integration of information technology in machine tools
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31-12-2009, 08:08 PM



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ABSTRACT
Todayâ„¢s buzzword IT has revolutionized every aspects of our day today working lives. Automation of industries is one of its main contributions. Automation can be defined as technology concerned with the application mechanical, electronic and computer-based systems to operate and control production. . The main advantage of automation is increased labor productivity at reduced labor cost. The heart of machine tool is a CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) system, which coordinates with the displays, PLC, drives system, and feed back systems. This paper deals with the data acquisition, program management and remote diagnosis of the system
Numerical control is for of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a mechanical tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data. Computerized numerical control (CNC) is defined as an NC system whoâ„¢s MCU is based on a dedicated microcomputer rather than a hardwired controller.
Remote diagnosis or Tele service offers remote support for CNC systems, making it a cost-effective alternative to service calls. Lot of time can be saved by this.

INTRODUCTION
Todayâ„¢s buzzword IT has revolutionized every aspects of our day today working lives. Automation of industries is one of its main contributions. Automation can be defined as technology concerned with the application mechanical, electronic and computer-based systems to operate and control production. Automated manufacturing systems operate in the factory on the physical product. They perform operations such as processing, assembly, inspection or material handling, in some cases accomplishing more than one of these operations in the same system. They are called automated because they perform their operations with a reduced level of human intervention. The main advantage of automation is increased labor productivity at reduced labor cost.
An automated system consists of three basic elements:
1. Power to accomplish the process and operate the system
2. A program of instructions to direct the process and
3. A control system to actuate the instructions.
Here we are discussing about the developments in the software part, which controls the entire process in machine tools.
The heart of machine tool is a CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) system, which coordinates with the displays, PLC, drives system, and feed back systems. This paper deals with the data acquisition, program management and remote diagnosis of the system.
NC & CNC
Numerical control is for of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a mechanical tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data. The alphanumerical data represent the relative position between the work head and the work part as well as other instructions needed to operate the machine. The concept for NC dates from the late 1940s and the first machine was developed in 1952 by US airforce.
Computerized numerical control (CNC) is defined as an NC system whoâ„¢s MCU is based on a dedicated microcomputer rather than a hardwired controller. It includes additional features beyond what is feasible with conventional hardwired NC. It includes
¢ Storage of more than one part program
¢ Various forms of program input
¢ Program editing at the machine tool
¢ Fixed cycles and programming subroutines
¢ Positioning features for setup and cutter length and size compensation
¢ Communication interface and
¢ Diagnostics
The CNC systems have processors for specific applications as the speed requirements for the system is far greater here. The processors available in a CNC used to perform various tasks like communication, trigger, display, interpolation & calculation functions, diagnosis, data exchange with PLC and other peripheries. The new technology based personal computers has also made rapid development of new manufacturing processes that enable achieving higher productivity and improved job finish. Today several solutions are available for IT- integration from processing of job orders on as machine tool to vertical integration oat factory level onto ERP systems like SAP and so on. The data available as a result may be used in various activities vary ranging from production planning to management information system.
Enterprise wide integration of factory data: The most recent progression in PC based distributed control is enterprise wide integration of factory operations data as depicted in the figure. It is according to the new philosophies of worker empowerment, which assume fewer levels of company management and greater responsibilities for front line workers in sales, order scheduling and production.


fig.1. Enterprise Wide Management
Let us look at the different modules of information technology that can be integrated into machine tools. The very base of various modules is of handling a host of data and a wide range of diagnostic functions.
MODULES IN MACHINE TOOLS
MODULE FOR PRODUCTION DATA MANAGEMENT
The module is available in two different variants i.e., WinBDE for machine data management to carryout machine data acquisition and local evaluation and WinPDA for central machine and production management to carry out central production archiving and evaluation. WinPDA server is used as a data administrative unit for the machine information, which is acquired and passed on by the WinBDE systems. WinPDA server is responsible for all upload and download functions to SAP and WinBDE. The WinPDA clients are the user interfaces for the WinPDA server. These clients can be run on a standard Windows PC (Windows NT or Windows 2000) and are connected to the server over Ethernet. Plant supervisors and production engineers are the main users of WinPDA client. WinBDE is designed for the acquisition and evaluation of machine data. The system acquires process information automatically from a PLCâ„¢s memory.
What WinBDE can do
¢ Determination of the machine performance
¢ Detailed disturbance analysis and diagnostics
¢ Transparency at the machine due to graphical error diagnoses
¢ Analysis of weak points
Function overview
A pilot study was conducted to assess Siemensâ„¢ MES solutionâ„¢s capabilities that included nine machines at one of their US facilities. The pilot included nine marriage machines in their assembly area. Three WinBDE terminals were used for data collection. The system automatically collects machine status conditions. Each marriage machine communicates digital process data via digital outputs to a Simatic S7-ET200M. The Simatic S7-ET200M then communicates that information to a Simatic S7 PLC (CPU 315-2DP) through a Profibus DP network connection. A WinCC station was used to gather the process data from the PLC and pass the information to the Open ShopFloor data acquisition program WinBDE through an OPC connection. Figure shows the system architecture.
Fig.2 WinBDE network
According to the result of the experiment, the customer could optimize their work schedule by using the paperless order dispatching system. Work orders can now be quickly assigned to a particular machine. The operators at the specified machine can easily confirm the parts produced for the work order and when the order is completed, it is automatically closed and the machine state is automatically set to free. At this point area supervisor can assign a new work order to that machine. All this information is automatically sent to SAP. The customer has also been able to track very precisely their machine utilization. Using the data, the customer can optimize their work schedules and improve machine utilization. Historical data has proved to be extremely useful. While analyzing machine utilization and disturbance codes, the customer noticed some interesting patterns. These patterns showed some very regular disturbances. After further analysis, they discovered that a small change in their maintenance schedule reduced and in some cases eliminated the problem. This increased the machine utilization and reduced maintenance costs.
What WinPDA can do
The main area of application for which WinPDA is de-signed is the dispatch and evaluation of production and machine data (MDA/PDA). Using production data that is acquired either manually or automatically by means of PLCs, you always have an up-to-date overview of the status of production orders, machine assignments, personnel deployment, etc. This allows you to intervene appropriately to balance rates of utilization, to speed up order throughput and to significantly reduce inventory. Higher planning quality is achieved in a manufacturing requirements planning system (MRP) due to the up-to-date data that is reported back by the online WinPDA system. If no information is reported back from the manufacturing process, planning options are very limited.

Function Overview

Fig3. WinPDA network
The core functions are production data acquisition and processing. This comprises all the interactive functions for processing order, workstation and personnel data. Automatic machine data acquisition in addition to manual input dialogs ensures that process information is always up-to-date. WinPDA an Open System Environment User Interface. WinPDA is a client-server system that uses open international standards based on Microsoft Windows with PC clients and network communications via a LAN to the data server running the Oracle relational database. WinPDA is based on the Toolbox, which is a high-level development platform. The modular open system structure ensures that you can integrate adaptations. Multi-stage system expansion options and the distribution of functions to different computers allow the system to grow with your needs.

Main Data Acquisition Areas
¢ Order or operation data (runtimes, piece counts, scrap,...)
¢ Personnel data (working hours, reasons for absence,¦)
¢ Machine and workstation data (utilization, availability, disturbances,...)
Acquiring Manual Production Events
Manual production events are entered at machines by the operators using the WinBDE acquisition component. The system supports simple PDA terminals with displays or user-friendly Windows terminals. The interactive functions available on the WinBDE terminals include:
¢ Dialogs for processing orders including quantity acquisition and reasons for interruptions or rejects
¢ Dialogs for workstations with status acquisition (disturbance, maintenance)
¢ Dialogs for personnel data
Acquiring Automatic Production Events
You can acquire and process events online via the PDA terminal's digital inputs:
¢ Piece counts (good, scrap)
¢ Down-time monitoring
¢ Disturbances
WinPDA's user interface is designed with the same look and feel as Microsoft Windows. Users can modify overview tables, dialog windows, labels and even the language used. This makes possible easy adaptation to specific operating conditions and individual requirements.
Dialogs for Production and Order Dispatch
The dialogs for production and order control are available on Windows clients. This allows you to use the PCs that are integrated in the WinPDA network as multifunctional operator control and monitoring stations. Dialogs for order control are available in the following form:
¢ Order and operation overview
¢ Maintain single order
¢ Workstation overview
¢ Maintain workstation
¢ Display logbook
¢ Personnel overview
¢ Maintain personnel data
¢ Maintain master data evaluations under Windows
The evaluations below are available as standard as stand-alone Windows programs:
¢ Plant diagram Graphic display of the current workstation status (e.g. red = disturbed; green = production; etc.)
¢ Representation in table form of currently pending reasons for disturbances/status conditions
¢ Shift profile Representation as a bar chart of the events of a completed shift for a selected workstation
¢ Day profile- Representation as a bar chart of the events of the day for a selected workstation
¢ Status profile Representation of the duration and frequency of individual status conditions of a shift listed chronologically per workstation
¢ Rate of utilization/availability
¢ Representation of the rate of utilization/availability of a workstation over a selectable period.
Works Calendar under Windows
The variations in working time models demand a flexible and convenient maintenance function. WinPDA provides dialogs for setting up shift types and working time models with appropriate works calendar structures.
Security Concept
To ensure a consistent data stock and to prevent unauthorized access to data, WinPDA has available a comprehensive security concept. This includes:
¢ Access and authorization functions
¢ Disk mirroring (hardware option)
¢ Transaction security
¢ Un-interruptible power supplies
Interface to SAP R/3 Release 3.0
Today's MDA/PDA systems are only economically viable if you can integrate them at a low cost to other processes. A certified interface to SAP R/3 Release 3.0 is available for this. The link modules offer functions for :
¢ Accepting target data from the higher level system (E.g., order data).
¢ Accepting master data from the higher level sys-tem (E.g. workstation data)
¢ Processing the acquired actual data and reporting
¢ It back the shopfloor controller or the MRP system
MODULE FOR NC PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
The important part of job shop manufacturing on machine tool is part program management. The transfer of part programs was initially carried on punched tape by a reader and further by floppy disks in recent years. Today the programs can be transferred at a speed thousand times that of punched tape on industrial Ethernet. Apart from transfer, the organization of part programs and handling plays an important role in enhancing productivity and ensuring availability of desired part programs.
Functions of NC program management module
¢ Scalable expansion system from small local DNC systems to DNC center archives with DNC-NT 2000 server for entire plant.
¢ NC program handling by means of DNC explorer.
¢ Shop floor oriented NC program storage structure.
¢ Data can be displayed, edited, printed, copied and pasted & deleted.
¢ Functions and filters tailored to the requirements of the user.
¢ Fast and simple analysis of optimized programs with the original programs.
¢ Program transfer through operator action and direct loading of NC programs into the CNC enabling fast transmission on Internet.
¢ Simple and flexible interface through any NC program systems and data archives.
¢ Online help system to assist the system operator.
¢ Log book to record system messages.
ADVANTAGES
¢ Cost reduction in NC data organization through simple handling of NC programs, time-consuming process of handling punched tapes and floppy disks is eliminated.
¢ Cost effective and safe electronic data acquiring.
¢ Increased machine-operating time through short set up time by safe and fast NC data transfer and provision of several NC programs.
¢ Brings in transparency and convenience in handling and storage of part programs even if several programs are available in the system.
¢ No DNS terminals are required in latest CNC systems on one hand and conventional CNC systems can be hooked on by dialog functions.
COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE- COMPUTER LINK
The software module provides for establishment of link between a master computer to CNC system via ethernet network. The offers defined, open communication interface to transfer the essential data of CNC control.
USER BENEFITS
¢ Simple integration: The control can be simply integrated in a simple manner in user™s project and implimentations/ applications, using defined interfaces like ethernet/ TCP-IP.
¢ Simple configuration: Data to be transferred to the PLC can be simply configured.
¢ Improved productivity: The module can be used as a tool to implement measures for increased productivity.
¢ Reduced cost: The use of standard hardware and software components reduces the cost of implementation, training, and maintenance.
DATA TRANSFER THAT CAN BE CARRIED OUT WITH COMPUTER LINK
¢ NC programs
¢ Tool data
¢ Machine and operating data like operating modes, machine status and actual NC programs.
¢ Machine messages like operator messages, operator interventions/ interruptions, operating and fault messages.
¢ Production dialog, configurable data transfer.
¢ Data transfer with open architecture applications.

REMOTE DIAGNOSIS
Remote diagnosis or Tele service offers remote support for CNC systems, making it a cost-effective alternative to service calls.
HOW IT WORKS
The module consists of two subsets namely, Host and the Viewer, the host being installed at the machine user end and the viewer at the machine manufacturers end (or on the side of the service provider for the CNC system). The two, i.e. the host and the viewer are installed on the control at the machine end connected via a modem, which in turn is linked to a telephone line through a modem. The host is installed on a PC at the other side and equipped with a modem to hook on a telephone line.
The service or support requests are triggered by the Host and authorize the Viewer with login password permitting access for exploration and support activities on the CNC system remotely. The service provider on the viewer end confirms the service request and initiates the remote diagnosis by calling the telephone number.
The components of the remote diagnosis system are
¢ TEAMS: Testability assessment and improvement (DFT), reliability analysis, Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and pre-computed diagnostic test strategy generation in a variety of forms (e.g., SGML-based Interactive Electronic Technical Manual);
¢ TEAMS-RT: on-board diagnostics, health and usage monitoring systems;
¢ TEAMATE: Portable Intelligent Maintenance Aids (PIMAs) with interactive electronic technical manuals and multi-media animation, dynamic TPSs for ATEs.
¢ TEAMS-KB: Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance and diagnostics data collection, Statistical data analysis and data mining for trend and anomaly detection/isolation.
FUNCTIONS OFFERED
¢ Chat mode to enable the Host and the Viewer to understand the status of the machine via mail or voice call
¢ Remote control mode to analyze the operator acti9ons and direct the operator actions file transfer mode to automatically read out the important control files, to transfer the corrected file or new software releases to the control side. This completes the process of diagnosis.
APPLICATION AREAS
With the machine tool manufacturer: useful for configuring and engineering, machine testing and integration, start- up.
With the end users: setting up and controlling the machine tool, generating NC programs, process visualization and monitoring, diagnostics and service, performance enhancement and optimization.
ADVANTAGES FOR END USERS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS
Time advantage when service is required:
¢ Help instead of travelling.
¢ Better information transfer via chat mode.
¢ Reduced machine down time.
¢ Remote update/upgrade of software by file transfer mode.
¢ Telephone/internet cost instead of travel cost.
¢ Global support: wide applicability world wide, start up support, service support and when machine re-equipping is required.
IN FUTURE,
¢ Service providers can be reached around the clock via internet, by email or SMS worldwide
¢ Messages can be sent immediately after the fault occurs
¢ At the service provider end , this information enables in faster in selection of appropriate expert
CONCLUSION
The availability of PC technology and the control system architecture adapted for the new changes has opened more and more opportunities for convergence of manufacturing technology and information technology. With the advent of information technology the entire process of running an entire plant, from generating and starting with the job orders, through production planning up and up to strategic planning can be integrated. A new trend that has recently been put in is the web-based support system. The users can post their needs and queries on the relevant designated site to obtain the possible solutions and FAQâ„¢s and user documentation. Several of the global automobile giants such as BMW AG, the Boeing company USA etc and their likes are incorporating information technology into their plants

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Integration of information technology in machine tools,
Mr. Virupakshappa HK, Industrial Automation, July 2003
2. Automation, Production Systems and Computer integrated Manufacturing, Mikell p Groover, second edition, Pearson Education Asia.
3. siemens.it
4. sea.siemens.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof . P.Sukumaran Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance
I express my thanks to Mr. Muhammed kutty our group tutor and also to our staff advisor Ms. Biji Paul for their kind co-operation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar and presentation.
I also thank all the other faculty members of AEI department and my friends for their help and support.


CONTENTS
1. Introduction¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦....¦.¦ 01
2. NC & CNC¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦.¦¦¦ 02
3. Modules in machine tools¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦.¦..¦¦¦.. 04
3.a. Module for production data management¦¦¦.¦.¦..¦¦¦. 04
3.a.i. What Win BDE can do¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦.¦¦ 04
3.a.ii. What Win PDA can do...¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦ 06
3.b. Module for NC program management¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦..¦¦. 11
3.c. Communication software-computer link¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦..¦. 12
4. Remote diagnosis¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦.¦.. 14
5. Conclusion¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...¦¦. 17
6. Bibliography¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...¦¦¦.. 18
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