m-commerce
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ABSTRACT
Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and developments of e-commerce applications. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed are stationary users with wired infrastructure. A new e-commerce applications that will be possible and significantly benefit from emerging wireless and mobile networks is envisioned. To allow designers, developers and researchers to strategize and create mobile commerce applications, a four level integrated framework for mobile commerce is proposed. Since there are potentially an unlimited number of mobile commerce applications, several important classes of applications such as mobile financial applications, mobile inventory management, proactive service management, product location and search and wireless re-engineering are attempted to be identified. It is discussed how to successfully define, architect and implement the necessary hardware/software infrastructure in support of mobile commerce. Also, to make mobile commerce applications a reality, networking requirements is addressed, support from wireless carriers is discussed, and some open research problems is presented.

INTRODUCTION
Advances in e-commerce have resulted in progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce application. Nearly all the e-commerce applications envisioned so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure, such as a browser on PC connected to the internet using phone lines on LAN.
Many people do not use a PC outside the office, but keep the mobile phone at their side all the times. Mobile commerce is perfect for this group.
M-commerce allows one to reach the consumer directly, not his fax machine, his desk, his secretary or his mailbox, but ones consumer directly, regardless of where he is.
M-commerce is the delivery of electronic commerce capabilities directly into the hands, anywhere, via wireless technology and putting a retail outlet in the customerâ„¢s hands anywhere. This can be done with just a mobile phone, a PDA connected to a mobile phone or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. M-commerce is also termed as wireless e-commerce.
BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
Electronic commerce has attracted significant attention in the last few years. Advances in e-commerce have resutled in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications. Nearly all the applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure, such as browser on a PC connected to the Internet using phone lines or a Local Area Network. A new e-commerce application such as Wireless e-commerce or Mobile e-commerce will benefit one to reach the consumer directly, regardless of where he is.

The emergence of M-commerce, a synonym for wireless e-commerce allows one to do the same function that can be done over the internet. This can be done by connecting a PDA to a mobile phone, or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. Mobile Commerce is perfect for the group who always keep a mobile phone by side all the times. A study from the wireless data and computing service, a division of strategy analytics, reports that the mobile commerce market may rise to $200 billion by 2004. The report predicts that transactions via wireless devices will generate about $14 billion a year.

We are aware that consensus within business and industry of future applications is still in its infancy. However, we are interested in examining those future applications and technologies that will form the next frontier of electronic commerce. To help future applications and to allow designers, developers and researchers to strategize and create mobile commerce applications, a four level integrated framework is proposed.


This framework has four levels: m-commerce applications, user infrastructure, middleware and network infrastructure which simplifies the design and development. By following this framework a single entity is not forced to do everything to build m-commerce systems, rather they can build on the functionalities provided by others. The framework also provides a developer and provider plane to address the different needs and roles of application developers, content providers and service providers.


Content provider can build its service using applications from multiple application developers and also can aggregate content from other content providers and can supply the aggregated content to a network operator or service provider. Service providers can also act as content aggregators, but are unlikely to act as either an application or content provider due to their focus on the network and service aspects of m-commerce. Wireless carriers can play a very active and important role in the mobile commerce applications and services due to the fact that mobile user is going through their network to perform all mobile commerce transactions. Mobile user is likely to prefer a common bill for voice, data and mobile commerce services.
EMERGING MOBILE COMMERCE APPLICATIONS
There are potentially an unlimited number of mobile applications, we attempt to identify several important classes of applications and provide examples within each class.
Mobile Financial Applications [MFA]
Mobile financial applications are likely to be one of the most important components of m-commerce. They could involve a variety of applications such as mobile banking and brokerage service, mobile money transfer, and mobile payments as shown in the figure.

One interesting mobile financial application is micro payment involving small purchases such as vending and other items. A mobile device can communicate with a vending machine using a local wireless network to purchase desired items. Micro-payments can be implemented in a variety of ways. One way is that the user could make a call to a certain number where per minute charges equal the cost of the vending item. This approach ha been used by SONERA, a finish wireless provider, in the famous Coke machine service. In effect it collects money from the users and credits it to the vending providers.

Mobile Advertising
Mobile advertising is also a very important class of mobile commerce applications. Using demographic information collected by wireless service providers and information on the current location of mobile users, much targeted advertising can be done. The advertising messages sent to the user can be location-sensitive and can inform a user about various on-going specials (shops, malls and restaurants) in surrounding areas as shown in figure.

This type of advertising can be performed using Short Messaging Service (SMS) or by using short paging messages to mobile users. The messages can be sent to all users located in a certain area, a user-specific message can be sent independent of the userâ„¢s current location. Since the services need the current location information of a user, a third party may be needed to provide location services. However this may require a sharing of revenues between the network service provider and location service provider.

As more wireless bandwidth becomes available, content rich advertising involve audio, pictures and video clips can be produced for individual users with specific needs, interests, and inclinations. It is also possible that direct advertising to users may be performed without much control from the wireless service providers.
Mobile Inventory Management (MIM)
This class of application involves location tracking of goods, services and even people. The tracking of goods may help service providers in determining the time of delivery to customer, thus improving customer service and obtaining a competitive edge over other business. One very interesting application is rolling inventory-which may involve multiple trucks carrying a large amount of inventory while on move. Whenever a store needs certain goods/items, it can locate a truck (preferably in nearby area) and just-in-time delivery of goods can be performed. The rolling inventory and delivery application can reduce the amount of inventory space and cost for both vendors and stores and may reduce the time between when an order is placed and the goods are delivered (shown in figure).

Location tracking of components can be broken into two components: indoor and outdoor. Indoor tracking can be performed by a chipset (TX/RX) And location information may be transmitted over a satellite or cellular/PCS system to the component supplier where such information is needed.
Product Location and Search (PLS)
This class of application includes locating an item in a particular area or location. This is concerned with finding an item with certain specifications and whether it is available in a specified area or not. Potentially, there could be multiple places where such an item or items of similar attributes are located. Currently many people are going to several stores to find an item (certain brand/size of TV, VCR or an automobile) and compare prices and features. Using a mobile device and centralized/distributed database containing information on products, a user should be able to find the exact location of the store where a certain item is located. After that the user can buy online using a browser on his/her mobile devise. In the case of multiple stores/vendors carrying an item desired by a user, they could compete to get customer by real time manipulation of prices or by offering instant discounts.

From the technological point of view, a mobile user can send a query message to a centralized location (shown in figure), which in turn can interface several different stores/dealers and decide if the item is available or not.


Proactive Service Management
This class of application is based on collecting pertinent information about current or near future user needs and providing services to users proactively. One such application may involve collecting information about the aging components of an automobile (shown in figure).


This would help reduce anxiety levels of owners and improve the general conditions of automobiles on the road leading to the reduced number of traffic jams, accidents and even fatalities. From the technological point of view, automobiles can be equipped with smart sensors that keep track of how much wear and tear a car component has gone through. This information can then be transmitted using a radio/microwave/satellite system to a specified service center or other location. Some implications of such applications are privacy, security, reliability and cost of deployment.
Wireless Business Re-engineering
Many insurance business situations involve going to customerâ„¢s premises, taking notes of a particular situation, going back to the office and then taking suitable actions. This process takes a long time and is not very efficient. To improve this business practice, a wireless re-engineering application can be used which allows on-the-spot claim adjustment. In such a scenario, a claim adjuster goes to the customers place, takes picture and stores them in his/her mobile device for uploading to the companies database. Using a small printer attached to the mobile device, he/she prints a claim check. This entire process is performed in minutes as opposed to days.
WIRELESS USER INTERFACE AND MIDDLEWARE ISSUES
To make the application described previously a reality, several functional components are necessary as highlighted in the first figure.
Although it is able to do some simple mobile commerce transactions using a simple hand-held device, many sophisticated mobile commerce applications require other capabilities. For example,
Dynamic, adaptable and smart user interface that learns from and with user,
Ability to accept user input in many forms including voice,
Ability to display rich and usable contents,
Location awareness and ability to track users, products and devices,
Multi network interfaces for increased and reliable wireless access,
Basic security features to handle malicious code, support for authenticating user, services and applications,
Ability to work with and adapt to mobile commerce applications with diverse requirements,
Possible support for context awareness,
ability to discover and download upgraded applications and software proactively,
An operating system that can manage resources to support many of the functions.
Some of these features are already available in hand-held devices. Many of these capabilities will increase the size and weight significantly, and thus, potentially affect the usability and portability of these devices.
Wireless and mobile middleware for mobile commerce
Traditionally, middleware unites different applications, tools, networks and technologies; allowing user access via a common interface. Mobile middleware can be defined as an enabling layer of software that is used by the applications development to connect the m-commerce applications with different networks and operating systems without introducing mobility awareness in the applications.

To allow for web content to be accessible from everywhere, from PCs to TVs to palm devices to cellular phones, the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) had developed several recommendations. These recommendations include the Extensible Makeup Language (XML) for richer semantic information, improved Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and Extensible Style Sheet Language (XSL) to further separate content from presentation, and a Document Object Model (DOM) which defines a language independent application programming interface that applications can use to access and modify the structure, content and style of HTML and XML documents.
WIRELESS NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
In this section the wireless networking requirements for various mobile commerce applications are being discussed. Mobile commerce applications would present five general networking requirements: location management, multicast support, network dependability, and support for Quality-Of-Service, and the ability to roam across multiple wireless networks. To help network designers and developers, we translate these five networking requirements into more specific attributes as shown in the table.
Wireless infrastructure requirements for mobile commerce
Networking requirements Specific attributes
Multicast support 1. support for multicast in infrastructure wireless networks
2. support for multicast in ad hoc wireless networks(much more difficult due to dynamic topology and other factors)
3. group connectivity under mobility/failure
4. synchronization/ atomicity of transactions from multiple users
Network dependability 1. impact and frequency of component failure
2. fault-tolerant design
3. user access to multiple networks
4. levels of network availability
Quality -of “service 1. bandwidth requirements
2. delay and delay variation
3. tolerable loss characteristics
Roaming across multiple networks 1. handoff among multiple wireless networks
2. keeping track of users across networks
After identifying the various networking requirements and specific attributes, a global and comprehensive wireless infrastructure for mobile commerce applications is presented as shown in the figure.
This infrastructure also supports efficient location management, multicast and fault tolerance to increase levels dependability.

M-COMMERCE ISSUES FOR CARRIERS AND DEVELOPERS
Wireless carriers can play a very active and important role in the mobile commerce applications and services due to the fact that a mobile user is going through their network to perform all mobile transactions. Service providers can also act as content aggregators but are likely to act as a clearing house for content and application providers in advertising and distributing their products to its customers.

Wireless carriers are also to face challenges involving how to price mobile commerce services, and because several carriers are likely to be involved in completing a mobile commerce transaction, another issue is hoe to divide revenues among multiple carriers.

There are many important issues that need to be addressed before mobile commerce applications can be widely deployed. These include the development of new business models for charging wireless customers and for revenue division among providers, maturity of application software, middleware support, vendor support and user trust necessary for conducting mobile transactions.
There are some important issues for developers of m-commerce applications. These issues are presented in the table below.

Due to the potential values of many mobile commerce applications, atomic transactions may be necessary. It is possible that the mobile middleware may provide most of such functions and thus reducing the amount of work needed to support atomic transactions.
Some important issues for applications developers
Issues Comments
Network processing and storage requirements Band width and delay requirements (real-time vs. non-real time applications)
Mobile device capabilities
Disconnected operation
Multicasting for group communications
Symmetric vs. asymmetric processing and storage
Application
Development Use of any existing Software Development Kit (SDK)
Simulation of environment where application will be used
Maximum number of simultaneous users
The size of application code
Support for secure transactions
Support for fixed users
Compatibility and interoperability Independence from the underlying wireless access technologies
Independence from the device functionalities
Interoperability with IP
Compatibility with Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
Desirable features Support for intermittent connectivity
Adaptive to the user and network environment
Support for atomic transactions
Easy upgradability
User specified features invocation

INTERESTING RESEARCH ISSUES IN MOBILE COMMERCE
There are many interesting research problems in mobile commerce. Some of these are unique due to the limitations of mobile devices and wireless networks and some are similar to research problems that are currently being addressed by e-commerce research developers. The problems that are unique to m-commerce are:
Novel applications and services made possible due to the wireless networks and mobile devices.
Security and privacy problems that are unique to wireless networks and mobile devices.
Middleware issues that are unique due to device, network and protocol limitations
Role of different wireless networking standards
Adoption factors of mobile devices that are significantly different in different parts of the world
Context and location awareness in unique to mobile commerce as many of the applications are sensitive to the context and the location of a user.
The research problems that can be addressed by the existing e-commerce research with some modifications and extensions are:
Strategy of new service offering
Role of m-commerce providers
Trust building
Adoption of new services
Pricing models and sensitivity analysis.
CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH
Mobile commerce is an interesting and challenging area of research and development. It presents many issues that cover many disciplines and may best be addressed by an active participation of computer and telecommunications experts, social scientists, economists and business strategists.

It introduced several new classes of applications, reviewed networking requirements, and discussed application development support. Since the area of mobile commerce is very new and still emerging, several interesting research problems that are currently being addressed or should be addressed by the research and development community. It is believed that user trust will play a crucial role in acceptance and widespread deployment of mobile commerce applications.
REFERENCES
G. Djuknie and R. Richton. Geolocation and assisted GPS, IEEE
Computer (February 2001). M. Oliphant. The mobile phone meets the Internet,
IEEE spectrum (August 1999)
FCC e911. http: //fcc.gov/e911
IMT-2000.http: // ituimt
google.com
ask.com


CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. BACKGROUND & MOTIVATION
3. EMERGING MOBILE COMMERCE APPLICATIONS
4. WIRELESS USER INFRASTRUCTURE AND MIDDLEWARE ISSUES
5. WIRELESS NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
6. M-COMMERCE ISSUES FOR CARRIERS AND DEVELOPERS
7. INTERESTING RESEARCH IN M-COMMERCE
8. CONCLUSION
9. REFERENCES

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19-10-2010, 10:15 AM


.docx   MOBILE COMMERCE.docx (Size: 115.06 KB / Downloads: 66)
This article is presented by:
VISHAL KALE
MOBILE COMMERCE


ABSTRACT


Significance of Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce) has been reported in the past few years. Extensive use of web enabled wireless devices such as mobile phones, laptops and PDA’s facilitate organizations to communicate with their customers, anywhere anytime. Therefore, organizations are adapting M-Commerce frameworks to facilitate customers with information, commerce and entertainment applications through their mobile devices. Due to the emerging M-Commerce technology and complex wireless protocols and applications organizations can gain huge benefits from collaborating with each other to overcome the complexities involved in the adoption of M-Commerce platform. However effects of such collaboration of organizational resources within the context of M-Commerce applications are still an area of major concern and not much work has been reported in the literature. This paper proposes a model for the evaluation of the effects of organizational collaboration in the context of M-Commerce applications. We have identified and explored such effects from both the organization and the customer’s point of view.


INTRODUCTION

Internet based applications enabled globalizations and created opportunities to interact worldwide. A trend can be observed towards the adoption of electronic-commerce during the last decade (Sarkis and Sundarraj 2002). Currently, e-commerce applications have become an essential part of organizations activities. Latest trends and technologies are being used in e-commerce to increase organizational profitability and customer satisfaction. M-Commerce is relatively a new concept in e-commerce which can be described as follows (Tsalgatidou and Pitoura 2001):

Running of e-commerce applications on mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal data assistants, and laptops.

In contrast to e-commerce, M-Commerce ensures the internet accessibility at anytime, anywhere on mobile devices (Stafford and Gillenson 2003). Due to the complex nature of M-Commerce, besides the mobile devices other resources such as technological, human, financial and strategic resources are required to adopt M-Commerce. However, organizations consider M-Commerce a priority despite its resource intensive nature. Generally, it is assumed that only large organizations with major resources can adopt M-Commerce. This article highlights the significance of M-Commerce for organizations to adopt M-Commerce solutions with collaborative resources of other organizations.

M-commerce is a term that is used to refer to the growing practice of conducting financial and promotional activities with the use of a wireless handheld device. The Term m-commerce is short for mobile commerce, and recognize that the transaction may be conducted using cell phones, personal digital assistance and other hand held devices that have operate with internet access. While still in its infancy, the concept of Mobil commerce has been refined in recent years years and is beginning to become more popular.

Mobile commerce from the Customer‘s point of view

The customer wants to access information, goods and services any time and in any place on his mobile device.
He can use his mobile device to purchase tickets for events or public transport, pay for parking, download content and even order books and CDs.
He should be offered appropriate payment methods. They can range from secure mobile micropayment to service subscriptions.
With mobile, there is a nearly green-field opportunity to empower customers in ways that have never been done before. Think about it. What a lot of organizations are doing today is grafting mobile on the same old types of campaigns that were done in other channels.
In the traditional view of business, we look at the customer through the lenses of marketing, sales and support. However, these are all things that we do to customers, not with them.
If we look at business relationships from the customer's point of view, instead of our own, each of the above-mentioned activities has a parallel.
Instead of marketing, a customer does research to determine what she might want to buy.
When we are selling, the customer is buying.
And where we have a support function, the customer merely wants to get support for a problem.
In addition to the customer-centric "research, shop, get support" parallels, the advent of blogging and social networking has enabled two additional activities from the customer's point of view -- connection and conversation.
"Connection" is the identification of the other individuals who are in your community. These people are referred to as your "friends" in many cases.
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24-11-2010, 02:38 PM


.pdf   mCommerce.pdf (Size: 211.41 KB / Downloads: 141)
Introduction to E-Commerce


m-Commerce

Technology Trends
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24-01-2011, 12:38 PM




Sridhar Iyer
K R School of Information Technology
IIT Bombay


Outline

Mobile applications
Wireless networking
Routing in mobile networks
Transport in mobile networks
Application adaptation for mobility
WWW and mobility

Mobile Applications - 1
Vehicles
transmission of news, road condition etc
ad-hoc network with near vehicles to prevent accidents
Emergencies
early transmission of patient data to the hospital
ad-hoc network in case of earthquakes, cyclones
military ...

Mobile Applications - 2
Travelling salesmen
direct access to central customer files
consistent databases for all agents
mobile office
Web access
outdoor Internet access
intelligent travel guide with up-to-date location dependent information

Mobile Applications - 3
Location aware services
find services in the local environment, e.g. printer
Information services
push: e.g., stock quotes
pull: e.g., nearest cash ATM
Disconnected operations
mobile agents, e.g., shopping
Entertainment
ad-hoc networks for multi user games

Mobile Applications in Industry
Wireless access: phone.com
Alerting services: myalert.com
Location services: airflash.com
Intranet applications: imedeon.com
Banking services: macalla.com
Web access: wapforum.com
Mobile agents: tryllian.com


Limitations of Mobile Environment
Limitations of the Wireless Network
heterogeneity of fragmented networks
frequent disconnections
limited communication bandwidth
Limitations Imposed by Mobility
lack of mobility awareness by system/applications
Limitations of the Mobile Computer
short battery lifetime
limited capacities

Effect of Mobility on Protocol Stack
Application
new applications and adaptations
Transport
congestion and flow control
Network
addressing and routing
Link
media access and handoff
Physical
transmission errors and interference

Wireless Networks
Infrastructure-based networks
cellular systems (base station infrastructure)

Ad hoc networks
useful when infrastructure not available, impractical, or expensive
military applications, rescue, home networking

Architecture of the GSM system
GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Netwk)
Components
MS (mobile station)
BS (base station)
MSC (mobile switching center)
LR (location register)
Subsystems
RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects
NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching
OSS (operation subsystem): n/w management
Cellular Wireless
Space divided into cells
A base station is responsible to communicate with hosts in its cell
Mobile hosts can change cells while communicating
Hand-off occurs when a mobile host starts communicating via a new base station
Multi-Hop Wireless
May need to traverse multiple links to reach destination

Mobility causes route changes
Hand-Off Procedure
Each base station periodically transmits beacon
Mobile host, on hearing stronger beacon from a new BS, sends it a greeting
changes routing tables to make new BS its default gateway
sends new BS identity of the old BS
New BS acknowledges the greeting and begins to route MH’s packets
Hand-Off Procedure
New BS informs old BS
Old BS changes routing table, to forward any packets for the MH to the new BS
Old BS sends an ack to new BS
New BS sends handoff-completion message to MH
Hand-off Issues
Hand-offs may result in temporary loss of route to MH
with non-overlapping cells, it may be a while before the mobile host receives a beacon from the new BS
While routes are being reestablished during handoff, MH and old BS may attempt to send packets to each other, resulting in loss of packets
Wireless LANs
Infrared (IrDA) or radio links (Wavelan)
Advantages
very flexible within the reception area
Ad-hoc networks possible
(almost) no wiring difficulties
Disadvantages
low bandwidth compared to wired networks (1-10 Mbit/s)
many proprietary solutions
Infrastructure v/s ad-hoc networks (802.11)
Bluetooth
Consortium
Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba - many members
Scenarios
connection of peripheral devices
loudspeaker, joystick, headset
support of ad-hoc networking
small devices, low-cost
bridging of networks
e.g., GSM via mobile phone - Bluetooth - laptop
Mobility and Routing
Finding a path from a source to destination
Issues
Frequent route changes: amount of data transferred between route changes may be much smaller than traditional networks
Route changes related to host movement
Goal of routing protocols ?
decrease routing-related overhead
find short routes
find “stable” routes

Mobile IP
Mobile IP would need to modify the previous hand-off procedure to inform the home agent the identity of the new foreign agent

Triangular optimization can reduce the routing delay
route directly to foreign agent, instead of via home agent
Mobility and Transport
Transport protocols typically designed for
fixed end-systems, wired networks
Issues
packet loss due to wireless characteristics
packet loss due to mobility
TCP assumes congestion if packet dropped
acks, retransmissions and performance
TCP cannot be changed fundamentally
Mobile TCP
I-TCP segments the connection
no changes to the TCP protocol for hosts connected to the wired Internet
optimized TCP protocol for mobile hosts
splitting of the TCP connection at, e.g., the foreign agent into 2 TCP connections, no real end-to-end connection any longer
hosts in the fixed part of the net do not notice the characteristics of the wireless part
Mobile TCP
Advantages
no changes in the fixed network necessary
transmission errors on the wireless link do not propagate into the fixed network
simple to control, mobile TCP is used only for one hop between, e.g., a foreign agent and mobile host
Disadvantages
loss of end-to-end semantics
higher latency possible due to buffering of data within the foreign agent and forwarding to a new foreign agent
Application Adaptations for Mobility
System-transparent, application-transparent
the conventional, “unaware” client/server model
System-aware, application-transparent
the client/proxy/server model
the disconnected operation model
System-transparent, application-aware
dynamic client/server model
System-aware, application-aware
the mobile agent model
The Client/Proxy/Server Model
Proxy functions as a client to the fixed network server, and as a mobility-aware server to the mobile client
Proxy may be placed in the mobile host (Coda), or the fixed network, or both (WebExpress)
Enables thin client design for resource-poor mobile computers
The Mobile Agent Model
Mobile agent receives client request and moves into fixed network
Mobile agent acts as a client to the server
Mobile agent performs transformations and filtering
Mobile agent returns back to mobile platform, when the client is connected
Mobile Data Management
Pull data delivery: clients request data by sending uplink msgs to server
Push data delivery: servers push data (and validation reports) through a broadcast channel,to a community of clients
Client caching strategies and cache invalidation algorithms are critical
World Wide Web and Mobility
HTTP and HTML have not been designed for mobile applications/devices
HTTP Characteristics
stateless, client/server, request/response
connection oriented, one connection per request
primitive caching and security
HTML Characteristics
designed for computers with “high” performance, color high-resolution display, mouse, hard disk
typically, web pages optimized for design, not for communication; ignore end-system characteristics
HTTP and Mobility
HTTP
designed for large bandwidth and low delay
big protocol headers (stateless, ASCII)
uncompressed content transfer
TCP 3-way handshake, DNS lookup overheads
Caching
often disabled by information providers
dynamic objects, customized pages, generated on request via CGI
Security problems
how to use SSL/TLS together with proxies?
System Support for Mobile WWW
Enhanced browsers
Client proxy
pre-fetching, caching, off-line use
Network proxy
adaptive content transformation for connections
Client and network proxy
Enhanced servers
HDML (handheld device markup language)
HDTP (handheld device transport protocol)
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
Forum: wapforum.org
co-founded by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, Unwired Planet
Goals
deliver Internet services to mobile devices
independence from wireless network standards
Platforms
e.g., GSM (900, 1800, 1900), CDMA IS-95, TDMA IS-136, 3rd generation systems (IMT-2000, UMTS, W-CDMA)
WAP Overview
Browser
“micro browser”, similar to existing web browsers
Script language
similar to Java script, adapted to mobile devices
Gateway
transition from wireless to wired world
Server
“wap server”, similar to existing web servers
Protocol layers
transport layer, security layer, session layer etc.
Wireless Markup Language (WML)
Cards and Decks
WML document consists of many cards, cards are grouped to decks
a deck is similar to an HTML page, unit of content transmission
WML describes only intent of interaction in an abstract manner
presentation depends on device capabilities
Features
text and images
user interaction
navigation
context management


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24-03-2011, 10:49 AM


.docx   Mobile Commerce.docx (Size: 35.03 KB / Downloads: 31)
Mobile Commerce – The Road To A Wireless Future
Abstract:

Over the past 10 years mobile phones have changed the way that we live and work. The mobile phone seems to give us more power as individuals to do what we want and be who we want to be. Mobile phones are connecting people more than ever before and becoming new glue holding together social interactions and relationships. Mobile Commerce (m-commerce) is a natural evolution from E-Commerce into a digital and mobile world. M-commerce is the use of information technologies and communication technologies for the purpose of mobile integration of different value chains and business processes, and for the purpose of management of business relationships. Companies can offer customers new mobile services that make everyday life more convenient. One can examine one’s bank account, buy and sell shares, check stock market prices or make payments online. With m-commerce, it is possible to view train/plane timetables in any location, book and pay for tickets. The need for security is very significant because mobile device will support payments. The key factors to make mass mobile commerce happening across the globe are Innovative Business Models, Consumer adoption, Technology availability and Interoperable Systems. We focused the key practices for the overall success of a mobile commerce strategy. These practices are mobile payment, campaign management, end-to-end security, and compliance. We conclude with the limitations of m-commerce and also stressed the readiness of all the players for the big global market which will blossom in the years to come.
INTRODUCTION
Throughout the 1990s the introduction of the internet and ecommerce reshaped the way that businesses do business and the way that consumers interact with businesses. Businesses took the opportunity to automate many processes that before would have been handled manually. Many people consider mobile phones as extensions of themselves. As technology advances, mobile phones are able to be used to extend the reach of the person and delegate many functions that would previously have been more time consuming or would have to be carried out in person. A mobile phone makes us available to others, be they businesses or individuals, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It gives enormous opportunities for businesses to really connect with and understand consumers and for consumers to have more meaningful relationships with businesses.
E-commerce will completely change as Mobile Commerce (m-commerce) because mobile devices are more user friendly than computer. Mobile commerce - or M-commerce - is set to become the most significant economic and cultural development of the first decade of this century. The convergence of mobile technology and the Internet will revolutionize the way businesses interact with consumers and with each other. M-Commerce will establish wireless services as an extension of today’s e-business strategies, enhancing existing business to business commerce and enabling high street companies to do business with their customers any time anywhere. Another technology that is adding to the potential of wireless communication is Bluetooth, a technology allowing cable-free connection between mobile phones, PDAs and other devices. Internet now can be browsed by PDA and Mobile devices. Mobile Screens are increasing day by day. Peoples checking movies details and many other useful information on their mobile devices. Many companies accepting payment by SMS payment system. Companies can
use Mobile Commerce (m-commerce) to increase sales of their products and services. Mobile commerce can bring huge buyers for companies. One of the key enabling technologies of m-Commerce is WAP - Wireless Application Protocol. Companies can make online catalogs of products and services so that mobile users can access that catalog from their mobile devices.
Today’s mobile commerce markets are still at a fairly early stage of development. Yet, mobile commerce is expected to be an important opportunity, so the key stakeholders such as network operators, financial institutions, and mobile terminal vendors are investing to develop both the market and the technology. For developers and service providers, mobile commerce offers the chance to diversify their scope of operation. There is a clear need both for standardized solutions that merchants can implement, and to make wireless processing attractive.
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
Companies can offer customers new mobile services that make everyday life more convenient and are easily accessed from the mobile phone. Application categories include:
A.Wireless access to Internet content - consumers benefitfrom immediate access to information they need at that moment.
B. Wireless access to corporate IT systems and extranets - corporations can offer new channels for their services and also create totally new services for their mobile customers.
C.Wireless access to personal information - wireless device users can access their email, calendars and even screen text headers for their voice mail messages.
D.Intelligence Telephony services - carriers can offer their customers secure access to their personal and other customer related information now located in the carrier configuration, billing and other databases in the Intelligent Corporate Business Application, allowing employees to continue to access intranet business applications regardless of time and location.
APPLICATIONS
1.Email: will become a way of life, enabling users to communicate anywhere in the world. When practically anyone in the country can email - as has already happened in Finland - the phone becomes an extension of the person. It will change the way the whole nation communicates.
2.Entertainment: Individuals will be able to buy theatre tickets, book restaurants or place bets from any where charged to your telephone account or have the main news items of the day delivered to you on the hour.
3.Shopping: You can order a meal on the way home from work, or join an online auction from any location.
4.Money: You can examine your bank account, buy and sell shares, check stock market prices or make payments online.
5.Business Applications: You can continue to keep in close touch with the business with wireless access to internal information systems and applications. 4
VISION OF M-COMMERCE
The future technology will enable :

Download music from the Internet - you will be alerted of new tracks according to your personal profile. The charge is automatically debited from your prepaid account, View train/plane timetables in your location, book and pay for tickets Check bank balances and transfer money between accounts. Receive alerts that stock you are interested in has reached your predefined buying threshold: buy the stock, account is debited. Review share portfolio, read tips and analyze reports Request information about restaurants, cinemas and theatres and make booking. Payments are made by m-Commerce, automatically sent to the phone for authorization. Payments for business expenses can be automatically sent to Finance Department.
Security
Security is one of the critical issues for successful adoption of m-commerce. In mobile commerce, security measures should be adjusted according to the value of the transaction and there are different solutions available for different needs. And, with the innate portability of mobile devices, a higher level of security is required if stolen devices are not to be used to purchase goods or send deceptive messages. In time, it is expected that the mobile device will support payments, hence the need for security is very significant. A digital signature can be used for authentication or non-repudiation purposes (e.g., signing a document or confirming a transaction), which are key conditions in establishing the merits for legally binding commercial transactions.
TRUST
To feel confident to trade in this marketplace, both business and individual consumers have to feel sure that the risk of fraud is minimized. Before carrying out a transaction electronically, a trader must be able to reliably identify the other parties and be sure they are trustworthy. When actually trading, you need a level of assurance that the messages you receive are genuine and have not been tampered with during transit. Messages must be kept private, unreadable to all except the communicating parties, to ensure Eaves dropping is not possible.
To deliver these business imperatives there are four main security features that are needed to create a trusted, secure environment for trading electronically:
Confidentiality - electronic messages that are sent must not be visible to eavesdroppers.
Authentication - communicating parties must be certain of each other’s identity.
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