybrid has been announced and is slated to launch in late Spring as a 2007 model. It will be built in Kentucky, USA. Also, Nissan announced the release of the Altima hybrid (technology supplied by Toyota) around 2007.
TYPES OF HYBRID
Electric-Internal Combustion Hybrid
. Two major categories are series hybrids and parallel hybrids, though parallel designs are most common today.
Most hybrids, no matter the specific type, use regenerative braking to recover energy when slowing down the vehicle. This simply involves driving a motor so it acts as a generator.
Many designs also shut off the internal combustion engine when it is not needed in order to save energy. That concept is not unique to hybrids; Subaru pioneered this feature in the early 1980s, and the Volkswagen Lupo 3L is one example of a conventional vehicle that shuts off its engine when at a stop. Some provision must be made, however, for accessories such as air conditioning which are normally driven by the engine. Furthermore, the lubrication systems of internal combustion engines are inherently least effective immediately after the engine starts; since it is upon startup that the majority of engine wear occurs, the frequent starting and stopping of such systems reduce the lifespan of the engine considerably. Also, start and stop cycles may reduce the engine's ability to operate at its optimum temperature, thus reducing the engine's efficiency.
In a series design, the internal combustion engine is not directly connected to the drivetrain at all, but powers an electrical generator instead. This is similar to the operation of diesel-electric train locomotives, except that as of 2006, the overwhelming majority of diesel-electric locomotives do not store auxiliary power in batteries for use in propulsion, and thus can not be called "hybrid" vehicles. This may change if capacitators (Super or Ultracaps) are used to act as short term storage which is the case for shunting locomotives in the US by Rail Power Technologies  and motorized units at JR-East. A series hybrid is similar to an electric car which is recharged by electricity from a stationary fossil fuel power plant, except that the power plant is carried on board.
Electricity from the generator is fed to the motor or motors that actually move the car, and excess energy can be used to charge batteries. When large amounts of power are required, electricity comes from both the battery pack and the engine-generator section. Because electrical motors can operate quite efficiently over a wide range of speeds, this design removes or reduces the need for a complex transmission. The internal combustion engine can also be finely tuned to operate at its most efficient speed whenever it is running, for a great gain in efficiency. Separate small electric motors installed at each wheel are featured in some prototypes and concept cars; this allows the possibility of easily controlling the power delivered to each wheel, and therefore simplifies traction control, all wheel drive, and similar features.
The advantage of this type of hybrid is the flexibility afforded by the lack of a mechanical link between the internal combustion engine and the wheels. A weakness of a series hybrid system, however, is that series hybrids require separate motor and generator portions, which can be combined in some parallel hybrid designs; the combined efficiency of the motor and generator will be lower than that of a conventional transmission, offsetting the efficiency gains that might otherwise be realized. Additionally, the power delivered to the wheels by a series hybrid is limited by the electric motor(s) (which can be overloaded for a limited time however), whereas in a parallel hybrid both the combustion engine and the electric motor can provide power to the wheels.
The use of one motor per wheel eliminates the conventional mechanical transmission elements (gearbox, transmission shafts, differential). However, when the motor is integrated into the wheel, it increases the unsprung masses and for better ride characteristics the motors may be fixed to the vehicle body, which requires the use of flexible couplings to the wheels. Also, mechanical brakes need to be fitted to the wheels for safety reasons. The use of wheel motors is particularly interesting in vehicles such as urban buses, where it may facilitate the adoption of an all-low-floor design, as well as in all-wheel drive vehicles such as military vehicles (up to 8x8) where it simplifies mechanical design.
Series hybrids are the most efficient in driving cycles that incorporate many stops and starts, such as for delivery vehicles, urban buses or stop and go city driving. In such vehicle use, the combustion engine can deliver power at a constant and more efficient rate. For long-distance highway driving however, the addition of losses in the electric transmission comes forward and a parallel hybrid may be more advisable.
Fuel cell vehicles are often fitted with a battery or supercapacitor to deliver peak acceleration power and to reduce the size and power constraints on the fuel cell; this is effectively also a series-style setup.
Parallel systems, which are most commonly produced at present, connect both the electrical and internal combustion systems to the mechanical transmission. They can be subcategorized depending upon how balanced the different portions are at providing motive power. In some cases, the internal combustion engine is the dominant portion and is used for primary power, with the motor turning on only when a boost is needed. Others can run with just the electric system operating alone. Most designs combine a large electrical generator and a motor into one unit, often situated between the internal combustion engine and the transmission, in the location of the flywheel, replacing both the conventional starter motor and the generator or alternator. A large battery pack is required, providing a higher voltage than the normal automotive 12 volts. Accessories such as power steering and air conditioning are powered by electric motors, so that they continue to function when the internal combustion engine is stopped; this offers the possibility of further efficiency gains, by modulating the electrical power delivered to these systems, rather than having them run directly from the engine at a speed which depends on engine speed.
A full hybrid, sometimes also called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both. The Prius and Escape Hybrids are examples of this, as both cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large, high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation. These vehicles have a split power path that allows more flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity. To balance the forces from each portion, the vehicles use a differential-style linkage between the engine and motor connected to the head end of the transmission.
The Toyota brand name for this technology is Hybrid Synergy Drive, which is being used in the Prius, Highlander sport-utility vehicle (SUV), and Camry. A computer oversees operation of the entire system, determining which half should be running, or if both should be in use, shutting off the internal combustion engine when the electric motor is sufficient to provide the power. The normal mode of operation is on electrical power alone, with the gasoline engine running only in cases where the extra power is required, or where the batteries are discharged. The hybrid drivetrain of the Prius, in combination with aerodynamics and optimizations in the engine itself to reduce drag, results in 80%â€œ100% gains in fuel economy compared to four-door conventional cars of similar weight and size.
The Toyota Hybrid System THS / Hybrid Synergy Drive mode of operation with only a single power split device (incorporated as a single 3 shaft planetary gearset) is more generically called Input-Split Hybrid, due to the fact that a fixed amount of torque is transferred via the electrical path from the engine to the wheels. This in turn makes this setup very simple in mechanical terms, but does have some drawbacks of its own. For example the maximum speed is mainly limited by the speed of the smaller electric motor. Also, the efficiency of the transmission is heavily dependent on the amount of power being transmitted over the electrical path, as multiple conversions, each with their own, less than perfect efficiency, lead to a low efficiency of that path (~0.7) compared with the purely mechanical path (~0.98). Especially in higher speed regimes (>120 km/h or 70 mph) the efficiency (of the transmission alone) therefore drops below that of a generic automatic transmission with hydrodynamic coupler.
The main principle behind this system is the more-or-less complete decoupling of the power supplied by the engine (or other primary source) from the power demanded by the driver. Thus a smaller, less flexible engine may be used, which is designed for maximum efficiency (often using variations of the conventional Otto cycle, such as the Miller or Atkinson cycle). This contributes significantly to the higher overall efficiency of the vehicle, with regenerative braking playing a much smaller role.
The differing torque vs. rpm characteristics of the internal combustion and electrical motors operate synergistically; an internal combustion engine's torque is minimal at lower RPMs, since the engine must be its own air pump. Thus, the need for reasonably rapid acceleration from a standing start results in an engine which is much larger than required for steady speed cruising. On the other hand, an electrical motor exhibits maximum torque at stall; therefore this engine is well suited to complement the internal combustion engine's torque deficiency at low RPMs, allowing the use of a much smaller and therefore more fuel efficient engine.
Interesting variations of that simple theme, as very well known (implemented in the Toyota Prius) are the
Â¢ addition of a fixed gear second planetary gearset as used in the Lexus RX400h and Toyota Highlander Hybrid. This allows for a motor with less torque but higher power (and higher maximum rotary speed), ie. higher power density
Â¢ addition of a ravigneux-type planetary gear (planetary gear with 4 shafts instead of 3) and two clutches as used in the Lexus GS450h. By switching the clutches, the gear ratio from MG2 (the "drive" motor) to the wheel shaft is switched, either for higher torque or higher speed (up to 250 km/h / 155 mph) while sustaining better transmission efficiency.
General Motors, BMW, and DaimlerChrysler are working together on a so-called Two-Mode Hybrid system which is a full hybrid plus additional efficiency improvements. The technology will be released in 2008 on the Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid. The system was also featured on the GMC Graphite SUV concept vehicle at the 2005 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
The main difference to the Input-Split Hybrid is the addition of a second planetary gearset, and the addition of two clutches (which can actually operate as one). This enables the switching (two-modes) of the percentage of mechanically vs. electrically transmitted power, and in order to cope both with low- and high-speed regimes, only smaller electrical motors with much less power and torque can be used. However, no diagrams could be obtained so far explaining the 4 gear-ratios (and why that would impose limits on the concurrent use of both electric motors or not). Most likely, an additional, 3rd ravigneux-like planetary gear with additional clutches is used for shifting between distinct final gear ratios.
Engine compartment of a 2006 Mercury Mariner Hybrid
Assist hybrids use the engine for primary power, with a torque-boosting electric motor also connected to a largely conventional powertrain. The electric motor, mounted between the engine and transmission, is essentially a very large starter motor, which operates not only when the engine needs to be turned over, but also when the driver "steps on the gas" and requires extra power. Honda's hybrids including the Insight use this design, leveraging their reputation for design of small, efficient gasoline engines; their system is dubbed Integrated Motor Assist (IMA). Assist hybrids differ fundamentally from full hybrids in that they cannot run on electric power alone. However, since the amount of electrical power needed is much smaller, the size of the battery systems is reduced. Starting with the 2006 Civic Hybrid, the IMA system now can propel the vehicle solely on electric power during medium speed cruising.
A variation on this type of hybrid is the Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid system that uses a smaller electric motor (mounted to the side of the engine), and battery pack than the Honda IMA, but functions similarly.
Another variation on this type is Mazda's e-4WD system, offered on the Mazda Demio sold in Japan. This front-wheel drive vehicle has an electric motor which can drive the rear wheels when extra traction is needed. The system is entirely disengaged in all other driving conditions, so it does not enhance performance or economy.
Ford has dubbed Honda's hybrids "mild" in their advertising for the Escape Hybrid, arguing that the Escape's full hybrid design is more efficient. However, assist hybrids should not be confused with actual mild hybrids like the Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid.
Engine compartment of a 2006 GMC Sierra Hybrid
Mild hybrids are essentially conventional vehicles with oversized starter motors, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restart quickly and cleanly. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the engine is off, and as in other hybrid designs, the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy. The larger motor is used to spin up the engine to operating rpm speeds before injecting any fuel.
Many people do not consider these to be hybrids at all, and these vehicles do not achieve the fuel economy of full hybrid models. A major example is the 2005 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid, a full-size pickup truck. Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand. Mild hybrids often use 42 volt systems to supply the power needed for the startup motor, as well as to compensate for the increasing number of electronic accessories on modern vehicles.
General Motors followed the pickup truck hybrid with their Belt alternator starter (BAS) hybrid system, used in the 2007 Saturn VUE Green Line. For its "start-stop" functionality, it operates similarly to the system in the Silverado. But the GM BAS has broader hybrid functionality as the electric motor can also provide modest assist under acceleration and during steady driving, and captures regenerative braking, resulting in a 20% improvement in fuel efficiency; thus, the BAS can also be considered an Assist hybrid.
The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a full hybrid, able to run in electric-only mode, with larger batteries and the ability to recharge from the electric power grid. They are also called gas-optional, or griddable hybrids. Their main benefit is that they can be gasoline-independent for daily commuting, but also have the extended range of a hybrid for long trips. They can also be multi-fuel, with the electric power supplemented by diesel, biodiesel, or hydrogen. The Electric Power Research Institute's research indicates a lower total cost of ownership for PHEVs due to reduced service costs and gradually improving batteries. The "well-to-wheel" efficiency and emissions of PHEVs compared to gasoline hybrids depends on the energy sources of the grid (the US grid is 50% coal; California's grid is primarily natural gas, hydroelectric power, and wind power). Particular interest in PHEVs is in California where a "million solar homes" initiative is under way, and global warming legislation has been enacted.
Prototypes of PHEVs, with larger battery packs that can be recharged from the power grid, have been built in the U.S., notably at Prof. Andy Frank's Hybrid Center at UC Davis and one production PHEV, the Renault Kangoo, went on sale in France in 2003. DaimlerChrysler is currently building PHEVs based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van. Light Trucks are also offered by Micro-Vett SPA the so called Daily Bimodale.
The California Cars Initiative has converted the '04 and newer Toyota Prius to become a prototype of what it calls the PRIUS+. With the addition of 300 lb of lead-acid batteries, the PRIUS+ achieves roughly double the gasoline mileage of a standard Prius and can make trips of up to 10 miles using only electric power. Plug -in Hybrid are like Series Hybrids.
Hybrid Types based on function
Mainly there are three type of hybrid system
Â¢ Micro hybrids with start/stop function
Â¢ Mild hybrids with boost effect
Â¢ Strong hybrid;
Â¢ which allow for driving with electrical energy over short distances
Smart Electronic start/stop System
In the micro hybrid category, 0developers are baking mostly on the cost efficient smart electronic start/stop system which works with a reinforced starter. The system requires the least modification input for existing vehicles, which offers a chance for deployment in large unit numbers in the near future. In city traffic, vehicles more often than nor are stopped by red traffic lights or simply because of traffic congestion. The Micro Hybrid System will then automatically shut off the engine. Once the driver can move on again, he simply steps on the clutch pedal and the system re-starts the engine quickly and conveniently. This may increase fuel efficiency by as much as 8%.
Strong hybrids by for greater driving fun
Both mild and strong hybrids contain the benefits offered by the micro hybrid system. Mild hybrids are equipped with an electric motor of up to 25 KKW output. This relatively small power motor offers another vehicle, that is to say a boost effect, and the combination of combustion engine and energy reclaiming results in fuel savings up to 15percent.
The same is also true for the strong hybrid. It is equipped with a stronger power motor of up to 75 KW, in some cases with even more power. This results in a greater torque of up to 400 Newton meters from standstill, as well as potential fuel savings of more than 20 percent on average. The system furthermore allows for driving shorter distances with just electrical power and thus zero emissions locally.
Hybrid cars contain the following parts:
Â¢ Gasoline engine - The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and will use advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency.
Â¢ Fuel tank - The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline.
Â¢ Electric motor - The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.
Â¢ Generator - The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids.
Â¢ Batteries - The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.
Â¢ Transmission - The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones, which weâ„¢ll talk about later.
HYBRIDS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE
Automobiles and light trucks
A number of manufacturers currently produce hybrid automobiles and light trucks, including Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault and Toyota. For a more complete list, see Production hybrid vehicles (organized by manufacturer).
Trains, trucks and buses
In May 2003 JR East started test runs with the so called NE (new energy) train and validated the system's operability (series hybrid with lithium ion battery) in cold regions. In 2004, RailPower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so called Green Goats which led to orders by the Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railways starting in early 2005.
Also in 2005 GE introduced its hybrid shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 GM started to tour with hybrid buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the US. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005.
In 2003 GM introduced a diesel hybrid military (light) truck, equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Hybrid light trucks were introduced 2004 by Mercedes (Hybrid Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale). International Truck and Engine Corp. and Eaton Corp. have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004. In mid 2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles, mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system.
New Flyer and Gillig produce hybrid buses using Allison's electric drive system. The Whispering Wheel bus is another hybrid.
A promising but as-yet unseen application for hybrid vehicle technology would be in garbage trucks, since these vehicles do stop-start driving and often stand idling.
Railpower offers hybrid road switchers, as does GE. Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered hybrids, not having energy storage on board, unless they are fed with electricity via a collector for short distances (for example, in tunnels with emission limits), in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles.
Other military vehicles
The United States Army's manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems.
In 2005, New York City added six Ford Escape Hybrids to their taxi fleet and city officials said the entire fleet of 13,000 vehicles could be converted within five years.
Mopeds and Power-assisted bicycles can be considered hybrid vehicles in a sense, because power is delivered both via a conventional or electric motor and the rider's muscles (see also Electric bicycle).
ENGINES AND FUEL SOURCES
Hybrid Synergy Drive on a 2004 Toyota Prius
Ford Escape Hybrid
Nearly all motor vehicles use some form of Internal Combustion Engine, and this includes the current hybrid-electric cars such as the Prius. A basic efficiency problem of the ICE motor is that they must provide enough power for acceleration and this generally requires over 100 horsepower (75 kW). However, the amount of power needed for a typical 3,000 pound (1,350 kg) vehicle may be less than 5 horsepower (3.7 kW) when running 60 mph (95 km/h) on level roads (one term for this is "Road-Horsepower"). It is very inefficient to run a large spark-ignition (i.e. gasoline) engine under such a light load. So, in an ICE-ICE hybrid a second small motor might be used at cruising speeds. This might be wired into the common electric cruise control which many cars already have. The small motor's horsepower could be chosen with a goal of ability to allow the vehicle to climb slopes up to five degrees since few roads are truly level for even short distances. For simplicity, the small motor could have a single fixed gear ratioed to run most efficiently at a defined speed range such as 60â€œ75 mph (95â€œ120 km/h).
This system would be more efficient than manufactured systems with cylinder shut-downs since those systems still have large amounts of frictionâ€the shut-down cylinders are still running. The late Frank-Winchell of General Motors may have done work with the ICE-ICE hybrid, perhaps it is unpublished. Advantages of ICE-ICE hybrids over Petroleum-Electric hybrids would be greater range and less weight. One of the worst design flaws of the ICE-Electric vehicles is overall vehicle weight in part due to heavy batteries. But, the real waste is that 90% of the time, there is only one person in a 4â€œ8 passenger 3,000â€œ5,000 pound vehicle. Making a large hybrid for single person commuting is a misleading waste no matter how clever the technology. In 2002 Volkswagen showed its "One Litre Car" running concept which got over 200 mpg, weighed only about 600 pounds, was crashworthy and carried 2 people. However, the acceleration was very slowâ€but with a second larger motor for acceleration it could actually be quite sporty and still use very little fuelâ€as an ICE-ICE hybrid. A similar petroleum-electric ultralight tandem seater, the 2005 Daihatsu UFE-III could be made into an ICE-ICE hybrid for far greater range without the anchor of batteries. Also, because both of the these vehicles are only one-person wide they have a small frontal area coupled with a low drag shape. So, both are Naero vehicles (Narrow, Aerodynamic). Keep in mind that the bigger something is, the more energy it will take to move it, and there is no magic method to avoid it. Any time anyone claims superb energy efficiency, watch out for wild claims of super-high mileage, usually those are based on driving on very flat ground, with no hills and no accelerating from a start.
Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid designs, and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. Like most modern ICE-powered vehicles, hybrids can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present.
Nowadays petroleum gasoline engines can use directly biobutanol
One particularly interesting hybrid vehicle combination uses a diesel engine for power. Diesels are excellent at delivering constant power for long periods of time, suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. The Diesel engine's high torque, combined with hybrid technology, may offer performance in a car of over 100 mpg US (2.35 litres/100 km).
Nowadays most diesel vehicles, and therefore the diesel part of hybrids, have the advantage they can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel), so they can use but do not need petroleum at all.
Diesels are not widely used for passenger cars in the United States, as US diesel fuel has long been considered very "dirty", with relatively high levels of sulfur and other contaminants in comparison to the Eurodiesel fuel in Europe, where greater restrictions have been in place for many years. Despite the "legally allowed" dirtier fuel, the US has tough restrictions on exhaust, and it has been difficult for car manufacturers to meet emissions levels given what is put into the engine. However, ultra-low sulfur diesel is set to be mandated in the United States in October 2006.
PSA Peugeot CitroÃƒÂ«n offers PSA Peugeot CitroÃƒÂ«n has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid powertrain: the Peugeot 307 and CitroÃƒÂ«n C4 Hybride HDi (PDF).
VW made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 litres/100 km (118 mpg US) fuel economy, but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle.
General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid.
Hybrid Orion VI Metrobus
So far, production diesel-electric engines have mostly just appeared in mass transit buses. Current manufacturers of diesel-electric hybrid buses include New Flyer Industries, Gillig, Orion Bus Industries, and North American Bus Industries. In 2008, NovaBus will add a diesel-electric hybrid option as well.
In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for creating motive power, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy input types (fuels) to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above, these are better described as dual mode vehicles:
Â¢ Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an onboard diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus. In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.
Â¢ Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuel â€ typically gasoline and ethanol, though diesel-biodiesel and liquid petroleum gas-natural gas (LPG-NG) vehicles would also qualify.
Â¢ Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on propane and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil.
Â¢ Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included.
Motorized bicycles use human pedal power and an attached motor. Some bicycle conversion kits aided popularisation of "hybrid" vehicle bicycles that used electric hub motors and Wilderness internal combustion engines (such as the 1940s "Pixie" bicycle motor), and pedal power. Such machines include electric bicycles and mopeds, which may often be simultaneously propelled by human and engine power. More sophisticated constructions are three wheeled and provide at least a windscreen (ZAP EPOD, TWIKE).
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Benefits of the hybrid design include:
Â¢ The internal-combustion engine in a hybrid vehicle is much smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand. A standard combustion engine is required to operate over a range of speed and power, yet its highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operationâ€in a hybrid vehicle, the engine operates within its range of highest efficiency. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines.
Â¢ Like many electric cars, but in contrast to conventional vehicles, braking in a hybrid is controlled in part by the electric motor which can recapture part of the kinetic energy of the car to partially recharge the batteries. This is called regenerative braking and one of the reasons for the high efficiency of hybrid cars. In a conventional vehicle, braking is done by mechanical brakes, and the kinetic energy of the car is wasted as heat.
Â¢ Hybrids are much more energy efficient than traditional internal combustion engine vehicles because they generally provide greater fuel economy. This statistic has a major implication for the reducing petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide
Â¢ Reduced wear and tear on the gasoline engine.
Â¢ Reduced wear on brakes from the regenerative braking system use.
Â¢ Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of electric engine at low speeds, leading to roadway noise reduction and beneficial noise health effects. Note, however, that this is not always an advantage; for example, people who are blind or visually-impaired, and who rely on vehicle-noise while crossing streets, find it more difficult to do safely.
Â¢ Reduced air pollution emissions due to less fuel consumed per travel mile, leading to improved human health with regard to respiratory and other illness. In fact composite driving tests indicate total air pollution of carbon monoxide and reactive hydrocarbons are 80 to 90 percent cleaner for hybrid versus conventional vehicles.
Â¢ Increased driving range without refueling or recharging, compared with electric vehicles and perhaps even compared with internal-combustion vehicles. Limitations in range have been a problem for traditional electric vehicles.
In order to encourage the purchase of hybrid vehicles, several incentives have been made into law:
Â¢ Starting January 1, 2006, the purchase of hybrid cars qualifies for a tax credit up to $3400 on the purchaser's Federal Income Taxes. The tax credit is to be phased out two calendar quarters after the manufacturer reaches 60,000 new cars sold in the following manner: it will be reduced to 50% ($1700) if delivered in either the third or fourth quarter after the threshold is reached, to 25% ($850) in the fifth and sixth quarters, and 0% thereafter.
Â¢ Hybrid purchases before January 1, 2006 qualify for a tax deduction on the IRS 1040 form. In 2003 hybrid owners qualified for a $2,000 deduction; the deduction reduces by $500 each year until it reaches zero. HR 1308 Sec. 319 proposed the phasing out of the deduction to put on hold for the year 2004 and 2005; Â¢ Many states give additional tax credits to hybrid car buyers
Â¢ Certain states allow singly-occupied hybrid vehicles to enter the HOV lanes on the highway. Initially, the Federal Highway Administration ruled that this was a violation of federal statute until August 10, 2005 when George W. Bush signed the Transportation Equity Act of 2005 into law.
Â¢ Some states, e.g. California, exempt hybrid cars from the biennial smog inspection, which costs over $50 (as of 2004).
Â¢ Hybrid cars can go on certain toll roads for free.
Â¢ The city of San Jose, California issues a free parking tag for hybrid cars that were purchased at a San Jose dealership. The qualified owners do not have to pay for parking in any city garage or road side parking meters.
Â¢ City of Los Angeles, California offers free parking to all hybrid vehicles starting on October 1, 2004. The experiment is an extension to an existing offer of free parking for all pure electrical vehicles.
Â¢ In October, 2005, the City of Baltimore, Maryland started to offer discount on monthly parking in the city parking lots, and is considering free meter parking for hybrid vehicles. On November 3, 2005, the Boston Globe reports that the city council of Boston is considering the same treatment for hybrid cars.
Â¢ Annual vehicle registration fees in the District of Columbia are half ($36) that paid for conventionally vehicles ($72).
Â¢ Residents in Ontario, Canada can claim a rebate on the Provincial Retail Sales Tax of up to $2,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of a hybrid vehicle. 
Â¢ Drivers of hybrid vehicles in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of vehicle excise duty (car tax) which is based on CO2 emissions. In London, these vehicles are also exempt from the Ã‚Â£8 ($14) daily congestion charge in central London. Hybrid drivers also benefit from a discount in their insurance if they are insured with "MORE TH>N" who recently announced a discount for hybrids drivers in the UK of up to 13 per cent.
In some cases, manufacturers are producing hybrid vehicles that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost, rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts. The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is mainly something controlled by the software within the hybrid system. In the future, manufacturers may provide hybrid-owners with the ability to set this balance (fuel efficiency vs. added performance) as they wish, through a user-controlled setting. Toyota announced in January, 2006 that it was considering a "high-efficiency" button.
It has been observed that the success of the hybrid systems comes despite the need to carry two complete power systems. In a poorly designed car this might increase the weight and size and therefore greater losses in acceleration and aerodynamic drag, although the Prius is lighter and more aerodynamic than many other cars. In fact, the relative desirability of this concept rests on the deficiencies of the two underlying systems; the unfavorable torque curve of the internal combustion engine, referred to above, and the lack of a system of storing and delivering electrical power with anything near the energy density of combustible liquid fuels, so that a fuel tank, internal combustion engine, and generator together still represent a better source of electrical power than the equivalent weight and volume of batteries. In the event of relatively large leaps forward in battery or fuel cell technology, the internal combustion portion of the hybrid will become superfluous. Somewhat less likely is the possibility of a change in the general popular mode of automobile use largely supplanting short trips by use of mass transportation, so that the majority of automotive operation becomes steady speed cruising rather than stopping and starting; this would eliminate the advantage gained from regenerative braking and the low rpm torque boost of the electrical portion of the hybrid, and allow very small forced induction internal combustion engines to become viable competitors of the heavier hybrid systems.
Skeptics claim that mechanics are not fond of working on hybrid vehicles due to added complexity, but the Toyota mechanics in Atlanta and other U.S. cities say they are delighted by the cars, and hundreds of enthusiastic engineer-owners gather on the Internet and in clubs. The complexity may result in greater repair costs, although hybrid manufacturers typically encourage buyers with generous warranties so this has not yet affected end users. These vehicles have been available for ten years and the lifespan and resale values are good. In fact, the vehicle that has kept its resale value the best from 2004-2006 is a hybrid vehicle, and another two hybrids are in the top ten . Hundreds of thousands are in use, but Toyota reports very few problems with battery packs. One additional problem is the lack of towing hook, the hybrid cars have limited power resources so often they can not be used for high power applications such as towing boats.
Disposal is an additional issue. By its nature, a battery must be made of reactive chemicals; the more power density the battery offers, the more reactive the chemicals it contains. However, all discarded hybrid vehicles will be returned for proper recycling and disposal; dealers and mechanics are trained for this, and rigorous regulations are in effect. Virtually all automobile batteries in the U.S. are recycled, and the environmental effects of leachates from the small number of hybrid battery packs that are not recycled will be no worse than they are from ordinary automobile batteries. (The Prius battery pack is only a little larger than the starter battery.)
Finally, the typical hybrid vehicle is more expensive than corresponding non-hybrids (e.g., Civic versus Civic Hybrid). Although the variables involved are many, those more concerned about economics than the environment might steer away from hybrids in favor of traditional economy vehicles, as they would result in a lower cost in most cases.
Hybrids vs. electric vehicles
Battery powered all-electric cars (BEVs) are more popular in Europe than in the U.S. (Most European electric vehicles are purchased from manufactures, while due to unavailibilty of manufactured vehicles, most U. S. vehicles are owner produced conversions of older conventional vehicles.) The major U.S. automobile manufacturers argue that customer demand for pure electric cars is small. In addition, the long suburban commutes common in the U.S. make range an important criterion for electric vehicle design. However, if advances in battery technology allow increased range at comparable cost to gasoline-powered vehicles, manufacturers will likely mass-market electric vehicles. The relative cost of gasoline to an equivalent amount of electrical energy will also be a critical factor in the electric vehicle market.
Another relevant factor is the ultimate source of power for the electric vehicles. In areas where older coal-fired generators are the source of electrical power, a pure electric vehicle will be responsible for more pollution (primarily sulfates and particulates) than a hybrid vehicle (Table 1). Whether greenhouse gas emissions will be lower in such a case is still under debate
The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a conventional car and therefore more efficient
An advantage of the hybrid vehicle is in not requiring any upgrades to the electric power transmission grid. Since it can't be scaled larger and smaller at will, the grid is sized so as to carry almost the maximum load with only occasional failures, and thus has much of its capacity idle most of the time. For the electric utilities, it would be advantageous to utilize that excess capacity and thereby generate a greater revenue for their fixed investment, by selling power to consumers to recharge their vehicles. However, this vision very pointedly does not allow for recharging of vehicles during peak usage times; to do so would require substantial upgrades to the capacity of the grid, and again leave the utilities with excess capacity most of the time. On the other hand, to require consumers to refrain from recharging their vehicles during certain times may not be an easy idea to sell to them.
For now, car manufacturers are focusing on fuel cell-based cars and hybrids. Fuel cell vehicles are being developed in a long-term research environment, rather than with expectations of production at any defiinite time. Toyota intends all of its vehicles to have a hybrid option by 2012.
One can surely conclude that this concept,and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in todayâ„¢s energy deficit world.
TYPES OF HYBRID 7
FULL HYBRID 10
HYBRIDS TYPES BASED ON FUNCTION 16
HYBRID COMPONENTS 17
HYBRID STRUCTURE 19
HYBRIDS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE 20
ENGINES & FUEL SOURCES 22
TRADE OFFS 28