hybrid cars full seminar or presentation report
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
project report tiger
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1,062
Joined: Feb 2010
#1
15-02-2010, 01:46 PM



.zip   hybridcars images.zip (Size: 40.72 KB / Downloads: 1,278)

.doc   Hybrid Cars.doc (Size: 380 KB / Downloads: 1,835)

.ppt   Hybrid Cars.ppt (Size: 1.71 MB / Downloads: 2,607)



ABSTRACT
In an era where energy conservation has become the latest topic of discussion not only among the erudite but also among the ordinary responsible denizens , fuel efficiency along with minimum pollution has become the benchmark for any new automobile.
And in the same context Hybrid Cars come as the latest addition. By the name itself it can be inferred that a hybrid car is an improvisation to the traditional gasoline engine run car combined with the power of an electric motor.
The seminar and presentation on the above topic intends to bring to notice the concepts associated with the hybrid technology through the following topics “ components and constituents, need , efficiency, performance,etc.
OVERVIEW
Have you pulled your car up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price of gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought about trading in that SUV for something that gets better mileage. Or maybe you are worried that your car is contributing to the greenhouse effect. Or maybe you just want to have the coolest car on the block.

The 2000 Honda Insight hybrid electric car
Currently, Honda and Toyota have the technology that might answer all of these needs. It's the hybrid car, and both manufacturers have begun selling their versions in the United States. You're probably aware of hybrid cars because they've been in the news a lot. In fact, most automobile manufacturers have announced plans to manufacture their own versions.
How does a hybrid car work? What goes on under the hood to give you 20 or 30 more miles per gallon than the standard automobile? And does it pollute less just because it gets better gas mileage.In this seminar and presentation we will study how this amazing technology works and also discuss about TOYOTA & HONDA hybrid cars .
What Makes it a "Hybrid"?
Any vehicle is hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. In fact, many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider.
Hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from the wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid.
The gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that -- a cross between a gasoline-powered car and an electric car. Let's start with a few diagrams to explain the differences.
Figure 1 shows a gas-powered car. It has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. The engine then turns a transmission, which turns the wheels.

Figure 1. Gasoline-powered car
Figure 2 below shows an electric car, which has a set of batteries that provides electricity to an electric motor. The motor turns a transmission, and the transmission turns the wheels.

Figure 2. Electric car

Hybrid Structure
You can combine the two power sources found in a hybrid car in different ways. One way, known as a parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels.
Figure 3 shows a typical parallel hybrid. We'll notice that the fuel tank and gas engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to the transmission independently. As a result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide propulsion power.

Figure 3. Parallel hybrid car

By contrast, in a series hybrid (Figure 4 below) the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus, the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle.
Take a look at the diagram of the series hybrid, starting with the fuel tank, and you'll see that all of the components form a line that eventually connects with the transmission.

Figure 4. Series hybrid car

Hybrid Components
Hybrid cars contain the following parts:
¢ Gasoline engine - The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and will use advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency.
¢ Fuel tank - The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline.
¢ Electric motor - The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.
¢ Generator - The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids.
¢ Batteries - The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.
¢ Transmission - The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones, which we™ll talk about later.

Parts of an Engine



Figure 5
Here's a quick description of each one, along with a lot of vocabulary that will help us understand what all the car ads are talking about.
Cylinder
The core of the engine is the cylinder. The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. The engine described here has one cylinder. That is typical of most lawn mowers, but most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally opposed or boxer), as shown in the following figures.


Figure 6. Inline - The cylinders are arranged in a line in a single bank.


Figure 7. V - The cylinders are arranged in two banks set at an angle to one another.

Figure 8. Flat - The cylinders are arranged in two banks on opposite sides of the engine.
Different configurations have different smoothness, manufacturing-cost and shape characteristics that make them more suitable in some vehicles.
Sparkplug
The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.
Valves
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
Piston
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
Pistonrings
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
¢ They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
¢ They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.
Combustionchamber
The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As the piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the combustion chamber changes. It has some maximum volume as well as a minimum volume. The difference between the maximum and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in liters or CCs (Cubic Centimeters, where 1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). So if you have a 4-cylinder engine and each cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0 liter engine." If each cylinder displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a V configuration, you have a "3.0 liter V-6." Generally, the displacement tells you something about how much power an engine has. A cylinder that displaces half a liter can hold twice as much fuel/air mixture as a cylinder that displaces a quarter of a liter, and therefore you would expect about twice as much power from the larger cylinder (if everything else is equal). So a 2.0 liter engine is roughly half as powerful as a 4.0 liter engine. You can get more displacement either by increasing the number of cylinders or by making the combustion chambers of all the cylinders bigger (or both).
Connectingrod
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
Crankshaft
The crank shaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
Sump
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).
Parts of an Electric Motor
Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple two-pole DC electric motor. A simple motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:
¢ Armature or rotor
¢ Commutator
¢ Brushes
¢ Axle
¢ Field magnet
¢ DC power supply of some sort

Parts of an electric motor
An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
In the diagram we can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power).
Evolution of the Hybrid
The hybrid is a compromise. It attempts to significantly increase the mileage and reduce the emissions of a gas-powered car while overcoming the shortcomings of an electric car.
The Problem with Gas-powered Cars
To be useful to you or me, a car must meet certain minimum requirements. The car should be able to:
¢ Drive at least 300 miles (482 km) between re-fueling
¢ Be refueled quickly and easily
¢ Keep up with the other traffic on the road
A gasoline car meets these requirements but produces a relatively large amount of pollution and generally gets poor gas mileage. An electric car, on the other hand, produces almost no pollution, but it can only go 50 to 100 miles (80 to 161 km) between charges. And the problem has been that it is very slow and inconvenient to recharge.
A driver's desire for quick acceleration causes our cars to be much less efficient than they could be. You may have noticed that a car with a less powerful engine gets better gas mileage than an identical car with a more powerful engine. Just look at the window stickers on new cars at a dealership for a city and highway mpg comparison.
The amazing thing is that most of what we require a car to do uses only a small percentage of its horsepower! When you are driving along the freeway at 60 mph (96.6 kph), your car engine has to provide the power to do three things:
¢ Overcome the aerodynamic drag caused by pushing the car through the air
¢ Overcome all of the friction in the car's components such as the tires, transmission, axles and brakes
¢ Provide power for accessories like air conditioning, power steering and headlights
For most cars, doing all this requires less than 20 horsepower! So, why do you need a car with 200 horsepower? So you can "floor it," which is the only time you use all that power. The rest of the time, you use considerably less power than you have available.
Smaller Engines are More Efficient
Most cars require a relatively big engine to produce enough power to accelerate the car quickly. In a small engine, however, the efficiency can be improved by using smaller, lighter parts, by reducing the number of cylinders and by operating the engine closer to its maximum load.
There are several reasons why smaller engine are more efficient than big ones:
¢ The big engine is heavier than the small engine, so the car uses extra energy every time it accelerates or drives up a hill.
¢ The pistons and other internal components are heavier, requiring more energy each time they go up and down in the cylinder.
¢ The displacement of the cylinders is larger, so more fuel is required by each cylinder.
¢ Bigger engines usually have more cylinders, and each cylinder uses fuel every time the engine fires, even if the car isn't moving.
This explains why two of the same model cars with different engines can get different mileage. If both cars are driving along the freeway at the same speed, the one with the smaller engine uses less energy. Both engines have to output the same amount of power to drive the car, but the small engine uses less power to drive itself
Hybrid Performance
The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a conventional car and therefore more efficient. But how can this smaller engine provide the power your car needs to keep up with the more powerful cars on the road?
Let's compare a car like the Chevy Camaro, with its big V-8 engine, to our hybrid car with its small gas engine and electric motor. The engine in the Camaro has more than enough power to handle any driving situation. The engine in the hybrid car is powerful enough to move the car along on the freeway, but when it needs to get the car moving in a hurry, or go up a steep hill, it needs help. That "help" comes from the electric motor and battery -- this system steps in to provide the necessary extra power.
The gas engine on a conventional car is sized for the peak power requirement (those few times when you floor the accelerator pedal). In fact, most drivers use the peak power of their engines less than one percent of the time. The hybrid car uses a much smaller engine, one that is sized closer to the average power requirement than to the peak power.
Hybrid Efficiency
Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, today's hybrids use many other tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help any type of car get better mileage, and some only apply to a hybrid. To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of gasoline, a hybrid car can:
¢ Recover energy and store it in the battery - Whenever you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car remove this energy and dissipate it in the form of heat. A hybrid car can capture some of this energy and store it in the battery to use later. It does this by using "regenerative braking." That is, instead of just using the brakes to stop the car, the electric motor that drives the hybrid can also slow the car. In this mode, the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the batteries while the car is slowing down.
¢ Sometimes shut off the engine - A hybrid car does not need to rely on the gasoline engine all of the time because it has an alternate power source -- the electric motor and batteries. So the hybrid car can sometimes turn off the gasoline engine, for example when the vehicle is stopped at a red light.

Figure 5. The frontal area profile of a small and large car
¢ Use advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag - When you are driving on the freeway, most of the work your engine does goes into pushing the car through the air. This force is known as aerodynamic drag. This drag force can be reduced in a variety of ways. One sure way is to reduce the frontal area of the car (Figure 5). Think of how a big SUV has to push a much greater area through the air than a tiny sports car.
Reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the car or eliminating them altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. For example, covers over the wheel housings smooth the airflow and reduce drag. And sometimes, mirrors are replaced with small cameras. This site provides more information on car aerodynamics.
¢ Use low-rolling resistance tires - The tires on most cars are optimized to give a smooth ride, minimize noise, and provide good traction in a variety of weather conditions. But they are rarely optimized for efficiency. In fact, the tires cause a surprising amount of drag while you are driving. Hybrid cars use special tires that are both stiffer and inflated to a higher pressure than conventional tires. The result is that they cause about half the drag of regular tires.
¢ Use lightweight materials - Reducing the overall weight of a car is one easy way to increase the mileage. A lighter vehicle uses less energy each time you accelerate or drive up a hill. Composite materials like carbon fiber or lightweight metals like aluminum and magnesium can be used to reduce weight.
What's Available Now?
Two hybrid cars are now available in the United States -- the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius. Although both of these cars are hybrids, they are actually quite different in character.

The Honda Insight &Toyota Prius


The Honda is about $18,000, and the Toyota about $20,000. Both cars have a gasoline engine, an electric motor and batteries, but that is where the similarities end.
The Honda Insight, which was introduced in early 2000 in the United States, is designed to get the best possible mileage. Honda used every trick in the book to make the car as efficient as it can be. The Insight is a small, lightweight two-seater with a tiny, high-efficiency gas engine.
The Toyota Prius, which came out in Japan at the end of 1997, is designed to reduce emissions in urban areas. It meets California's super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV) standard. It is a four-door sedan that seats five, and the powertrain is capable of accelerating the vehicle to speeds up to 15 mph (24 kph) on electric power alone.
Hybrid Maintenance
Both the Honda and the Toyota have long warranties on the hybrid systems. The Insight has an eight-year/80,000-mile warranty on most of the powertrain, including batteries, and a three-year/36,000-mile warranty on the rest of the car. The Prius has an eight-year/100,000-mile warranty on the battery and hybrid systems and a three-year/36,000-mile warranty on everything else.
The motors and batteries in these cars don't require any maintenance over the life of the vehicle. And the engine doesn't require any more maintenance than the one in any other car. And because both hybrids have regenerative braking, the brake pads may even last a little longer than those in most cars.
However, if you do have to replace the batteries after the warranty expires, it will most likely cost you several thousand dollars.
Hybrid Mileage Tips
You can get the best mileage from a hybrid car by using the same kind of driving habits that give you better mileage in your gasoline-engine car:
¢ Drive slower - The aerodynamic drag on the car increases dramatically the faster you drive. For example, the drag force at 70 mph (113 kph) is about double that at 50 mph (81 kph). So, keeping your speed down can increase your mileage significantly.
¢ Maintain a constant speed - Each time you speed up the car you use energy, some of which is wasted when you slow the car down again. By maintaining a constant speed, you will make the most efficient use of your fuel.
¢ Avoid abrupt stops - When you stop your car, the electric motor in the hybrid acts like a generator and takes some of the energy out of the car while slowing it down. If you give the electric motor more time to slow the vehicle, it can recover more of the energy. If you stop quickly, the brakes on the car will do most of the work of slowing the car down, and that energy will be wasted.
Conclusion
Though at present the concept has been put in to maximum utilization by Honda & Toyota,it is indeed an important research avenue for other car manufacturing units as well.One can surely conclude that this concept,and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in todayâ„¢s energy deficit world.
Reference
howstuffswork.com
Reply
project topics
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2,492
Joined: Mar 2010
#2
12-04-2010, 09:54 AM


.ppt   Hybrid Vehicles.ppt (Size: 673.5 KB / Downloads: 509)


*Hybrid Vehicles*

Presented By:
NAME:- Tanaji A. Banne.
Roll No:- 56

POINT TO BE DISSCUSS

Introduction.
What is hybrid car ?
Why was the hybrid car developed ?
How does the hybrid car work ?
Hybrid timeline.
What makes a hybrid car unique ?
Advantages & disadvantages.
Hybrid car makers.
Hybrid car sales.
Conclusion.
Reference.



Introduction

Hybrid cars have been around for hundreds of years. But only recently have they perfected.
What is a Hybrid Car?

A hybrid car is a vehicle that runs on ,not only .gasoline but a rechargeable battery.
Why was the hybrid car developed?

The hybrid car was invented to help people save money when the gas prices get to high for them to handle. The hybrids car was also invented to protect the quality of air because it lets out less harmful emissions and to save natural and nonrenewable resources.
Picture: Hybrid Vehicle
How dose a Hybrid Car Work ?
A gasoline-electric hybrid car has both an electric motor and a gasoline motor, it also consists of a rechargeable battery for the electric engine. Inside the hybrid car the two motors that work together to put the vehicle in motion. The gas in the car is used to power the gasoline engine and the electric batteries supply power to the carâ„¢s electric motors. Some of the new hybrids are now converting kinetic energy into electric energy to power than batteries.



Hybrid Timeline

1839: Robert Anderson invents the first electric vehicle
1900: American companies made 1,575 electric and 936 electric cars. Pieper introduced a hybrid car with a gasoline engine and an electric engine under the seat.
1970: The hybrid VW Taxi was invented due to high costs of oil .
2002: The Honda Civic Hybrid was invented in the U.S.
2004: Toyota Pruis 2 won 2004 Car of the Year Awards from Trend Magazine. Ford released the Ford Escape Hybrid.

What makes a Hybrid Car Unique?

What makes a hybrid car unique is that it consists of a gasoline engine, electric engine and rechargeable batteries. All of these items work together to form a fuel efficient car that produces less pollution.  
Picture: Toyota Prius


Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages:

*It save the fuel due to battery assisted engine.
*When the car is stopped the kinetic energy gained is stored in the battery and
used for later
*Less exhaust therefore it is environment friendly
*Money is saved due to less fuel use for cars

Disadvantages:

*High cost
*Heavy because of heavy batteries used in these cars
*Risky in accidents because of the high volt wires exposed in accidents

Real Hybrid Cars











Lexus RX 400H
$45,355


Honda Accord
$30,990


Future of Hybrid Cars

Toyota Volta Hybrid Sports Car

408 Horsepower

3.3 liter V6 Gas Engine

30 Miles per gallon



Hybrid Carmakers

Ford
General Motors
Honda
Hyundai
Toyota
Volkswagen
Lexus

Picture: Lexus RX 400H
Hybrid Car Sales

This graph shows the Hybrid car sales from 2000 to 2005. As you can see the sales have risen as the years progress. This suggests that people are beginning to understand the problems with oil and are trying to conserve.
Conclusion
It will save the environment even more. Most people wouldnâ„¢t buy a hybrid car because or the cost or how they look, but sooner or later it will be the car of choice.
REFERENCE
Internet:
allabouthybridcars.com
Television
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
computer science topics
Active In SP
**

Posts: 610
Joined: Jun 2010
#3
04-07-2010, 09:33 PM


.ppt   HYBRID CARS (TOYOTA).ppt (Size: 349 KB / Downloads: 303)

HYBRID CARS (TOYOTA)


Presented By: RAGHAVENDRA B
1BM03ME069


INTRODUCTION

What is a hybrid vehicle
When a vehicle uses multiple propulsion systems to provide motive power, it is called a hybrid vehicle.



WHAT MAKES IT A HYBRID

A hybrid car is a vehicle that uses a combination of at least two different fuel sources for its propulsion. Although many combinations are possible, generally when people are talking about hybrid cars, they are referring to cars with a combination of
a gasoline internal combustion engine
an electric motor
a battery that powers the electric motor and stores energy for future use.
Hybrid cars may also be called gas-electric hybrids.
Examples of current Toyota hybrid cars include the Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry, Toyota Highlander.



HOW IT WORKS

Hybrid cars work by integrating multiple power sources such as a gas engine, an electric motor and a high-powered battery to make motive power. Generally the battery provides power for the electric motor and is recharged by recapturing energy from gas engine that would normally be lost when decelerating. This recapturing of energy is called regenerative braking. If needed, power from the gas engine can be diverted to recharge the battery as well.
To understand how the gas engine, electric motor and battery work together, it is best to divide hybrids into two categories:
Mild hybrids and
Full hybrids


MILD HYBRIDS

Gas engine provides the main force, and the electric motor provides assist whenever extra power is needed.
The electric motor can not operate independently of the gas engine.
The electric motor can generate electricity for the battery or consume electricity from the battery, but not both at the same time




FULL HYBRIDS

The electric motor can operate on its own in certain conditions.
Under low speed or when lower power needed, only electric motor used to run the car.
When higher power needed, both the gas engine and the electric motor can work together to provide the needed power.
Able to generate and consume electricity at the same time.
Examples of full hybrids are,
Toyota prius and
Toyota Highlander.
There are two types of gasoline-electric hybrid cars. They are,
parallel hybrid and
series hybrid.
Both use gasoline-electric hybrid technology, but in radically different ways.


PARALLEL HYBRID CARS

In a parallel hybrid car, a gasoline engine and an electric motor work together to move the car forward.



SERIES HYBRID CARS

In a series hybrid, the gasoline engine either directly powers an electric motor that powers the vehicle, or charges batteries that will power the motor.
TOYOTA HYBRID CARS
TOYOTA PRIUS TOYOTA CAMRY
TOYOTA HIGHLANDER



TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM

The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) / Hybrid Synergy Drive mode of operation with only a single power split device is more generically called Input-Split Hybrid, due to the fact that a fixed amount of torque is transferred via the electrical path from the engine to the wheels.


PRINCIPLE OF TOYOTA HYBRID STYSTEM

This system combines the characteristics of an electric drive and a continuously variable transmission, using electricity and transistors in place of toothed gears.


TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM CONTINUED

The differing torque vs. rpm characteristics of the internal combustion and electrical motors operate synergistically.
An internal combustion engine's torque is minimal at lower RPMs, since the engine must be its own air pump.
On the other hand, an electrical motor exhibits maximum torque at stall; therefore this engine is well suited to complement the internal combustion engine's torque deficiency at low RPMs, allowing the use of a much smaller and therefore more fuel efficient engine.



THS IN TOYOTA PRIUS

Addition of a fixed gear second planetary gearset as used in Toyota Highlander Hybrid. This allows for a motor with less torque but higher power (and higher maximum rotary speed), i.e. higher power density.
Addition of a Ravigneux-type planetary gear (planetary gear with 4 shafts instead of 3) and two clutches. By switching the clutches, the gear ratio from MG2 (the "drive" motor) to the wheel shaft is switched, either for higher torque or higher speed (up to 250 km/h / 155 mph) while sustaining better transmission efficiency.
TOYOTA PRIUS



POWER SPLIT DEVICE

The power split devise is the heart of the Toyota Prius. This is a clever gearbox that hooks the gasoline engine, generator and electric motor together. It allows the car to operate like a parallel and series hybrid.



WHAT IS POWER SPLIT DEVICE

The power split device is a planetary gear set. The electric motor is connected to the ring gear of the gear set. It is also directly connected to the differential, which drives the wheels. So, whatever speed the electric motor and ring gear spin at determines the speed of the car.
The generator is connected to the sun gear of the gear set, and the engine is connected to the planet carrier. The seed of the ring gear depends on all three components, so they all have to work together at all times to control the output speed.



The Prius has many innovative features:

Regenerative braking: The motor recovers energy from the brakes when they slow down or stop the vehicle and uses it to recharge the battery.
Lighter, smaller engine: To improve efficiency, the Prius engine is sized to accommodate its average power load, not its peak load. Most gasoline engines are sized for peak power requirements, yet most drivers need peak power only 1% of the time.
Better fuel efficiency: The Prius consumes less fuel than vehicles powered by gasoline alone ”partly because the engine is turned off when it™s not needed. Conventional gasoline engines run constantly, regardless of power requirements.
Lower emissions: The Prius reduces regulated tailpipe emissions by up to 90% and greenhouse gas emissions by about 50% compared with Tier 2 standards.




ADVANTAGES

The additional boost in power from the electric motor in certain driving conditions also guarantees maximum performance.
Hybrid cars use much less gasoline than standard vehicles, preserving oil reserves for other uses such as heating oil and polymer synthesis.
The current hybrid cars, emit less pollutants than the market average. For example, Honda Insight has 67% less of annual greenhouse gas emission. Furthermore, car manufactures are exploring way to reduce total emission in future hybrid cars.
In a effort to cut off gasoline consumption in car, research is underway to explore for alternative fuels, such as fuel cells and corn-derived fuels.



DISADVANTAGES

Ecological Disadvantages
More car batteries will need to be made, creating a larger problem for disposal of such batteries.



Consumer Disadvantages

The price range for HEVs is $17,400 -> $26,000. The current price range does not target an average household
The manufactures have gone through considerable pains to reduce the weight of the vehicle so that it burns less gasoline while achieving a reasonable acceleration. This has raised questions as to how safe the car is when it is involved in an accident.
HEVs are smaller, less comfortable, and provide much less storage space than an average conventional automobile.


CONCLUSION

Hybrid cars are definitely more environmentally friendly than internal-combustion vehicles. Batteries are being engineered to have a long life. When the hybrid cars become more widespread, battery recycling will become economically possible. Research into other energy sources such as fuel cells and renewable fuels make the future look brighter for hybrid cars.



REFERENCES

hybridcars.com
howstuffworks.com
allabouthybridcars.com
wikipedia.org
greenercars.com
toyota.com
greenhybrid.com
automotivenew-cars/28/hybrid/toyota
THANK YOU
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
patelkevinshiva
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1
Joined: Aug 2010
#4
07-08-2010, 03:08 PM

helo this is a hybrid cars full seminar and presentation report
helo this is a hybrid cars full seminar and presentation report
Reply
projectsofme
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1,124
Joined: Jun 2010
#5
21-12-2010, 04:00 PM


.docx   hybrid power.docx (Size: 2.07 MB / Downloads: 148)
1. INTRODUCTION
Energy is a requirement that is endlessly and exhaustingly utilized the world over. With the increase in the rate of various developmental activities around the world the energy being consumed is also increasing with the result that conventional energy resources are fast getting depleted and even hydel reserves are proving less than sufficient to satisfy the growing energy demand. As a result consumers around the world have to bear the brunt of increasing power cuts and power costs. Hence for the future power independence is fast becoming a vital requirement. The concept design therefore formulates a system which provides internally generated energy for homes and also integrates a sub system into the household such that the dependence on the electricity board is eliminated.

 HYBRID GENERATING UNIT

The generating unit for the proposed design utilizes a hybrid power source as a means of powering the household loads. The hybrid power source combines wind and solar energy to service the household requirements.
Hybrid system for home is a combined system of wind and solar power generation system. Aero turbines convert wind energy into rotary mechanical energy. A mechanical interface, consisting of a step-up gear and a suitable coupling transmits the energy to an electrical generator. The output of this generator is connected to the Battery or system grid. The battery is connected to the inverter. The inverter is used to convert DC voltages to AC voltages. The load draws current from the inverter.




The apparatus involved for the windmill section are:

• Generator
• Main shaft with Leafs
• Gear Wheel Arrangement
Wind power ratings can be divided into three convenient grouping, small to 1kW, medium to 50 kW and large 200 kW to megawatt frame size.
Solar energy implies the energy that reaches the earth from the sun. It provides daylight makes the earth hot and is the source of energy for plants to grow. Solar energy is also put to two types of use to help our lives directly solar heating and solar electricity
Solar electricity is the technology of converting sunlight directly in to electricity. It is based on photo-voltaic or solar modules, which are very reliable and do not require any fuel or servicing. Solar electric systems are suitable for plenty of sun and are ideal when there is no main electricity
1.2 CONTROL CENTRE


The control centre has been designed integrated within the household. The entire system shall be wireless based. However against contemporary systems already in the market, the proposed design shall be based on an Wi-Fi network which shall be circulated by a laptop or system based transponder. Thus the designed control centre shall have the advantages of being wire free as well as based upon an easily available apparatus, that is a laptop or a system which can be found in most households.

The design is aimed at replicating all functions performed by a normal energy control centre:
 Each room supply control
 Shutdown, start ,restart control
 Dimmer control
 Breaking control
All the above systems shall be integrated to develop a power efficient system for the future.

2. HYBRID GENERATING STATION

Hybrid system for home is a combined system of wind and solar power generation system. Aero turbines convert wind energy into rotary mechanical energy. A mechanical interface, consisting of a step-up gear and a suitable coupling transmits the energy to an electrical generator. The output of this generator is connected to the Battery or system grid. The battery is connected to the inverter. The inverter is used to convert DC voltages to AC voltages. The load is drawn current from the inverter.

• Generator, Main shaft with Leafs, Gear Wheel Arrangement
Wind power ratings can be divided into three convenient grouping, small to 1kW, medium to 50 kW and large 200 kW to megawatt frame size.
Solar energy means all the energy that reaches the earth from the sun. It provides daylight makes the earth hot and is the source of energy for plants to grow. Solar energy is also put to two types of use to help our lives directly solar heating and solar electricity.
Solar electricity is the technology of converting sunlight directly in to electricity. It is based on photo-voltaic or solar modules, which are very reliable and do not require any fuel or servicing. Solar electric systems are suitable for plenty of sun and are ideal when there is no main electricity.




2.1 WIND ENERGY INTRODUCTION
Wind result from air in motion. Air in motion arises from a pressure gradient. On a global basis one primary forcing function causing surface winds from the poles toward the equator is convective circulation. Solar radiation heats the air near the equator, and this low density heated air is buoyed up. At the surface it is displaced by cooler more dense higher pressure air flowing from the poles. In the upper atmosphere near the equator the air thus tend to flow back toward the poles and away from the equator. The net result is a global convective circulation with surface wins from north to south in the northern hemisphere.
It is clear from the above over simplified model that the wind is basically caused by the solar energy irradiating the earth. This is why wind utilization is considered a part of solar technology.
It actuality the wind is much more complex. The above model ignores the earth’s rotation which causes a coriolis force resulting in an easterly wind velocity component in the northern hemisphere.
There is the further complication of boundary layer frictional effects between the moving air and the earth’s rough surface. Mountains, trees, buildings, and similar obstructions impair stream line air flow. Turbulence results and the wind velocity in a horizontal direction markedly increase with altitude near the surface.
Local winds are caused by two mechanisms. The first is differential hating of land and water. Solar isolation during the day is readily converted to sensible energy of the land surface but is partly absorbed in layers below the water surface and partly consume in evaporating some of that water. The land mass becomes


hotter than the water, which causes the air above the land to heat up and become warmer than the air above water. The warmer lighter air above the land rises and the cooler heavier air above the water moves into replace it. This is the mechanism of shore breezes. At night, the direction of the breezes is reversed because the land mass cools to the sky more rapidly than the water, assuming a sky. The second mechanism of local winds is caused by hills and
mountain sides. The air above the slopes heats up during the day and cools down at night, more rapidly than the air above the low lands. This causes heated air the day to rise along the slopes and relatively cool heavy air to flow down at night.
Wind turbines produce rotational motion; wind energy is readily converted into electrical energy by connecting the turbine to an electric generator. The combination of wind turbine and generator is some times referred as an aero generator. A step-up transmission is usually required to match the relatively slow speed of the wind rotor to the higher speed of an electric generator.
In India the interest in the windmills was shown in the last fifties and early sixties. A part from importing a few from outside, new designs was also developed, but it was not sustained. It is only in the last few years that development work is going on in many institutions. An important reason for this lack of interest in wind energy must be that wind, in India area relatively low and vary appreciably with the seasons. Data quoted by some scientists that for India wind speed value lies between 5 km/hr to 15-20 km/hr. These low and seasonal winds imply a high cost of exploitation of wind energy. Calculations based on the performance of a typical windmill have indicated that a unit of energy derived from a windmill will be at least several times more expensive than energy



derivable from electric distribution lines at the standard rates, provided such electrical energy is at all available at the windmill site.
The above argument is not fully applicable in rural areas for several reasons. First electric power is not and will not be available in many such areas due to the
high cost of generation and distribution to small dispersed users. Secondly there is possibility of reducing the cost of the windmills by suitable design. Lastly, on small scales, the total first cost for serving a felt need and low maintenance costs are more important than the unit cost of energy. The last point is illustrated easily: dry cells provide energy at the astronomical cost of about Rs.300 per kWh and yet they are in common use in both rural and urban areas.Wind energy offers another source for pumping as well as electric power generation. India has potential of over 20,000 MW for power generation and ranks as one of the promising countries for tapping this source. The cost of power generation from wind farms has now become lower than diesel power and comparable to thermal power in several areas of our country especially near the coasts. Wind power project and implimentations of aggregate capacity of 8 MW including 7 wind farms project and implimentations of capacity 6.85 MW have been established in different parts of the country of which 3 MW capacity has been completed in 1989 by DNES. Wind farms are operating successfully and have already fed over 150 lakes units of electricity to the respective state grids. Over 25 MW of additional power capacity from wind is under implementation. Under demonstration programmer 271 wind pumps have been installed up to February 1989. Sixty small wind battery charges of capacities 300 watts to 4 kW are under installation. Likewise to stand-alone wind electric generators of 10 to 25 kW are under installation.

The Nature of the Wind

The circulation of air in the atmosphere is caused by the non-uniform heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. The air immediately above a warm area expands; it is forced upwards by cool, denser air which flows in from surrounding areas causing a wind. The nature of the terrain, the degree of cloud cover and the angle of the sun in the sky are all factors which influence this process. In general, during the day the air above the land mass tends to heat up more rapidly than the air over water. In coastal regions this manifests itself in a strong onshore wind. At night the process is reversed because the air cools down more rapidly over the land and the breeze therefore blows off shore.
The main planetary winds are caused in much the same way: Cool surface air sweeps down from the poles forcing the warm air over the topics to rise. But the direction of these massive air movements is affected by the rotation of the earth and the net pressure areas in the countries-clockwise circulation of air around low pressure areas in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise circulation in the southern hemisphere. The strength and direction of these planetary winds change with the seasons as the solar input varies.
Despite the wind’s intermittent nature, wind patterns at any particular site remains remarkably constant year by year. Average wind speeds are greater in hilly and coastal areas than they are well inland. The winds also tend to blow more consistently and with greater strength over the surface of the water where there is a less surface drag.
Wind speeds increase with height. They have traditionally been measured at a standard height of ten meters where they are found to be 20-25% greater than close to the surface. At a height of 60 m they may be 30-60% higher because of the reduction in the drag effect of the earth’s surface.
2.4 WIND POWER


The power in the wind can be computed by using the concept of kinetics. The wind will works on the principle of converting kinetic energy of the wind to mechanical energy. We know that power is equal to energy per unit time. The energy available is the kinetic energy of the wind. The kinetic energy of any
particle is equal to one half it’s mass times the square of its velocity, or 1/2m V2. The amount of air passing in unit time, through an area A, with velocity V, is AV, and its mass m is equal to its volume multiplied by its density  of air, or
m=AV
(m is the mass of air transverse the area A swept by the rotating blades of a wind mill type generator).
Substituting this value of the mass in the expression for the kinetic energy, we obtain, kinetic energy = 1./2 AV.V2 watts.
=1/2 AV3 watts
Equation tells us that the maximum wind available the actual amount will be somewhat less because all the available energy is not extractable-is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. It is thus evident that small increase in wind speed can have a marked effect on the power in the wind.
Equation also tells us that the power available is proportional to air density 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level). It may vary 10-15 percent during the year because of pressure and temperature change. It changes negligibly with water content. Equation also tells us that the wind power is proportional to the intercept area. Thus an aero turbine with a large swept area has higher power than a smaller area machine; but there are added implications. Since the area is normally circular of diameter D in horizontal axis aero turbines, then A = /4 D2, (sq.m), which when put in equation gives,
Available wind power P = ½  /4 D2V3 watts
= 1/8  D2V3
Reply
summer project pal
Active In SP
**

Posts: 308
Joined: Jan 2011
#6
09-01-2011, 06:28 PM

ABSTRACT


In an era where energy conservation has become the latest topic of discussion not only among the erudite but also among the ordinary responsible denizens , fuel efficiency along with minimum pollution has become the benchmark for any new automobile.
And in the same context “Hybrid Cars” come as the latest addition. By the name itself it can be inferred that a hybrid car is an improvisation to the traditional gasoline engine run car combined with the power of an electric motor.
The seminar and presentation on the above topic intends to bring to notice the concepts associated with the hybrid technology through the following topics – components and constituents, need , efficiency, performance, etc.

.doc   HYBRID CARS.doc (Size: 501.5 KB / Downloads: 108)
PASSWORDConfusedeminar and presentationproject and implimentations

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power .In fact many people have probably owned a hybrids vehicle at some point. For example, a moped is type of hybrid because it combines the power or a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its raider. Hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel -electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel electric buses these can draw power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles some are nuclear -electric and some are diesel electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of that power that can directly or indirectly provides propulsion power is a hybrid. The gasoline electric hybrid car is just that a cross between gasoline’s powered car and an electric car.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s) are powered by two energy sources
An energy conversion unit such as a combustion engine or fuel cell. and energy storage device such as batteries or ultra capacitors, fly wheels.
A gasoline, methanol, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other alternative fuels may power the energy conversion unit. The energy power unit is also called as hybrid power unit.
The nature of HEV configuration enables several important advantages over pure electric vehicles (EVs). Because the HEV engine shares the workload with the electric motor, it can be constructed smaller. This reduction in size engenders weight reductions, leading to greater fuel economy. Also, HEV engines can be optimized to operate within a specific speed range characterized by better fuel economy and reduced emissions. This allows HEV’s to eliminate the higher emissions and poor fuel economy associated with conventional ICE vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to be two to three times more fuel-efficient than conventional vehicles .In general; hybrids capture energy lost during braking and return it to the on-board battery. This process is termed regenerative braking. HEV’s generally don't ever need to be plugged in and charged - they recharge themselves during operation.
Hybrid-concept vehicles are achieving fuel economy ratings of 80 miles per gallon. General Motors' new Precept, for example, achieves a fuel efficiency rating of 108 miles per gallon. These are the most fuel-efficient and non-polluting vehicles the emissions that are released by these are almost zero that’s why several countries are preferring these to reduce the environmental pollution and the global warming which is the main problem of this generation. Emissions from the vehicles constitute the major part of the pollution so to reduce this several measures are being taken HEV’s are best suited for this.
The hybrid electric vehicle operates the alternative power unit to supply the power required by the vehicle, to recharge the batteries, and to power accessories like the air conditioner and heater. Hybrid electric cars can exceed the limited 100-mile (160 km) range-per-charge of most electric vehicles and have the potential to limit emissions to near zero. A hybrid can achieve the cruising range and performance advantages of conventional vehicles with the low-noise, low-exhaust emissions, and energy independence benefits of electric vehicles.
In the coming years, hybrids can play a significant role in addressing several of the major problems faced by the world today: climate change, air pollution, and oil dependence. This new technology delivers on its promise hinges on the choices automakers, consumers, and policymakers make over the coming years

CHAPTER 2
2.1 HYBRID VEHICLES

Hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from the wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid.
The gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that -- a cross between a gasoline-powered car and an electric car. Let's start with a few diagrams to explain the differences.

Figure 2.1Gasoline-powered car
Figure 1 shows a gas-powered car. It has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. The engine then turns a transmission, which turns the wheels.

Figure 2 below shows an electric car, which has a set of batteries that provides electricity to an electric motor. The motor turns a transmission, and the transmission turns the wheels.


Figure 2.2Electric car

Figure 3 shows a hybrid vechile the gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that -- a cross between a gasoline powered car and an electric car





Figure2.3 hybrid car










CHAPTER 3

TYPES OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

The three types of the hybrid vehicles are
3.1 Series hybrid (full hybrid)
3.2 Parallel vehicle (mild hybrid)
3.3 plugin hybrid


3.1. SERIES HYBRID
A series hybrid is similar to an electric vehicle with an on-board generator. in a series hybrid (Figure 4 below) the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus, the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle.
Take a look at the diagram of the series hybrid, starting with the fuel tank, and you'll see that all of the components form a line that eventually connects with the transmission.
Figure 3.1series hybrid

3.2 PARALLEL VEHICLE (MILD HYBRID)
parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels.
Figure 5 shows a typical parallel hybrid. We'll notice that the fuel tank and gas engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to the transmission independently. As a engine can provide propulsion power result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas
Figure3.2parallel hybrid
.
3.3 PLUGIN HYBRID
A hybrid vehicle with the ability to charge the batteries from an off board source is classified as PHEVS (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle)



CHAPTER 4
HYBRID COMPONENTS

Hybrid cars contain the following parts:
4.1GASOLINE ENGINE
The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and will use advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency.
4.2FUEL TANK
The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline.
4.3ELECTRIC MOTOR
The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.
4.4GENERATOR
The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids.

4.5BATTERIES
The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.
4.6 TRANSMISSION
The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones, which we’ll talk about later.


CHAPTER 5
PARTS OF AN ENGINE



Figure 5.1parts of an engine

Here's a quick description of each one, along with a lot of vocabulary that will help us understand what all the car ads are talking about.
5.1CYLINDER
The core of the engine is the cylinder. The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. The engine described here has one cylinder. That is typical of most lawn mowers, but most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally opposed or boxer), as shown in the following figures.


Figure5.2nline - The cylinders are arranged in a line in a single bank.



Figure5.3V- The cylinders are arranged in two banks set at an angle to one another.

Figure5.4lat - The cylinders are arranged in two banks on opposite sides of the engine.
Different configurations have different smoothness, manufacturing-cost and shape characteristics that make them more suitable in some vehicles.
5.2SPARKPLUG
The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.
5.3VALVES
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
5.4PISTON
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
5.5PISTONRINGS
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.

5.6COMBUSTIONCHAMBER
The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As the piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the combustion chamber changes. It has some maximum volume as well as a minimum volume. The difference between the maximum and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in liters or CCs (Cubic Centimeters, where 1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). So if you have a 4-cylinder engine and each cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0 liter engine." If each cylinder displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a V configuration, you have a "3.0 liter V-6." Generally, the displacement tells you something about how much power an engine has. A cylinder that displaces half a liter can hold twice as much fuel/air mixture as a cylinder that displaces a quarter of a liter, and therefore you would expect about twice as much power from the larger cylinder (if everything else is equal). So a 2.0 liter engine is roughly half as powerful as a 4.0 liter engine. You can get more displacement either by increasing the number of cylinders or by making the combustion chambers of all the cylinders bigger (or both).

5.7CONNECTINGROD
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.

5.8CRANKSHAFT
The crank shaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.

5.9SUMP
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).






CHAPTER 6
PARTS OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR

Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple two-pole DC electric motor. A simple motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:
6.1Armature or rotor
6.2Commutator
6.3Brushes
6.4Axle
6.5Field magnet

figure6.1 parts of an electric motor

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
In the diagram we can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a
permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power).








CHAPTER 7
7.1EVOLUTION OF THE HYBRID

The hybrid is a compromise. It attempts to significantly increase the mileage and reduce the emissions of a gas-powered car while overcoming the shortcomings of an electric car.

7.2THE PROBLEM WITH GAS-POWERED CARS
To be useful to you or me, a car must meet certain minimum requirements. The car should be able to:
• Drive at least 300 miles (482 km) between re-fueling
• Be refueled quickly and easily
• Keep up with the other traffic on the road
A gasoline car meets these requirements but produces a relatively large amount of pollution and generally gets poor gas mileage. An electric car, on the other hand, produces almost no pollution, but it can only go 50 to 100 miles (80 to 161 km) between charges. And the problem has been that it is very slow and inconvenient to recharge.
A driver's desire for quick acceleration causes our cars to be much less efficient than they could be. You may have noticed that a car with a less powerful engine gets better gas mileage than an identical car with a more powerful engine. Just look at the window stickers on new cars at a dealership for a city and highway mpg comparison.
The amazing thing is that most of what we require a car to do uses only a small percentage of its horsepower! When you are driving along the freeway at 60 mph (96.6 kph), your car engine has to provide the power to do three things:
• Overcome the aerodynamic drag caused by pushing the car through the air
• Overcome all of the friction in the car's components such as the tires, transmission, axles and brakes
• Provide power for accessories like air conditioning, power steering and headlights
For most cars, doing all this requires less than 20 horsepower! So, why do you need a car with 200 horsepower? So you can "floor it," which is the only time you use all that power. The rest of the time, you use considerably less power than you have available.
7.3SMALLER ENGINES ARE MORE EFFICIENT
Most cars require a relatively big engine to produce enough power to accelerate the car quickly. In a small engine, however, the efficiency can be improved by using smaller, lighter parts, by reducing the number of cylinders and by operating the engine closer to its maximum load.
There are several reasons why smaller engine are more efficient than big ones:
• The big engine is heavier than the small engine, so the car uses extra energy every time it accelerates or drives up a hill.
• The pistons and other internal components are heavier, requiring more energy each time they go up and down in the cylinder.
• The displacement of the cylinders is larger, so more fuel is required by each cylinder.
• Bigger engines usually have more cylinders, and each cylinder uses fuel every time the engine fires, even if the car isn't moving.
This explains why two of the same model cars with different engines can get different mileage. If both cars are driving along the freeway at the same speed, the one with the smaller engine uses less energy. Both engines have to output the same amount of power to drive the car, but the small engine uses less power to drive itself













CHAPTER 8
HYBRID PERFORMANCE

The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a conventional car and therefore more efficient. But how can this smaller engine provide the power your car needs to keep up with the more powerful cars on the road?
Let's compare a car like the Chevy Camaro, with its big V-8 engine, to our hybrid car with its small gas engine and electric motor. The engine in the Camaro has more than enough power to handle any driving situation. The engine in the hybrid car is powerful enough to move the car along on the freeway, but when it needs to get the car moving in a hurry, or go up a steep hill, it needs help. That "help" comes from the electric motor and battery -- this system steps in to provide the necessary extra power.
The gas engine on a conventional car is sized for the peak power requirement (those few times when you floor the accelerator pedal). In fact, most drivers use the peak power of their engines less than one percent of the time. The hybrid car uses a much smaller engine, one that is sized closer to the average power requirement than to the peak power.






CHAPTER 9
HYBRID EFFICIENCY

Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, today's hybrids use many other tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help any type of car get better mileage, and some only apply to a hybrid. To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of gasoline, a hybrid car can:

• Recover energy and store it in the battery - Whenever you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car remove this energy and dissipate it in the form of heat. A hybrid car can capture some of this energy and store it in the battery to use later. It does this by using "regenerative braking." That is, instead of just using the brakes to stop the car, the electric motor that drives the hybrid can also slow the car. In this mode, the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the batteries while the car is slowing down.
• Sometimes shut off the engine - A hybrid car does not need to rely on the gasoline engine all of the time because it has an alternate power source -- the electric motor and batteries. So the hybrid car can sometimes turn off the gasoline engine, for example when the vehicle is stopped at a red light.

Figure9.1he frontal area profile of a small and large car
• Use advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag - When you are driving on the freeway, most of the work your engine does goes into pushing the car through the air. This force is known as aerodynamic drag. This drag force can be reduced in a variety of ways. One sure way is to reduce the frontal area of the car (Figure 5). Think of how a big SUV has to push a much greater area through the air than a tiny sports car.
Reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the car or eliminating them altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. For example, covers over the wheel housings smooth the airflow and reduce drag. And sometimes, mirrors are replaced with small cameras. Use low-rolling resistance tires - The tires on most cars are optimized to give a smooth ride, minimize noise, and provide good traction in a variety of weather conditions. But they are rarely optimized for efficiency. In fact, the tires cause a surprising amount of drag while you are driving. Hybrid cars use special tires that are both stiffer and inflated to a higher pressure than conventional tires. The result is that they cause about half the drag of regular tires.
• Use lightweight materials - Reducing the overall weight of a car is one easy way to increase the mileage. A lighter vehicle uses less energy each time you accelerate or drive up a hill. Composite materials like carbon fiber or lightweight metals like aluminum and magnesium can be used to reduce weight.


CHAPTER 10
WHAT'S AVAILABLE NOW?

Two hybrid cars are now available in the United States -- the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius. Although both of these cars are hybrids, they are actually quite different in character.

The Honda Insight &Toyota Prius


The Honda is about $18,000, and the Toyota about $20,000. Both cars have a gasoline engine, an electric motor and batteries, but that is where the similarities end.
The Honda Insight, which was introduced in early 2000 in the United States, is designed to get the best possible mileage. Honda used every trick in the book to make the car as efficient as it can be. The Insight is a small, lightweight two-seater with a tiny, high-efficiency gas engine.
The Toyota Prius, which came out in Japan at the end of 1997, is designed to reduce emissions in urban areas. It meets California's super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV) standard. It is a four-door sedan that seats five, and the powertrain is capable of accelerating the vehicle to speeds up to 15 mph (24 kph) on electric power alone.


CHAPTER 11
HYBRID MAINTENANCE

Both the Honda and the Toyota have long warranties on the hybrid systems. The Insight has an eight-year/80,000-mile warranty on most of the powertrain, including batteries, and a three-year/36,000-mile warranty on the rest of the car. The Prius has an eight-year/100,000-mile warranty on the battery and hybrid systems and a three-year/36,000-mile warranty on everything else.
The motors and batteries in these cars don't require any maintenance over the life of the vehicle. And the engine doesn't require any more maintenance than the one in any other car. And because both hybrids have regenerative braking, the brake pads may even last a little longer than those in most cars.
However, if you do have to replace the batteries after the warranty expires, it will most likely cost you several thousand dollars.








CHAPTER 12
HYBRID MILEAGE TIPS

You can get the best mileage from a hybrid car by using the same kind of driving habits that give you better mileage in your gasoline-engine car:
• Drive slower - The aerodynamic drag on the car increases dramatically the faster you drive. For example, the drag force at 70 mph (113 kph) is about double that at 50 mph (81 kph). So, keeping your speed down can increase your mileage significantly.
• Maintain a constant speed - Each time you speed up the car you use energy, some of which is wasted when you slow the car down again. By maintaining a constant speed, you will make the most efficient use of your fuel.
• Avoid abrupt stops - When you stop your car, the electric motor in the hybrid acts like a generator and takes some of the energy out of the car while slowing it down. If you give the electric motor more time to slow the vehicle, it can recover more of the energy. If you stop quickly, the brakes on the car will do most of the work of slowing the car down, and that energy will be wasted.

CHAPTER 13
CONCLUSION

Though at present the concept has been put in to maximum utilization by Honda & Toyota,it is indeed an important research avenue for other car manufacturing units as well.One can surely conclude that this concept,and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in today’s energy deficit world.

REFERENCE
1) “IC engines”, by v.ganeshan
2) “Electrical technology” vol I &II, by B.L Thereja, A.K. Thereja
3) howstuffswork.com
Reply
haridwarkar
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2
Joined: Jan 2011
#7
18-01-2011, 01:07 PM

Hi, my querry is, Working of Multi Functional valve in Bi Fuel cars?
Reply
summer project pal
Active In SP
**

Posts: 308
Joined: Jan 2011
#8
25-01-2011, 05:25 PM

For details on bi-fuel cars, see:
topicideashow-to-bi-fuel-vehicles

and for multifunction valves, see:
wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?WO=2006011023
valve.co.za/pdf/schroeder/Schroeder%20SMV%20Multi%20function%20valve.pdf
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#9
22-04-2011, 02:21 PM

Presented By:
Kenneth Barnett


.ppt   hybrid_car.ppt (Size: 250 KB / Downloads: 148)
The Hybrid Car: A look at the future of cars
What makes a Hybrid?

A hybrid is anything that uses two or mores sources directly or indirectly to provide propulsion
Examples of hybrid vehicles being used:
Gasoline-pedal:
Moped
Diesel-electric:
Locomotives
Buses
Submarines (can also be nuclear-electric)
Gasoline-electric:
Passenger Vehicles
Parallel Hybrid
Has a fuel tank that supplies gas to the engine like a regular car
It also has a set of batteries that run an electric motor
Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time.
Series Hybrid
The fuel tank goes to the engine, but the engine turns a generator
Then the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission
The gasoline engine does not directly power the car
Components of a Hybrid
Gasoline engine
Much like our engines but smaller and is made with advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency
Fuel Tank
Energy storing device for the gasoline engine
Gas has a much larger density than the batteries
Example: 1,000 pounds of batteries store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas
Continuing Components
Electric Motor

Advance electronics allow it to act as either an motor or a generator
Example: When needed it can take power from the batteries to accelerate the car. Or as the car slows down it acts as a generator and returns that energy to the batteries
Generator
Similar to an electric motor, just it acts only to produce electrical power
Mainly in series hybrids
Continuing Components
Batteries
Energy storage device for the electric motor
Transmission
Transmission on a hybrid performs the same as a transmission on our cars
How a transmission works is that it takes power from the engine or motor and sends to the driveshaft which turns your axle to move your car
Hybrid Performance
The key for the hybrid car is its ability to use a smaller engine
A conventional engine is sized for peak power requirement, when a study shows that most drivers reach this less than 1% of our driving time
The hybrid engine is sized for running at the average power not the peak. But when it does reach that point that it needs help up a hill or to pass someone, it draws extra power from the batteries and the electric motor to get the job done.
Hybrid Efficiency
Recovers energy and stores it into the battery
Regenerative braking
Sometimes it will shut the engine off
Reduces aerodynamic drag
Low rolling resistance tires
Stiffer and inflated more
1/2 the drag on the road
Lightweight Materials
Carbon fiber
Metals
Aluminum
Magnesium
Hybrid Maintenance
Warranties
The average warranty for a hybrid now is around either 8 yr/ 100,000 mile or even 10 year/ 150,000 mile
Brake pads
Regenerative braking
Batteries
$6800 for new Toyota and Honda hybrid
But batteries tested to go for 180,000 miles and some
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#10
27-04-2011, 02:42 PM

Presented By
Jai Narayan Mishra
Shouvanik Sarkar


.pptx   Hybrid car.ppt.pptx (Size: 549.86 KB / Downloads: 64)
Hybrid car
The Zero emission Vehicle
Introduction
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle.
OTHER fuels used:-
Rechargeable energy storage system
EM Field Waves
Hydrogen
Compressed air
Paddling or Rowing
Why Hybrid Vehicles?
Emissions from recent CVs causes Global Warming and Human Sickness.
Advances in battery, power electronics technologies have made commercialization possible
Performance is generally as good as or better than CVs
Reduction in NOISE pollution.
HEVs have demonstrated significant potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.
Hybrids Can have Multiple Configuration
Key Features of Hybrid and How they do it
Hybrids achieve improved efficiencies using several approaches:
Employ regenerative braking to recover energy that is normally wasted as HEAT.
Downsize or “right-size” the engine or primary power source
Control the engine or primary power source to operate more efficiently and/or work more often in a more efficient range
Key Characteristics
Hybrid Vehicles Are Here To Stay
FedEx/Eaton HEV Demonstrator a Good Example of What Can Be Done
Disadvantages
Mechanical Design Complexity
Extra complexity adds significant cost
Rocket like Effect(in case of Compressed air)
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#11
30-04-2011, 11:00 AM


.pptx   hybrid car1.pptx (Size: 700.2 KB / Downloads: 77)
Hybrid Cars
car of the era
What are hybrid cars
Vehicles that use both a traditional engine (combustion) and a rechargeable system (typically operated by a battery) to improve mileage, cause less pollution, and decrease need for gasoline
An automobile powered by both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor
Most hybrid cars available today use a combination of gasoline and electric engines while some use a combination of diesel and electric engines.
Types of hybrid cars
Parallel hybrid car

To turn the transmission they use either its electric motor or gasoline engine. Because of this, both the electric motor and the gasoline engines are connected directly to the transmission of the car.
Series hybrid car
Cars which has only the electric motor which is directly connected to the transmission.
In a series hybrid, the gasoline engine is only used to charge the batteries that are used to power the electric motor.
Hybrid Car Features
Regenerative Braking: Instead of using only friction to brake the car, the electric motor/generator of the hybrid car uses the excess kinetic energy to charge the batteries of the electric engine and thereby capturing some of the energy that would've been otherwise lost in the case of conventional cars.
Temporary Engine Shut-off: Since hybrid cars have two engines to power them, it they can automatically shut off the gas powered engine when the car is idle and use its electric engine to power it. This saves fuel.
Other features to maximize the fuel efficiency of hybrid cars are,
Minimal-drag tires
carbon fiber and
Other lightweight materials to reduce overall weight
Sate of the art aerodynamic designs for the body.
All these things make it easier for a hybrid car to drive up inclines and accelerate, attain higher speeds as well as minimize fuel consumption and emissions.
Benefits of hybrid car
Environment friendly. They can reduce pollution by 90 percent.
Hybrid cars are much simpler to operate - less maintenance, reliable in the long run
lower emissions and better mileage.
purchase incentives for Hybrid vehicle owners (varies)
Special warranties are provided for the battery pack, the electric motor other costly items
List of Hybrid cars
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid
Chevy Cavalier Hybrid
Chevy Malibu Hybrid
Chevy Silverado Hybrid
Chevy Tahoe Hybrid
Ford Contour Hybrid
Ford Escape Hybrid
GMC Yukon Hybrid
GMC Yukon Hybrid
Honda Accord Hybrid
Honda Civic Hybrid
Honda Insight Hybrid
Lexus GS Hybrid
Lexus LS Hybrid
Lexus RX Hybrid
Mazda Tribute Hybrid
Mercury Mariner Hybrid
Nissan Altima Hybrid
Saturn Aura Hybrid
Saturn Aura Hybrids Vehicles
Saturn Vue Hybrid
Toyota Camery Hybrid
Toyota Highlander Hybrid
Toyota Prius Hybrid
Volkswagen Golf Hybrid
Future Hybrid Cars
Ford Fusion
Toyota Camry Hybrid
Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid
Mercury Milan
Altima Hybrid
Hyundai Accent
Kia Rio
GMC Yukon
Honda CR-V
Saturn Vue
Chevrolet Tahoe
Mazda Tribute
Mercury Mariner
Toyota Highlander
GM Silverado
GM Sierra
Dodge Ram
Toyota Sienna Hybrid
Reply
seminar paper
Active In SP
**

Posts: 6,455
Joined: Feb 2012
#12
15-02-2012, 10:01 AM

to get information about the topic hybrid cars full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow


topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report

topicideashow-to-hybrid-vehicles-full-report

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars--14190

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=3

topicideashow-to-hybrid-electric-vehicles?page=2

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=4

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars--14190?page=2

topicideashow-to-hybrid-cars-full-seminar and presentation-report?page=2

Reply
seminar ideas
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 10,003
Joined: Apr 2012
#13
25-05-2012, 04:05 PM

hybrid cars



.ppt   HYBRID CAR revisited.ppt (Size: 922 KB / Downloads: 29)

What are Hybrid Cars?


Hybrid cars are the cars, which run on at-least one alternate source of energy and gasoline. Most of the time that other alternate source of energy for hybrid cars is electricity (rechargeable batteries) hence those are called electric hybrid cars. These new hybrid cars are innovative, efficient and affordable.

Why Hybrid Cars?


Here are the reasons why you should choose a hybrid car instead of conventional gasoline car:
Hybrid cars are environment friendly. They can reduce pollution by 90 percent.
Hybrid cars are economical in medium and long run than normal gasoline cars.
New technology is used it’s REGENRATIVE Braking System.
Hybrid cars are more reliable than electric cars, as they have gasoline as an alternate fuel.
Hybrid cars makes you less dependent on fossil fuels (gasoline).



Timeline

1839: First electric vehicle
1886: Electric powered taxicab in England
1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron)
1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid


Electric Motor


Lots of torque
Zero emissions
No transmission needed
Starts more efficiently
Can turn off motor when you stop
Motor type Permanent magnet AC synchronous motor


How Hybrid Cars Work ?


Hybrid Cars integrate the power of the conventional gasoline engine with that of an electric motor. A high powered battery pack provides energy to the motor which itself gets recharged when the car is decelerating. This is called as regenerative braking. The gas engine can also assist the battery in recharging. This kills the need to plug the car to an external source of energy.




Reply
seminar flower
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 10,120
Joined: Apr 2012
#14
08-08-2012, 03:52 PM

Hybrid Car


.doc   Solor Hybrid car22.doc (Size: 182 KB / Downloads: 22)

Abstract

The project and implimentation here is all about solar,sound,shock energy hybrid car converts kinetic energy into electricity through the use of a Linear Motion Electromagnetic System .
There are at least two entities who have spent time/resources developing this concept: Goldner et al.; and Oxenreider.

All cars are powered by gas. But with the volatility of crude oil prices and because it is not a renewable, something must be done before it is too late. Given that solar

energy, a green energy source is used to power a community, you can also do this on a small scale by using the same principles to build your own car.
But what do you need to make this work? A lot of things but the two most important are the solar array and the batteries.
The solar array is vital because this is what’s used to collect the sun’s rays and then converts this into electrical energy. There are two types to choose from in the market namely the prefabricated type and the individual kind which you set up yourself.
Insert Where You Want Ticker To Display:
If you are looking for branded parts, check out either Siemens or ASE Americas that sell terrestrial grade cells and the space grade cells. The lower end model which can produce a significant amount of power is the terrestrial grade version.
Proper wiring must be done to make sure that if one of the panels is not working, your vehicle will still move. If you are worried that the voltage of the solar array should match the system voltage of your motor, you should not to worry because it will still run.
We mentioned earlier that the battery is also important because this is where the solar energy will be stored. Your options for this are lead acid, lithium-ion or nickel-cadmium. Just how many you need to buy will depend on your motor’s voltage.
When you finally have these two components, these will now have to be connected to the motor. So you know how much juice is left in your batteries, you will also need to install instrumentation similar to the heads up display console on regular cars which tells you your speed, mileage and gas.

The device can be retrofitted to any current-generation Toyota Prius in Japan for ¥12,600, or about $150. The Prius’s version can be temporarily disabled with a button in the cabin. It emits tones that sound like a whirring electric motor, which vary in pitch with vehicle speed. Future Toyota hybrid, electric, and fuel-cell vehicles will likely include such sound systems.
A Toyota spokesman told us that the company is developing a similar add-on for the U.S. and other countries, but that there is no firm roll-out date set. On our shores, Toyota is working with NHTSA and the Society of Automotive Engineers to determine what kind of noise the Prius speaker system will make; different countries could potentially have divergent tones depending on local laws. We were told that it hasn’t yet been decided whether the system will be available on other Toyota or Lexus hybrid vehicles, but the feature’s spread seems inevitable.

Reply
sajidali476
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1
Joined: Feb 2013
#15
01-03-2013, 05:14 PM

what is password.........it is password protected...??????
Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  Brain Chips full report seminar class 2 3,316 13-07-2016, 03:38 PM
Last Post: jaseela123
  Intranet Mailing System full report seminar tips 4 1,648 06-05-2016, 11:25 AM
Last Post: mkaasees
  chat server full report project report tiger 10 16,577 06-11-2015, 07:20 PM
Last Post: Guest
  email flyer design full report project report tiger 9 27,937 26-02-2015, 03:06 PM
Last Post: oiajecuot
  3d printing seminar report jaseelati 0 294 05-01-2015, 04:56 PM
Last Post: jaseelati
  seminar report on e waste jaseelati 0 193 05-01-2015, 04:39 PM
Last Post: jaseelati
Brick V3 MAIL SERVER full report project report tiger 4 6,508 04-10-2014, 02:39 PM
Last Post: GaCcBuH
  data mining full report project report tiger 35 199,297 03-10-2014, 04:30 AM
Last Post: kwfEXGu
  INSURANCE AGENT\'S COMMISSION TRACKING SYSTEM full report project report tiger 1 2,103 10-04-2014, 02:25 AM
Last Post: whyuvyoo
  encryption decryption full report seminar topics 7 9,405 16-01-2014, 11:54 AM
Last Post: seminar project topic