information technology in textile industry full report
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01-04-2010, 10:41 PM
Today, Information Technology (IT) plays a vital role in the field of textile industry. Any manufacturing unit employs four Ms that is, Men, Material, Machine, & of course Money. To get organizational success, managers need to focus on synchronizing all these factors and developing synergies with in and outside organization operations. With the increased competition, companies are taking support of IT to enhance its supply chain management and using it as a competitive edge. In short, many textile companies are leveraging the technological power to adding value to their business.
Supply Chain Management includes: sourcing, procuring, converting, and all the logistic activities. It seeks to increase the transaction speed by exchanging data in real-time, reduce inventory, and increased sales volume by fulfilling customer requirements more efficiently and effectively. (1)
Why use IT
With increasing worldwide competition and stricter regulations as well as increasing labour, raw material and energy costs, improving the efficiency of textile production is becoming a matter of survival. Shortages on key production factors such as water and increasing quality demands from customers already affect your company and will only become more prevalent. (16)
Why Textile Industries Need IT Support :-
Lack of information on demand and supply aspects Most of the decisions a manager takes are related to demand and supply issues. But unfortunately very few are able to get it, as a results decisions taken carries risk and uncertainty. Excess inventory is one of the most common problems faced by managers which furthers results in long cycle-time, outdated stock, poor sale, low rates, and reduction in order visibility and finally leads to customerâ„¢s dissatisfaction.
Long procurement time in a traditional textile industry, procurement process takes a much longer time. So, the retailers need to forecast demand and identify consumption trends at a much earlier stage. Lack of clarity about future can either result in early stock out, delay or overstock.
Supply chain in â€œ competency with the urge for getting global, apparel and textile are facing hurdles of inefficiency in carrying out various processes involved right from designing, developing samples, getting approval, manufacturing, dispatching to payment procedures. The total time taken can get extended to one year or even longer. If we calculate, production actually accouhapnts for just ten to twenty percent of the total time. Rest of the time is taken for the information processing from one end to the other.
The trajectory of development of information technology has intersected every application in textile industry. From enhancing performance of textile manufacturing and tighter process control, IT has inserted intelligence at every node of textile supply chain.
Step in to the global trade it a fact that a company going global is opened with lot of opportunities as well as threats in terms of competition, changing trends, and other environmental changes. It necessitates managing every kind of information efficiently and at much faster speed.
Interaction of Information Technology with Textile Supply Chain:-
Sharing of information proper flow of information among supply chain member is very crucial. Such flow of information can influence the performance of overall supply chain operation. It includes data about customers and their demand, inventory status, production and promotion plan, shipment schedules, payment details, etc. Bar coding and Electronic data interchange are the two information technology tools which can facilitate information integration. Bar coding facilitates recording of detailed data by converting it to electronic form and can be easily shared among member through EDI system. EDI with its high efficiency is able to replace the traditional ways of transmissions like telephone, mail and even fax. EDI enables managers to analyze and apply it in their business decisions. It also helps in expediting order cycle that reduces investment inventory. EDI based network Enables Company to maintain quick response and closure relations with suppliers and customers, who are geographically dispersed. Manufacturers and retailers can share even new designs developed through CAD/CAM.
Supports planning and execution operations planning and coordination are very important issues in supply chain management. The next step after sharing information is planning which includes joint design and implementation for product introduction, demand forecasting and replenishment supply chain members decide their roles and responsibility which is coordinated through the IT system.
Various software tools like MRP, MRPII, APSS facilitate planning and coordination between different functional areas within the organization.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP):-
It helps in managing manufacturing processes based on production planning and inventory control system. Proper implementation of MRP ensures availability of material for production and product for consumption at right time optimizes the level of inventory and helps in scheduling various activities. MRP system uses computer databases to store lead times and order quantity. MRP includes mainly three steps: First assessing the requirement of how many units of components is required to produce final product; here it applies logic to implement bill of material explosions. Second step includes deducting the stock in hand from gross to find out net requirement. Finally, scheduling manufacturing activities such that finished goods are available when required, assuming the lead time.
Material Requirements Planning system (MRPII):-
It is a logical extension of MRP system which covers the entire manufacturing function. This typically includes machine loading, scheduling, feedback, and software extension programmers in addition to material requirement planning. It provides the mechanism to evaluate the feasibility of a production schedule under a given set constrains.
A textile company which has multipoint manufacturing and engaged in global business necessitates something more than MRP and MRP-II like Distribution Requirement Planning (DRP), it has ability to solve both backward direction throughout the supply chain.
The Advance Planning and Scheduling system (APSS) includes both material focus of MRP and response scheduling power of MRP-II
Coordination of logistics flows workflow coordination can include actives such as procurement, order execution, implementing changes, design optimization, and financial exchanges which results in cost and time efficiency. The results are cost-effective, speedy and reliable supply chain operations.
IT contributes towards the maximizing the value of textile supply chain through integrating supply chain operations within and outside the organization and collaborating the acts of vendors and customers based on shared forecasts. Internet adds to IT contribution towards supply chain management through coordination, integration and even automation of critical businesses. New systems of the supply chain game emerge as a result of business innovation fuelled by the internet.
Many supplying companies maintain demand data by style, size, fabric, and color to replenish inventory at retail outlet. Level of replenishing is predetermined by both parties after reviewing history of sales by product and buying behavior of the community. New business models:
Data mining and data warehousing:-
Data mining is the process of analyzing data from different viewpoints and summarizing it into useful information that can be used as a basis of monitoring and control, enabling companies to focus on the most important aspects of their business. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions, categorize it, and summarize the relationships identified. In short it is the process of finding correlations or relationship among dozens of fields in large relational databases. Data warehousing is the repository of data and can be defined as a process of centralized data management and retrieval. Centralization of data maximizes user access and analysis.
E-commerce can be B2B (Business To Business) and B2C (Business To Customer). B2C commerce is the direct selling to consumers through Internet. While B2B marketplace can be defined as neutral Internet-based intermediaries that focus on specific business processes, host electronic marketplaces, and use various market- making mechanisms to mediate transactions among businesses. B2B appears to be more prospective than B2C. (1)
IT in chemical processing:-
Chemical processing plays vital role in the imparting value addition in the fabric. The value of finished fabric largely depends on the chemical treatment which again largely depends upon the end usages of the finished fabric.
The availability of on line data during individual stage of processing, its analysis and access to technical information are very essential to take prompt and quick decision and to initial immediately the suitable preventive/corrective measures to rectify the defect and to optimize the process. Technical knowledge and expert information generated in this way can be assembled in a technical data bank and can be made available to users all over the country to solve their day to day problems and optimize process. The databank would consist of information release to various machines, their specifications, days and chemicals, their availability with quality and cost, process optimization, maintenance requirements, various process and instruments.
Digital Fabric Printing:-
From designer to manufacture the process is seamless. What is created on screen is directly downloaded on fabrics using a digital ink jet printer through computer. Its accuracy is so much that one may find difficult to locate the difference between the print and original.
Hand help spectro-photometer reads a colored sample precisely, predicts formulation and can even direct a robotic color kitchen to weight out the required days and chemicals and mix them to prepare the dye bath or a print past. Color matching computers can also communicate with your buyers about the color accuracy through internet. Most dyeing and printing machine also use IT to communicate with color matching system.
IT in Total Quality Management:-
TQM means those management practices which focus on quality as the vehicle for achieving higher lever of performance throughout the organization. Today TQM has become extremely important as it affects the profit the company.
The management of information is becoming important to the success and competitive position of textile. Quality of a product plays an important role in the management of an enterprise in order to satisfy consumer expectation and to ensure success and survival of a company in a free market economy. Today quality encompasses every conceivable activity in an organization, with the customer at the centre of all thoughts, processes and decisions.
The use of Information Technology tools such as sensors, computers, and network and data system makes the time consuming task of collection, storage and analysis task much simple and make efficient. The flow of such large volume of information in a company efficiently is impossible without the aid of electronic media and information technology. It is therefore necessary to have a network and a data system in a mill which gives up to the minute information and instant access to all data in whatever form required.
The obtained information can directly pinpoint the stages and faults and in many cases the reason for them. One can thus locate deviations and weak point that stand in the way of a consistent high level of product quality, one is able to go to the root of the problem and solve it much more effectively.
A 3-D body scanner enables touch less measurement of the customer. This digital measurement is converted into a 2-D pattern and transmitted electronically to a manufacturing site located elsewhere in the world.
A design intelligence service for collecting and disseminating the design related needs of the complete fashion and textile industry of India has been developed by TDD Department at NIFT.
The centre links with all international organization offering trend information on internet. The information is gathered, analyzed, and classified into categories like yarn development, grey fabric development, synthetics, print patterns for menâ„¢s wear and women wear, suiting and shirtingâ„¢s, upholstery, carpets etc. the information is put up on site and can be accessed by all users in their respective offices through internet.
IT in Management:-
IT has increased the potential of the textile industry to face the growing competitive market. It is a strategy for the continuous improvement of all levels of management and managing a company using a concept of complete co-ordination of data recording equipment and automation associated with all elements of the manufacturing process through the use of a central linkage using some level of computer and IT to help the company operate in the most effective and efficient way.
To be in this competitive edge every management will continue to strive for more efficient use of total resources. Thus the major elements of successful competitive strategies are:
More rapid response both to market changes and to changes in consumer demands in terms of product features, availability, quality and price.
Low cost and high quality in design and production.
For this managerial and organizational changes are required. Co-operation and even integration of many functions in the entire many functions in the entire management system will need to be pursued aggressively to achieve many of the necessary improvements.(2)
: - 2
APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CHEMICAL
PROCESSING OF TEXTILES:-
Chemical processing of textile is very important in the manufacturing of textiles. Besides imparting various properties to the fabric, chemical processing also improves its aesthetics which in turn gives better fabric realization. Chemical processing involves steps, chemicals, instrumentation, infrastructure, etc. where once it was manual, today the entire chemical processing is fully mechanized/computerized and well organized.
Advent of computer has made it possible to get information right in our living room without moving. At the press of a button a person can access information from all over the world in any area of his interest. Internet has further boosted this marvelous technology. Today, computer touches every aspect of our life. In textiles too they are proving to be a great boon especially in chemical processing where every step has to be perfect and precise which eventually governs the finished product sale ability. Vast information is stored in the computer which can be accessed as and when required.
Data acquisition during individual stage of processing, its analysis and automatic monitoring have become possible. This helps in quick identification of faults and systematic elimination of the same during production process. It also helps in quick decision making.
Chemical processing of textile is generally carried out in composite mills, independent process houses; decentralized sector engaged in part processing located in far-flung places, etc. large variations therefore exist in the finished product. Hence urgency is felt to standardize the various processes, parameters, methods of processing, etc. this would ensure consistency and uniformity of quality in the finished fabric. It is here that the data bank becomes quite useful. The availability on line data during individual stage of processing, its analysis and access to technical information will enable prompt and quick decision making.
The article stress upon the importance of information technology in chemical processing and ways and means of implementing the same.
2.1. Implementation of Information Technology:-
BTRA is a pioneering research institute for textiles covering diverse areas. Besides mechanical processing, extensive research is also carried out in chemical processing covering dyeing, printing and finishing and also in electronics. Not only in cotton but also in other natural fibres, synthetics/man-made fibres, chemicals, auxiliaries, etc. testing as per eco-standards is also carried out.
The main question is how the user accesses this information. The answer lies in data warehousing, data mining and multidimensional analysis (MDA) or online analytical processing (OLAP). These can be used for accessing, extracting, transforming, cleaning and storing relevant information in a data bank for better timely decision making. This can be accessed by a user as shown in figure 1.
MILLS AND PROCESS HOUSE
CHEMICAL PROCESSING MILL AND PROCESS
MILL HOUSE EAST
AND PROCESS CONTROL REGION
PROCESS VARIABLES, QUALITY
WEST CONTROL FACTORS,
REGION MACHINERIES AND
1) BTRA Centralized I.T
2) Interactive Access
3) Specialized Access
4) General Access
MILLS AND PROCESS HOUSE
Figure 1:- Information Data Bank
It can be through local area networking (LAN) within the organization or through internet between two organizations. These days World Wide Web (WWW) an internet application is drawing lot of attention. TRAs can create their own website which can be used by other organizations for general information regarding the work carried out by them. Website should be interactive.
Interactive access can be used when the user is unable to solve his/her problems general access or specialized access. The primary dialogue between the user and BTRA would take place through web followed by specialized access. However if the user is unable to get the solution through specialized access interactive access can be used. Some of the examples of interactive accesses are new groups internet chat etc.
The data warehouse or expert data system is a subject oriented, integrated, time variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management decision making process. It is the storage of historical and current data based on various activities, which is stored in an organized format, in order to transform it into meaningful business information by means of several software tools. The electronically stored expert data in the data warehouse is updated and transformed under software environment to a consistent, uniform format so that user can extract the information which is directly related to his/her activity. The expert data bank i.e. data warehouse can be used in decision support system (DSS) and executive information system (EIS). The DSS can provide whatever information the managers need to make decisions; while EIS allows exploration of technical data through multiple dimensions. This enables the technical personnel to draw guidelines for corrective actions in process mechanism for efficient performance. The objective of creating data warehouse is to enhance the quality and speed of decision making intelligent, which would provide a technological edge over others in competitive environment.
The implementation of data warehouse can be done in three stages viz., loading. Transformation and extraction as shown in figure 2.
Â¢ DATA EXTRACTION
Â¢ DATA SCRUBBING TRANSFORMATION
Â¢ DATA TRANSFORMATION
Â¢ MANAGEMENT TOOLS LOADING
Â¢ MANAGED QUERYTOOLS
Â¢ REPORT WRITTERS
Â¢ RELATION ONLINE ANALYTICAL
PROCESSING TOOLS EXTRACTION
Â¢ DATA MINING TOOLS
Â¢ DATA VISULISATION TOOLS
Â¢ EXECUTIVE INFORMATION
Â¢ VERTICAL APPLICATION
Â¢ HORIZONTAL APPLICATION
Â¢ INTERNET ENABLING TOOLS
Figure 2.Key Technology Components of a Data Warehouse
Data Mining and On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and Data Cleansing:-
Data mining is an operation of digging out critical data from the stored and access information for better decision support. The on-line analytical processing (OLAP) is different from data mining in the sense that it is used to verify more complex human generated hypothesis involving multiple dimensions and produces information summaries required by the user.
The data extracted from the existing system are acquired from the outside sources and must be examined for consistency, quality and reliability before it is loaded into expert data bank (data warehouse). This step is essential to supply the user with reliable information on which his/her decision for process control and business activity would take place. The majority of data warehouses are built using relational data base management system (RDBMS) for better flexibility, query-performance and optimize data storage.
Achieving higher quality and productivity at a low cost.
Minimizing banned chemicals in fabric treatment and ensuring eco-friendly processing.
For ensuring increased level of process control, monitoring and automation in chemical processing machineries.
Achieving right-first-time, right-on-time, right-even-time at every possible stage of processing.
Satisfying the aesthetic and function performance of the fabric according to the requirement of the consumers.
Decreasing production cost to remain competitive in the global market. (3)
: - 3
APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO MANAGE
THE TEXTILE QUALITY CONTROL DATA:-
The rapid development in information technology has ushered in a revolution in manufacturing and interactive marketing across the globe. IT applications are todayâ„¢s indispensable tools to boost productivity and drive maximum benefits. In other words we can say that the success of an organization depends on faster processing of raw data, which are based on application of information technology. The use of IT application to manage quality and laboratory result of the modern textile plant is not a new concept. Most laboratories today have some sort of computerized system to log and manage data. Every progressive organization has the only major objective to increase its profitability. However, in todayâ„¢s competitive marketplaces, profitability is not only depends on increasing sales but also just as importantly on reducing cost and improving quality.
Quality of a product plays an important role in management of an enterprise in order to satisfy customer expectations and to ensure success and survival of a company in a free market economy. The only purpose for any manufacturing activity to exist is to provide a product, which fulfills a known or anticipated need of a consumer.
Customers have become less tolerant accepting and coping with defects: therefore managing the quality if the products have a direct effect on the bottom line. After all, rejections are expensive, not to mention goodwill to the customer. Defects per unit of measure may be used as selection criteria for any textile item to be used to satisfy a customer order. This requires managing the quality and possibly the defect count or tested value of a parameter in a database to be attached to the finished product record. Documentation of the quality information may be of various forms. The ideal way is to have the inspector directly capture the information on a terminal or other device that can provide real time data. Other methods may involve recording the data on a control sheet then entering the data into a computer system. This process is often slow and chances of errors are there. In either case the requirement to capture this information and make the data available quickly is ever increasing.
The textile industry also needs the data from every individual process of every parameter in a compiled from to take prompt and correct decision. In the earlier day these types of information were from control charts. Having the ability to review current quality levels and be able to do something about it before the next day can be a real benefit in terms of time and cost.
Role of Quality Control in Modern Textile Industry:-
The Quality Control department is an essential part of modern textile industry and its important functions are as follows:
Evaluation quality standards of incoming material, products in process and finished goods.
Evaluation of optimum quality obtainable under given conditions.
Improvement of quality and productivity by process control and experimentation.
The following steps give a summary of the advantages of Q.C. in industry:
Planned collection of data and analysis.
Improvement in product quality and design.
Reduction in product quality & design.
Reduction in scrap/waste.
Saving in excess use of materials.
Reduction in inspection.
Evaluation of scientific tolerance.
Improvement of employee moral.
Maintenance of operating efficiency.
Greater customer satisfaction.
The communication chart of Q.C. department, which directly affect different divisions in textile industry, is shown in figure 3
Finance & HRD
Production Store & Finished Maintenance
Figure 3 The Communication Chart of QC Department
Computerization in the QC laboratory:-
These systems are often an integral part of tests being performed and as such are single application oriented. There are however many tests that are required which do not or cannot interface with an automated system and the result are kept in manual log, maintained in a spreadsheet or entered in to custom application. Software, specifically designed to be used in the laboratory. The Context â€œAnalysis diagram of the Quality control Laboratory in textile industry is shown in figure 4
Get sample from
Define the sample
Find out the sample
To the requirement
To prepare the
Sample output report
Sample Data Analysis
& Compared with
Yes No Analysis of
To Customer Accepted Data Up to the Rejected Causes of
Figure 4. Context-Analysis diagram of the QC Laboratory in textile Industry
Taking the above points into consideration, NITRA has developed software on Quality Test Data Management System
General Structure of the software:-
In exciting most of textile industry are maintaining the quality control reports by word processing document/ spreadsheets or manually by hand on the paper. Reports generated through word processing document/spreadsheet or manually by hand on the paper. Reports generated through word processing documents/spreadsheets have enormous disadvantages as compared t our software generated reports such as:
The data cannot be accessed at once.
Backup data cannot be accessed and summarized by a key press.
Data analysis and graphical presentation cannot view by a key press.
Large number of data, e.g. one billion, cannot be handled by exciting system.
Past data cannot be stored and accessed by key press.
This proposed software is an integrated package for Quality Control Laboratory. The software module is divided into eleven section i.e. Master data, Process, Department, and Breakage, Lot information, Customer Complain, Graphical Analysis, Output reports, Windows, help and exit. Through the software module, we can control the fibre/ yarn testing parameters with Mixing details and process wise Breakage details. We can also analyze the lot wise Breakage details. We can also analyze the lot wise process data in tabular or graphical form.
Key Features of the Software:-
Quality control automation and Management decision making for Q.C. parameters.
Helpful in tasking quick decision regarding product development and data analysis.
Fibre/Yarn test parameters report.
Process wise breakage data analysis.
Process-wise test report.
Machine wise Process parameters.
Process wise Graphical analysis
Customer Complain Analysis report
Comparison report over standard norms.
Systematic and smooth flow information in the functional area.
Quick compilation and analysis of large volume of data from various departments helps timely decision making, thus results reduction in unwanted defective products.
Helps the management to decide upon the marketing and product mix strategies.
Better control over the system.(4)
: - 3
CAD/CAM APPLICATION IN GARMENT PRODUCTION:-
The garment industry is one of the labor intensive industries in the country and its potential growth rate is of a high order. An encouraging feature of this industry is that it involves relatively low investment and provides huge employment opportunities particularly for women. In garment manufacturing, the primary pre-production operations are marker making, spreading or laying, cutting and preparation of cut parts for sewing. Manual methods of marker making are time-consuming, subject to errors and inconsistencies thereby increasing the wastage and overall cost of the garment. On the other hand, computerization greatly improves accuracy, increases the efficiency and reduces the time required for making markers. To enhance the overall productivity with reduced wastage in garment manufacturing.
4.1. Garment Making Process:-
Garment making is generally an assembly of several pieces of cloth cut to various shapes to create apparel. The garment pre-production is referred to as the stage between final adoption and the actual assembly of the product. This operation begins when a style is accepted in the line and ends when a style is ready for the sewing floor. The operations involved in the pre-production are pattern designing, grading, marker making, laying/ spreading, cutting and preparation of cut parts for sewing.
The first stage in manufacture of garments is cutting of the fabric into various patterns, which are later joined by means of seams to create a three- dimensional garment. When cut, the pattern is attached to the fabric and cut along the pattern using hand shears or some other means. When large quantities of garments are to be cut for commercial purpose, a lay is created. The pattern for the garment has to be placed on top of the lay and all pieces of garment can be cut using any of the various tools available for cutting. Depending upon the method of cutting used, there is not always a necessity to physically draw the pattern shapes and positions on the lay.
4.2. Need for Modernization:-
The garment business is widely known as the fashion business because fashion change is so intimately associated with garment in the minds of most people. The combination of fashion change and seasonal change makes the garment business the most change-intensive business in the world. According to fashion theory, consumers quickly because bored with whatever widely accepted; thus they constantly seek new and different variation of products and activities.
There is an urgent need to modernize the garment industry because of global challenges on the export front and stiff competition in the local market due to liberalized imports. The investment required for modernization is huge because these are heavy dependence on technology and machinery imports. To tide over the situation, the exporters should adopt state-of-the-art technology such as CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Designing and Computer Aided Manufacturing) which would cut down the fabric wastage to a large extent. (17)
CAD & CAM are part of computer technology. Increased competitiveness and demand for shorter lead times has lead to the slow, but steady proliferation of CAD in India. With its inimitable growth of computer-aided technologies in the textile and apparel industry, traditional working methods are being phased out in favor of futuristic and globally prevalent methods of working. The evolution in technology has always been influenced by the proposition to reduce cost and lead-time, to increase interactivity between what is real and virtual and to enhance oneâ„¢s creative abilities. A comparison of CAD/CAM and MANUAL in garment manufacturing reveals the advantages of CAD/CAM system in garment industry. (5)
4.3. Computerized Marker Making Systemâ€œ SITRA FLEXIMARK:-
In the global scenario, it is a fact that there are only a few companies involved in the development of software tools that are necessary for garment manufacturing. All these companies are based in developed countries and cater to the requirement of high-end clients with variety of automation tools. Naturally, these systems are very expensive and are beyond the reach of majority of Indian garment enterprises.
Marker planning is an important activity because of its direct influence on material costs, cutting accuracy and sewing efficiency. When the cutting room cuts the fabric it spends about 50% of the companyâ„¢s turnover. Therefore, any reduction in the amount of fabric using per garment leads to increased profits for the company. At present the marker making is performed by trial and error method without any precise measurement regarding the fabric utilization. The best marker plan is one, which is tightly packed for higher efficiency without sacrificing the design objectives of the garment. With this background in mind, SITRA has developed a cost-effective computerized marker making system - SITRA FlexiMark â€œ for the Indian garment industry particularly for the small and medium scale manufacturers who cannot afford to invest huge amounts on imported systems. This system mainly comprises interactive software to prepare a marker plan with the aid of computer for better fabric utilization and faster marker preparation. (17)
4.4. Experimental Procedure and Results:-
In order to assess the improvement in productivity and quality, CAD/CAM manufacturing is compared to MANUAL manufacturing. Various work processes were followed in CAD/CAM (unit c) and MANUAL (unit M) and their results were obtained. The following are the key areas where the observations were made:
Time required in pattern designing, grading, pattern alteration.
Waste percentage in cutting room.
Time taken for sample marking.
Lead-time for production.
The following are the results obtained by the experiment:
(IN MIN) UNIT-M
New pattern creation 15.22 100.00
Grading (Four size) 5.67 120.00
Marker planning 15.92 100.00
Sketch preparation 00.00 30.00
Total 36.81 350.00
Table 1. Comparison status on production of following activities between the unit-C and unit-M
4.5. Time Required in Pattern Designing, Grading, Pattern Alteration:-
Both in Unit-C (CAD/CAM equipped) and Unit-M (MANUAL SYSTEM) the time required for preparing a sort of the above said dimension was observed. Particular time required for each operation was observed, by using a stopwatch and six sets of reading were taken. The following is average time taken.
By this it can be realized that CAD/CAM system reduces the time by about 90%.
MANUAL system takes comparatively much more time because new pattern creation, measurement of marking, pattern grading, marker planning, sketching, etc are done only by the individual skill of the person.
PATTEN GESIGN software in Unit-C uses powerful CAD tools to draft pattern, which gives them unlimited saving in time compared to the manual method used in the Unit-M. A previously constructed pattern in the system can be used as the base pattern for a new style.
4.6. Waste Percentage in Cutting Operation:-
In order to determine waste percentage both in manual and CAD/CAM system the following observation were consumption for 500 shirts is determining of centre size, i.e., Ëœlâ„¢ for determining the fabric required, the area of shirt is taken from Ëœlâ„¢ size shirt. The fabric required is 2.15 Ãƒâ€” 1.38 meters (length Ãƒâ€” width) without tolerance. With tolerance fabric required is 2.42 meters (in length).
Total No of shirt observed = 500
Fabric required for
500 shirts = 500 Ãƒâ€” 2.42
= 1220 m.
No of shirts made out from 1210 m with (90% fabric realization) in CAD/CAM system:
= (1210 Ãƒâ€” 92) / 100
No of shirts = 450.
No of shirts made out from 1210 m with (80% fabric realization) in MANUAL system:
= (1210 Ãƒâ€” 80) / 100
= 968 m
= 968 /2.42
No of shirts = 403.
This gives fabric saving of 10% by CAD/CAM system over MANUAL system.
With the use of CAD/CAM system, it can be observed the about 10% of material is saved higher than the manual method.
Â¢ We should not cut until a trial lay-out shows the best location for all pieces with in minimum length of cloth.
Â¢ Place all pattern pieces close together, so as to reduce the waste % of the cloth.
Â¢ Spreading waste is considerably reduced due to correct length spreading. Remnants are also reduced by Automatic Spreading Machine.
Since the CAD/CAM system has mathematical algorithm in built in CAD system to ensure the most economical use of material.
4.7. Time taken for sample making:-
Sample making is a continuous process in clothing industry, during development of new product. The following steps are involved in the process.
Â¢ New material, design and processes have to be identified.
Â¢ The production of garment patterns has to be altered and perfected to rectify faults during making up of the sample.
Â¢ At the sample stage, the quantities of fabric and trimming are established and quick costing is made.
Â¢ The finished garment sample undergoes scrutiny to evaluate whether they fit in the viability norms of producing the garment.
In order to determine sample making time it is followed by process of sample making in both units. The following were time taken.
In Unit-C using CAD software and ENCAD: CROMA 24, plotter it is easy to make sample. The CAD software helps designer of pattern to alter it easily and in quick time. This is mainly due to collection planning helps in:
Â¢ Developing the variation from core design.
Â¢ Trying the same cloth on a number of different designs.
Â¢ Modifying some of the ideas to make the garment more acceptable to a wider range of customers.
With this flexible CAD system and plotter in Unit C is able to reduce 50%of sample making time compared to Unit M. Which is shown in table 2.
(IN DAYS) UNIT-M
New pattern creation, Alteration
Grading, Marker making 1 3
Sourcing of material 2 2
Production of sample 2 5
Total 5 10
Table 2:- Process time for sample making
Productivity of Unit c & Unit M were obtained by taking into account per day production and monthly production capacity taking into account when similar sorts of garment were produced. The numbers of finished garments obtained each day observed were as follows:
DAY UNIT-C UNIT-M
1 16035 4235
2 15500 3850
3 16000 4150
4 16010 4008
5 15450 3750
6 16150 4150
7 15850 3850
AVERAGE 15856 4013
Per day productivity (Unit C) =15,856 pieces
Per day productivity (Unit M) = 4,013 pieces
Table 3: Production average
Â¢ As the CAD/CAM process requires transfer of information or data for marker planning via floppy, so that the process is simplified and the production is increased.
Â¢ In CAD/CAM system, the capacity of the cutting room is to deal with a mixture of different types of cloth. Whereas in MANUAL system it is highly impossible to work with mixture of different types of cloth.
With such a flexible cutting room facilities available Unit-C members have higher productions rate compared with Unit M member together with very high cutting speed Which is shown in above table 3.
4.9. Lead time for production:-
A typical development cycle of a garment industry consists of the following steps:
Â¢ Marketing and punching
To compare lead-time of garment taking into consideration above said procedure in both Unit-c and Unit-M, the observed time required for each stage of procedure and details of the time taken in the two units are as shown in table 4:
(IN DAYS) UNIT-M
Design plan and design collection
Design â€œ Make pattern and sample 4 10
Marketing â€œ Forward
Design â€œ Grade pattern
Purchasing â€œ Raw Material 20 20
Purchasing â€œ Raw Material 5 5
Production â€œ Produce Customerâ„¢s
Order 10 20
Total 39 55
Lead time for Unit-C =39 Days
Lead time for Unit-M =55 Days
Table 4:- Lead time for production
Lead-time of garment production is the number of days required to finish a garment from sample stage to finished garment. Due to faster sample production time are higher productivity combined with flexibility of CAD system Unit-c member admitted that the lead-time has been considerable reduced. (5)
: - 5
MANAGEMANT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS):-
The concept of MIS has evolved over a period of time comprising many different facets of the organization functions. MIS is a necessity of all the organizations.
The initial concept of MIS was to process data from the organization and presents it in the form of reports at regular intervals. The system was largely capable of handling the data from collection to processing. It was more impersonal, requiring each individual to pick and choose the processed data and use it for his requirements. This concept was further modified when a distinction was made between data and information. The information is a product of an analysis of data. This concept is similar to a raw material and the finished product. The concept is that the data is one but it can be viewed by different individuals in different ways. This gave rise to the concept of DATABASE, and the MIS based on the DATABASE proved much more effective.
The concept of MIS in todayâ„¢s world is a system which handles the databases, provides computing facilities to the end user and gives a variety of decision making tools to the user of the system.
An MIS gives information through data analysis. These include the theories, principles and concepts form the Management Science, Management Accounting, Operations Research, Organizational Behaviors, Engineering, Computer Science, Psychology and Human Behaviors, making the MIS more effective end useful.
MIS uses the concept of management control in its design and relies heavily on the fact that the decision maker or the manager is a human being and is a human processor of information.
BUSINESS GOALS AND MISSION
APPLICATION OF PURE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICES OF
USE OF DATABASE AND KNOWLEDGE BASE
COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Figure 5:- Conceptual View of MIS
MIS can be use for a specific objective if it is evolved after systematic planning and design. It calls for an analysis of a business, management views and policies, Organization culture and the management style. The systems theory offers solutions to handle the complex situations of the input and output flows. It uses theories of communication which helps to involve a system design capable of handling data inputs, process, and outputs with the least possible noise or distortion in transmitting data information from a source to a destination. It uses the principles of system design, viz, an open system and a closed system.
The concept therefore is a blend of principles, theories and practices of the management information and system giving rise to single product known as Management Information System (MIS). The conceptual view of the MIS is shown as a pyramid in Fig.5
The physical view of the MIS can be seen as an assembly of several subsystems based on he databases in the organization. These subsystems range from data collection, transaction processing and validating, processing analyzing and storing the information in databases. The subsystems could be at a functional level or a corporate level. The information is evolved through them for a functional or a departmental management and it provides the information for the management of business at the corporate level. The physical view of the MIS can be show as in fig 6.
MISSION CRITICAL APPLICATION
FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SUBSYSTEMS
DATA BASES AND KNOWLEDGE BASE
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM
OLTP, DATA AND VALIDATION SYSTEM
Figure 6:- Physical View of MIS
The MIS has more than one definition, some of which are given below.
1. The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization.
2. The MIS is defined as a integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations the management and decision making function in the organization.
3. The MIS is defined as a computer based information system.
Though there are a number of definitions all of them converge on one single point, i.e. the MIS is a system to support the decision making function in the organization. MIS is a computerized business processing system generating information for the people in the organization to meet the information needs for decision making to achieve the corporate objectives of the organization.
In any organization small or big, a major portion of the time gone in data collection, processing, documenting, and communication to the people. Hence, a major portion of overheads goes into this kind of unproductive work in the organization. Every individual in an organization is continuously looking for some information which is needed to perform his/her task. Hence, the information is people oriented and it varies with the nature of the people in the organization.
The difficulty in handling this multiple requirement of the people is due to a couple of reasons. The information is a processed product to fulfill an imprecise of the people. It takes time to search the data and may require a difficult processing path. It has a time value and unless processed on time and communicated, it has no value. The scope and the quantum of information is individual dependent and it is difficult to conceive the information as a well defined product for the entire organization. Since the people are instrumental in any business transaction, a human error is possible in conducting the same. Since a human error is difficult to control, the difficulty arises in ensuring a hundred percent quality assurance of information in terms of completeness, accuracy, validity, timeliness and meeting the decision making needs.
In order to get a better grip on the activity of information processing, it is necessary to have a formal system whish should take care of the following point:
Â¢ Handling of a voluminous data.
Â¢ Confirmation of the validity of data and transaction.
Â¢ Complex processing of data and multidimensional analysis.
Â¢ Quick search and retrieval.
Â¢ Mass storage.
Â¢ Communication of the information system with the user on time.
Â¢ Fulfilling the changing needs of the information.
The management information system uses computer and communication technology to deal with these points of supreme importance.
5.2. Role of the Management Information System:-
The role of the MIS in an organization can be compared to the role of heart in the body. The information is the blood and MIS is the heart. In the body the heart plays the role of supplying pure blood to all the element of the body including the brain.
The MIS plays exactly the same role in the organization. The system ensures that an appropriate data is collected from the various sources, processed, and sent further to all the needy destinations. The system is expected to fulfill the information needs of an individual, a group of individuals, the management functionaries: the manager and the top management.
The MIS satisfies the diverse needs through a variety of systems such as Query System, Analysis System, Modeling System and Decision Support Systems. The MIS helps in Strategic Planning, Management Control, Operational Control and Transaction Processing.
The MIS helps the clerical personnel in the transaction processing and answers their quires on the data pertaining to the transaction, the status of a particular record and reference on a variety of documents. The MIS helps in Strategic Planning, Management Control, Operational Control and Transaction Processing. The MIS helps the middle management in short term planning, target setting and controlling the business functions. It is supported by the use of the management tools of planning and control. The MIS helps the top management in goal setting, strategic planning and evolving the business plans and their implementation.
The MIS plays the role of information generation, communication, problem identification and helps in the process of decision making. The MIS, therefore, plays a vital in the management, administration and operations of an organization.
5.3. Impact of the Management Information System:-
The MIS plays a very important role in the organization; it creates an impact on the organizations functions, performance and productivity.
The impact of MIS on the functions is in its management. With a good MIS support, the management of marketing, finance, production and personnel becomes more efficient. The tracking and monitoring of the functional targets become easy. The functional managers are informed about the progress, achievements and shortfalls in the activity and the targets. The manager is kept alert by providing certain information indicating the probable trends in the various aspects of business. This helps in forecasting and long-term perspective planning. The information is available in such a form that it can be used straight away or by blending and analysis, saving the managerâ„¢s valuable time.
The MIS creates another impact in the organization which related to the understanding of the business itself. The MIS calls for a systemization of the business operations for an effective system design. This leads to streamlining of the business by bringing a discipline in its operations as everybody is required to follow and use system and procedures. This process brings a high degree of professionalism in the business operations.
Since the goals and objectives of the MIS are the products of business goals and objective, so it helps indirectly to pull the entire organization in one direction towards the corporate goals and objectives by providing the relevant information to the people in the organization.
A well designed system with a focus on the manager makers an impact on the managerial efficiency. The fund of information motivates an enlightened manager to use a variety of tools of the management. It helps him to resort to such exercises as experimentation and modeling. The use of computers enables him to use the tools and techniques which are impossible to use manually. The ready-made packages make this task simpler. The impact is on the managerial ability to perform. It improves the decision making ability considerably.
5.4. Management Information System and Computer:-
The MIS relies heavily on the hardware and software capacity of the computer and its ability to store, process, retrieve and communicate with no serious limitations.
Computer is capable of digital, graphic, word, image, voice and text processing, it is exploited to generate information and present it in the form which is easy to understand for the information user.
The ability of a computer system to provide security of data brings a confidence in the management in the storage of data on a magnetic media in an impersonal mode. The computer system provides the facilities such as READ ONLY where you cannot delete or UPDATE. It provides an access to the selected information through a password and layered access facilities. The confidential nature of the data and information can be maintained in a computer system. With this ability, the MIS becomes a safe application in the organization. (6)
5.5. Use of MIS in Textile Wet Processing for Strategic Decision
In Textile manufacturing wet processing play a crucial role and it is very much complicated as compared to other section of textile manufacturing. In wet processing good do not change their physical shape like spinning and weaving. Some of the machine can be utilized for different purposes and more than one quality can run together. A mill can loose or make profit, doesnâ„¢t always depend upon conversion cost but also other factors like value loss, type of shade, machine used. Now, all these things make the system a complicated one as compared to spinning or weaving. So, it has been found that a number of software are available for spinning/weaving but for wet processing, it is not very common, although there is a demand. Several years back STARFISH model evoked good response and instantly become popular. However, in India, textile wet processing industries, which are having wide variation like fibre/yarn/fabric processing in the same process house, own work, job work in printing and dyeing, etc., IT has not yet penetrated deeply into small and private owned industries due to their conservative policy.
Now a day, due to wide market and cut throat competition, survival of any industry depends upon proper and optimum utilization of its resources. Computer based information system can give a detailed description of each and every product, shade wise and lot wise. Now a day IT and ERP are becoming popular in most of the organizations, textile is no exception. In order to get quick and proper information and to take strategic decision, IT has become essential tool in modern systems.
Considering all the factors in mind, a software package has been developed by NITRA which can help the management to control the reprocess/redye of the lots, costing of different lots, shade wise, and quality wise and allows them the freedom to perform the more important tasks of overall system management. Solving the re-dye issue is a typical money saver. Also the total inventory of dyes, chemicals, fibre, yarn and fabric at different stages of the wet processing, as on a data, helps the management to effectively control the working capital blocked in it. Quality control module helps the management to control the various process parameters compared to standards in textile wet processing.
5.6. Importance of MIS in Wet Processing:-
Process house plays a vital role in imparting value addition to the fabric. The value of finished fabric largely depends upon the chemical treatments, which again largely depend on the end usage of the finished fabric. There are various discrete stages involved in chemical processing of woven cotton and its blended union fabrics, viz. Desizing, Shearing, Singeing, Scouring, Bleaching, Mercerizing, Intermediate washing, Drying, Dyeing, Printing, Print fixation, After-treatment, Chemical and Mechanical finishing, etc.
The demand for machinery, process and quality control parameters, methods of control of raw material (chemicals, dues and auxiliaries) are numerous and vary from stage to stage of chemical processing. The deviation in any variables beyond the tolerance limits at any stage of chemical processing results in undesirable product quality and hence leads to higher value losses due to chemical processing. As far as possible for the survival of mills in ensuring global competitive market, occurrence of variables beyond the tolerance limit must be controlled. The availability of on-line data during individual stage of processing, its analysis and access to technical information are very essential to take speedy decision and initiate immediately suitable corrective measures to rectify the defect and optimize the process.
Computersâ„¢ role in facilitating quick and appropriate information in decision-making is evident from the figure 7.
Data Processing Decision Making
Data + Processing Information + Decision Model + Decision Maker Decision
Figure7:- Role of Information in Decision Making
PROCESS HOST MANAGEMENT HOST
DRYING -Dyeing Programs -Process monitoring
-Liquor flow rates -Process reports REMOTE
-Differential Pressures -Temperature diagrams TECHNICAL
-Pump speeds -Machine diagnostics ASSISTANCE
-Liquor PH/conductivity -Alarms
COLOUR KITCHEN DYEING MACHINE
Figure 8:- Online Information Network of a
Success in an organization depends on faster processing of raw data. Faster the process of decision-making faster is the process of the organization.
In the textile industry, computers are mostly used for production planning, cost and quality control, finance, sales and inventory.
Some of the modern process house have installed computer information network as shown in figure 8.
In general practice, the standard value of a particular shadeâ„¢s cost/unit is taken as input for decision making, which is a crude decision. But in the NITRA software quality-wise costing of different shades lot-wise for a month can be viewed, on the basis of which the most appropriate and effective decision could be made. This results in the formulation of pricing; product mix and promotion mix marketing strategies of the process house industry.
Status of Textile Industry in Northern Region:-
Before developing the software, under this project and implimentation, a survey was conducted on computer status of textile industry in Northern Zone and a lot of vital information emerged, some of the major findings are as follows:
Industries from Spinning and Processing and Spinning sectors showed a good response to the survey.
About 38% of computer personnel have professional qualifications.
More than 50% of the participating units have employed computer personnel having computer professional degrees (B.E./B.Tech./M/Tech./M.C.a/Ph.D).
HCL-HP, makes have been preferred by more than 50% of the participating units followed by assembled computers.
A large number of computers in use have had the configuration 16 MB RAM.
1.2 and 1.44 MB FDD, 1.2 GB HDD and Intel based Pentium microprocessor.
More than 50% have installed E-mail facilities.
MS-DOS operating system is used by more than 56%.
Novell NetWare is the most preferred LAN operating system.
Marketing departments have employment the maximum number of computers.
Most of the mills are yet to computerize their various activities/departments.
Personnel and Administration/HRD and accounts departments mostly have computer facilities.
Fox-Pro and Clipper are the most preferred platforms for developing software.
Marketing and quality control departments have shown more inclination towards installing computers and developing software.
Most of the units require initial help for programming/software development in the area of marketing and quality control/quality system.
It is evident that a lot of score and need exists in the textile industry for application of computer for better communication. Since the competition is becoming stiff today, systems have to be reorganized so that more and more information could be made available to the management.
Case study of a typical textile mill:-
With a view to demonstrate the practical significance of the software, one textile mill was selected, in which reports were being generated through computer. Based on the reports, a detailed study was undertaken, and reports modified and accordingly software was installed in the mill. Department-wise communication in the mill is shown in figure. 9
Planning HRD and Payrolls
Purchases Process Production and
Figure 9:- General Department-wise Communication in a Textile industry
General Structure of Process Flow:-
The general structure of the dyeing house can be divided into fibre, yarn and fabric dyeing whose data flow is shown in figure. The existing reports maintained by them are either generated through spreadsheets or manually, by hand on the paper.
Reports generated through spreadsheets have enormous disadvantages as compared to software generated reports, such as:
The data cannot be accessed at once.
Present status of the lot in the process house cannot be known.
Back data cannot be accessed and summarized by key press.
Inventory in hand cannot be known by a single key press.
Machine-wise status of the lots cannot be known at any time.
Present status of the order cannot be known at any time.
Get order Get Spg. Deptt.
Customer Details from Grey Dye fibre Customer
Get order Get
Customer Details from Grey Dye Yarn
Get order Get Made-Up
Customer Details from Grey Dye fabric Deptt.
PPC Fabric Customer
Fig.10 Data Flow Diagram of Process House in Each Stage
This software provides the following MIS reports of the process house:
Fibre/Yarn/Fabric processing report
Fibre/Yarn/Fabric stock valuation report
Fibre/Yarn/Fabric down gradation/value loss report
Lot-wise cost per unit report
Shade-wise cost per unit report
Quality-wise cost per report
Inventory (dyes/chemicals) in hand
Detailed production report
Machine-wise production report
Machine-wise process production summary report
Quality control reports dyes/chemicals/fabric
Expected Benefits of the Software:-
Optimum utilization of working capital
Smooth flow of information in the functional areas of management. Quality and shade-wise costing helps the management to take quick and effective decision, as to whether to continue a particular shade of a quality which is incurring high cost due to higher value loss, or else not to dye with that particular shade. Finally to communicate to the marketing people not to take the order of the shade and quality this is incurring higher losses.
Helps the management to decide upon the marketing and product mix strategies.
Better control of the system.
One billion data records can be handled by the system and therefore the past data can be handled and accessed by a key press.
Immediate casting of each and every lot can be viewed/printed very easily, which is not these in the present system.
Inventory in hand can be viewed/printed by a single key press.
Accurate results are ensured as compared to the conventional manual report generation.
Proper co-ordination between manufacturing, accounting, purchase, production, and top management, hence better team work with common objectives.
Key Features of the Software:-
Dye house automation particularly in inventory and processing control.
Management decision making in value loss contribution.
Helpful in taking quick decision regarding pricing and product development.
Controls working capital cost, which is being invested in the inventory of dyes and chemicals.
System Requirement for Software:-
An IBM-compatible pentium or higher with minimum 16 MB of RAM or higher.
An 80-column display monitor.
At least one FDD 1.44 MB or 1.2 MB.
80/132 column printer.
Windows/ MS-DOS operating system for the PC.
Software distribution floppy from NITRA. (7)
: - 6
ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP):-
Nearly 1.5 crore households in India depend on the textile industry, which is second only to agriculture as a means of employment. A new textile policy has been declared in 2000. TUF is also available for modernization.
In these contexts, it is very important that focus of the business is very clear. Nowadays, the focus of organization is shifting from being profit-driven to consumer-driven, though profit is very much an important element. Of the many imperatives to which organization much respond to, none is more difficult, more perilous, or more vital than being customer focused across multiple business units.
Although profit is the main requirement of business, on time or just in time fulfillment of requirement of customers who are geographically positioned anywhere in the world is also equally important, where marketing can be
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