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11-02-2010, 08:43 PM



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ABSTRACT
Magnetic RAM (MRAM) is a new memory technology with access and cost characteristics comparable to those of conventional dynamic RAM (DRAM) and the non-volatility of magnetic media such as disk. That is MRAM retains its memory even after removing power from the device. Such a non-volatile memory has important military applications for missiles and satellites. Clearly such a device could also have important commercial applications if the non-volatility were accomplished without impacting other properties of the memory, notably density, read and write speed, and lifetime. IBM in cooperation with Infineon is promising to launch this new technology ,that will eliminate the boot-up process of a computer and thus enable it to turn on as instantly as a television or radio, using memory cells based on magnetic tunnel junctions.
This paper discusses the following aspects in detail: Attractions of this new technology How MRAM works MRAM Architecture
Magnetic Tunnel Junctions - future of MRAM Challenges faced Anticipated Applications

1.INTRODUCTION
You hit the power button on your television and it instantly comes to life. But do the same thing with your computer and you have to wait a few minutes while it goes through its boot up sequence. Why can't we have a computer that turns on as instantly as a television or radio? IBM, in cooperation with Infineon, is promising to launch a new technology in the next few years that will eliminate the boot-up process. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) has the potential to store more data, access that data faster and use less power than current memory technologies. The key to MRAM is that, as its name suggests, it uses magnetism rather than electrical power to store data. This is a major leap from dynamic RAM (DRAM), the most common type of memory in use today, which requires a continuous supply of electricity and is terribly inefficient. Twenty-five years ago, DRAM overtook ferrite core memory in the race to rule the PC memory market. Now it looks like ferromagnetic technology could be making a comeback, with IBM Corp. and Infineon Technologies charging a joint team of 80 engineers and scientists with the task of making magnetic RAM (MRAM) a commercial reality within four years

2. ATTRACTIONS OF THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY
Consider what happens when power goes off while you are typing on your computer? Unless you are connected to an uninterruptible power supply you lose everything you were working on since you last saved the document. That's because your computer's random access memory (RAM), which stores information for fast access, can't function without power. The same goes for your cellphone and PDA. Both require a battery to keep the RAM intact with your phone numbers and personal data. But IBM researchers have developed a new form of RAM ” magnetic RAM (MRAM) ” that doesn't forget anything when the power goes out.
MRAM promises to be
Cheap
Fast
Nonvolatile
Low power alternative
MRAM has these attractions over conventional RAM, which uses electrical cells to store data, as MRAM uses magnetic cells. This method is similar to the way your hard drive stores information. When you remove power from your computer, conventional RAM loses memory, but the data on your hard disk remains intact due to its magnetic orientation, which represents binary information. Because magnetic memory cells maintain their state even when power is removed, MRAM possesses a distinct advantage over electrical.
With DRAM (RAM used in PCs and workstations) you store a charge in a capacitor. That charge will leak away over time and it needs to be refreshed frequently that takes power. But with MRAM you have no such problems .You need no power to maintain the state, and toy only need to pass a small current through the memory to read it.
Compared with SRAM (RAM used to build fast memory, cache) MRAMs are as fast as SRAM with read/write speeds better than 2.5 nanoseconds. Moreover MRAMs can be build smaller than SRAM and hence would be cheaper.

Compared to Flash memory(an example for Flash memory is computer's BIOS chip), its much faster to write on to MRAM.Thus MRAM threatens to replace not only dynamic RAM, but also Flash memory. (Flash memory is used for easy and fast information storage in such devices as digital cameras and home video game consoles. In fact, Flash memory is considered a solid state storage device. Solid state means that there are no moving parts -- everything is electronic instead of mechanical.)
3. HOW MRAM WORKS
3.1 INSTANT ON COMPUTING
When you turn your computer on, you can hear it revving up. It takes a few minutes before you can actually get to programs to run. If you just want to browse the Internet, you have to wait for your computer's start-up sequence to finish before you can go to your favorite Web sites. You push the computer's power button, there's some beeping and humming, you see flashes of text on the screen and you count the seconds ticking by. It's a very slow process. Why can't it simply turn on like your television? - hit a button and instantly your Internet browser is ready to go. What is it that your computer has to do when you turn it on.
Every computer has a basic input/output system (BIOS) that performs a series of functions during the boot up sequence. The series of functions performed by BIOS includes
A power-on self-test (POST) for all of the different hardware components in the system to make sure everything is working properly
Activating other BIOS chips on different cards installed in the computer - For example, SCSI and graphics card often have their own BIOS chips.
Providing a set of low level routines that the operating system uses to interface different hardware devices
Manage a collection of settings for the hard disks, clock etc
The BIOS is a type of software that your computer needs to function properly. It is usually stored on a Flash Memory chip on the motherboard, but sometimes the chip is another type of ROM. Its most important function is to load the computer's operating system when you turn the computer on. During a cold boot (The start-up of a computer from a powered-down state), the BIOS also checks the RAM by performing a read/write test of each memory address. The first thing the BIOS does is check the information stored in a tiny amount of RAM (64 bytes) located on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip.
MRAM would eliminate the tedium of boot-up because it would use magnetism, rather than electricity, to store bits of data. MRAM will slowly begin to replace DRAM starting sometime in 2003. DRAM wastes a lot of electricity because it needs to be supplied with a constant current to
2003. DRAM wastes a lot of electricity because it needs to be supplied with a constant current to store bits of data. In a DRAM configuration, a capacitor operates like a small bucket storing electrons. To store a 1 in a memory cell, the bucket is filled with electrons. To store a 0, the bucket is emptied. DRAM has to be refreshed thousands of times per second to retain a 1.
3.2 MAGNETIC RAM ARCHITECTURE
Like Flash memory, MRAM is a nonvolatile memory ” a solid-state chip that has no moving parts. Unlike with DRAM chips, you don't have to continuously refresh the data on solid-state chips. Flash memory can't be used for instant-on PCs because it hasn't demonstrated long-term reliability. MRAM will likely compete with Flash memory in the portable device market for the same reason that it will replace DRAM - it reduces power consumption.
In MRAM only a small amount of electricity is needed to store bits of data. This small amount of electricity switches the polarity of each memory cell on the chip. A memory cell is created when word lines (rows) and bit lines (columns) on a chip intersect. Each one of these cells stores a 1 or a 0, representing a piece of data. MRAM promises to combine the high speed of static RAM (SRAM), the storage capacity of DRAM and the non-volatility of Flash Memory.
Writing 1

MagRAM Architecture


Here's how MRAM works. Two small magnetic layers separated by a thin insulating layer make up each memory cell, forming a tiny magnetic "sandwich." Each magnetic layer behaves like a tiny bar magnet, with a North Pole and South Pole, called a magnetic "moment." The moments of the two magnetic layers can be aligned either parallel (north poles pomting in the same direction) or antiparallel (north poles pointing in opposite directions) to each other. These two states correspond to the binary states ” the Is and Os ” of the memory. The memory writing process aligns the magnetic moments, while the memory reading process detects the alignment. With MRAM, bits are stored in thin magnetic layers in the direction of magnetization.
3.2.1 READING DATA
To read the bit of information stored in this memory cell, you must detennine the orientation of the two magnetic moments. Passing a small electric current directly through the memory cell accomplishes this. When the moments are parallel, the resistance of the memory cell is smaller than when the moments are not parallel. Even though there is an insulating layer between the magnetic layers, the insulating layer is so thin that electrons can "tunnel" through it from one magnetic layer to the other.
3.2.2WRITING DATA
To write to the device, you pass currents through wires close to (but not connected to) the magnetic cells. Because any current through a wire generates a magnetic field, you can use this field to change the direction of the magnetic moment. The arrangement of the wires and cells is called a cross-point architecture: the magnetic junctions are set up along the intersection points of a grid. Wires ” called word lines ” run in parallel below the magnetic cells. Another set of wires ” called bit lines ” runs above the magnetic cells and perpendicular to the set of wires below. Like coordinates on a map, choosing one particular word line and one particular bit line uniquely specifies one of the memory cells. To write to a particular cell (bit), a current is passed through the two independent wires (one above and one below) that intersect at that particular cell. Only the cell at the cross point of the two wires sees the magnetic fields from both currents and changes state.

2-D Magnetic Memory Cell Array
MRAM works by etching a grid of criss-crossing wires on a chip in two layers”with the horizontal wires being placed just below the vertical wires. At each intersection, a "magnetic tunnel junction" (MTJ) is created that serves as a switch”and thus as a repository for a single bit of memory. The MTJ is essentially a small magnet whose direction is easily flipped. Common materials for the MTJ include chromium dioxide and iron-cobalt alloys. Current runs perpendicularly, "tunneling" through the insulator that separates it from a sheath of copper. At the base of one of the electrodes is a fixed anti-ferromagnetic layer that creates a strong coupling field. When a magnetic field is applied, electrons flow from one electrode to another, creating 0 and 1 states.

4.DEVELOPING MRAM
4.1. BACKGROUND
The development of MRAM has been based on a number of significant ideas, over the past 20 years starting with Cross-tie Random Access Memory (CRAM), and then using higher sensitive giant magneto resistance (GMR) and Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) materials. A brief background on precursors to magneto resistive random access memory (MRAM) and then descriptions of cell configurations with improved signal levels including MRAM cells with GMR materials, cells using SDT structures
Early magnetic random access memory (as opposed to serial memories like tape and disk) used the natural hysteresis of magnetic materials to store data (T'or "0") by using two or more current carrying wires or straps. Magnetic elements were arrayed so that only ones which were to be written received a combination of magnetic fields above a write threshold, while the other elements in the array did not change storage state. Most of today's MRAM concepts still use this write technique.
These early memories (mostly magnetic core memories) used inductive signals for determining the storage state ("1" or "0"). A magnetic field (current) was used to "interrogate" the memory element, and the polarity of induced voltages in a sensing circuit depended on whether a "1" or "0" was stored. The first to propose a magneto-resistive readout scheme was Jack Raffled. His scheme stored data in a magnetic body, which in turn produced a stray magnetic field that could be detected by a separate magneto resistive sensing element. The concept was not high density because it was difficult to get a sufficiently large external stray field from a small magnetic storage cell. This scheme of separating the magnetic storage element from the sensor has similarity with the schemes recently proposed for magnetized bodies sensed by Hall effect sensors
The first technology which used a magnetic element for storage and also used the same element for magneto resistance readout was the Cross-tie Cell Random Access Memory (CRAM). This cell used a slight difference in resistance of the cell depending on the presence or absence of a Block point to indicate a "1" or "0". There were difficulties in getting the cell to write consistently, and the difference in resistance between a "1" and "0" was only about 0.1% of the inherent cell resistance, an impractically low signal.
4.2. MAGNETIC TUNNEL JUNCTIONS
MRAM works by etching a grid of criss-crossing wires on a chip in two layers”with the horizontal wires being placed just below the vertical wires. At each intersection, a "magnetic tunnel junction" (MTJ) is created that serves as a switch”and thus as a repository for a single bit of memory. The MTJ is essentially a small magnet whose direction is easily flipped. Common materials for the MTJ include chromium dioxide and iron-cobalt alloys. Current runs perpendicularly, "tunneling" through the insulator that separates it from a sheath of copper. At the base of one of the electrodes is a fixed anti-ferromagnetic layer that creates a strong coupling field. When a magnetic field is applied, electrons flow from one electrode to another, creating 0 and 1 states.
TOP LEAD
free lerromagnet tunnel junction pinned ferroniagnet
an! ilermmagnet seed layer bottom lead substrate


Magnetic Tunnel Junction Basic Structure

exchange bias field

H=0


Hence tunneling current between two metallic magnetic layers separated by a very thin insulating barrier (magnetic tunnel junction, MTJ) depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization in the adjacent magnetic layers.
Little progress has been made until the mid-nineties and by now it is possible to fabricate ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junctions with magneto resistance effects of 20% and more at room temperature.. The high magneto resistance at room temperature and generally low magnetic switching fields makes these junctions promising candidates for the use as magnetic sensors and non-volatile memory elements for a next generation of (high density) information handling. In view of these technological applications, the magnetic tunnel junctions intrinsically possess a number of characteristic features, such as:
the intrinsic high resistivity and low power consumption
the high DR/R
small dimensions allowing high densities expected thermal robustness radiation resistant intrinsically fast response.

The above figure shows a schematic representation of a magnetic tunnel junction: two metallic ferromagnetic electrodes separated by an insulator. The parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations of the electrodes have different resistance. The switching between both states by application of a magnetic field brings about a magneto resistive effect which can be used in several technological applications. Rp and Rap is the resistance of the tunnel junction in the parallel and antiparallel configurations respectively. Between the parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations, magneto resistance ratios as large as 50%.
Large magneto resistance ratios ratios at room temperature (-20-30%) were recently reported in tunnel junctions composed of transition metal Ferro magnets (Fe, Co, Ni) as electrodes and alumina (AI203) barriers. Their growth and patterning is rather well controlled and they could constitute the core of the first-generation magnetic-tunnel-junctions-based devices.
The parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations of the electrodes spin of the electron, which is an intrinsic microscopic magnet carried by each electron. The electrons keep their spin direction and the probability of tunneling from the first electrode for one electron with a certain spin direction depends on the number of states with the same spin direction available in the second electrode .Thus, it is not equivalent for the tunneling electrons the parallel and antiparallel configurations because they correspond to different densities of states of the electrodes and, consequently, to different resistances.
The spin polarisation is a subtle concept related to the difference between the number of spin-up and -down electrons participating in a certain electronic process. In this definition spin-up electrons means electrons with spin parallel to the magnetisation and spin-down electrons, antiparallel to the magnetisation. Therefore, a positive spin polarisation means that there are more electrons with spin parallel to the magnetisation and a negative spin polarisation means the contrary.
Much of the research has focused on engineering these ferromagnetic materials to have the other needed properties:
Ability to rotate the magnetic moments using a very small magnetic field A smaller overall resistance
An increased resistance differential between the two states ” up from 10 percent to 50 percent. This differential makes distinguishing the two states of memory simple and reliable: you pass a small current through the device and monitor the voltage drop.

*5car\n'mq electron mlcroecope image of typical metal-masked magnetic tunnel junction, 30 urn x 60 Lim in area.
Junctions were directly fabricated using computer-controlled placement of up to 8 different metal shadow masks. The masks can be successively placed on any one of up to twenty 1 inch diameter wafers with a placement accuracy of -±40 urn. By using different masks, between 10 to 74 junctions of size ~80x80(^m2 can be fashioned on each wafer. An optical micrograph of a typical junction is shown in this MJT picture. The tunnel barrier is formed by oxidation of a thin Al layer deposited at ambient temperature. In order to manipulate the relative orientation of the magnetic moments of the two electrodes in a more controlled fashion we have developed magnetic tunnel junction structures in which one of the magnetic layers is exchange biased using an antiferromagnetic layer.
Magnitude of the magneto resistance would largely be dependent on the interface between the tunnel barrier and the magnetic electrodes
Typical resistance versus field bop of a lithographically patterned magnetic tunnel junction, 2x4lut" in area.
4.3. GIANT MAGNETORESISTANCE
Metallic multilayers comprised of alternating ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic spacer layers, each a few atomic layers thick, display fascinating properties. These properties arise from quantum confinement of electrons in spin-dependent potential wells provided by the ferromagnetic/spacer layer boundaries. In a ferromagnetic metal there exists two current channels, one that can conduct a current better than the other. Thus the fascinating properties arise from quantum confinement of electrons in spin-dependent potential wells provided by the ferromagnet/spacer layer boundaries. An important observation is that ferromagnet transition metals are indirectly magnetically exchange coupled via spacer layers comprised of almost any of the non-ferromagnetic transition metals. The magnetic coupling of the spacer layer and its strength varies systematically with the spacer d-band tilling. The period of the coupling is related to the detailed electronic structure of the spacer metal and can, for example, be tuned by varying the composition of the spacer layer, or by varying its crystallographic orientation.
The resistance of metallic multilayered structures depends on the magnetic arrangement of the magnetic moments of the individual magnetic layers, leading to oscillations in resistance in zero fields with spacer layer thickness and large variations in resistance with magnetic field. This latter phenomenon has been called "Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR)". GMR has captured much attention since GMR multilayers display much larger magneto resistance (MR) than any simple metal or alloy at room temperature.
The origin of GMR derives from spin-dependent scattering ofthe conduction carriers within the magnetic layers or at the boundaries of the magnetic layers. Experiments show convincingly the predominance of spin-dependent scattering at the ferromagnet/spacer layer interfaces. For example, subtle modifications of the interfaces, by insertion of sub-monolayer equivalents of additional magnetic material, can give rise to drastic changes in magneto resistance. These changes depend on the magnetic and electronic character of the modified interface, so that the magneto resistance itself becomes a valuable probe ofthe interface.
With GMR, the current flows horizontally rather than perpendicularly and does not use an insulator layer. We have seen in TMR technology, MRAMs sandwich a layer of insulating material between two electrodes of magnetic material, such as ion nickel. Current runs perpendicularly, "tunneling" through the insulator that separates it from a sheath of copper. At the base of one of the electrodes is a fixed anti-ferromagnetic layer that creates a strong coupling field. When a magnetic field is applied, electrons flow from one electrode to another, creating 0 and 1 states
GMR technology has a much lower magnetic resistance (MR) ratio than TMR. GMR's ratio is about 7 percent and has the potential to increase to about 15 percent. That limits is potential performance compared with TMR, which has the potential to hit 30 percent to 40 percent. Thus GMR technology, many researchers say GMR is not viable for commercial applications. Rather, tunneling magnetic resistance (TMR) is expected to be the basis of future MRAM.
4.4. ADVANCED MRAM CONCEPTS
Two important goals of Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) development are to improve MRAM manufacturability and to extend MRAM density to 100 nm dimensions. One potential barrier to MRAM manufacturability is associated with the method of write selection in which two orthogonal currents in coincidence must write data, whereas each of the orthogonal currents alone cannot disturb the data. This "2D" selection method places constraints on uniformity of MRAM Memory cells. Using a transistor per cell for write select greatly improves operating margins and lowers write currents. In this new scheme, a select transistor per memory cell is used for writing, and a much smaller current is used for reading than for writing. This should result in substantially wider process margins, but probably at the sacrifice of density due to the size of the required transistor in the cell. This "ID magnetic select" scheme is potentially ideal for small, high performance nonvolatile RAM.
A technique to increase density of MRAM by heating an antiferromagnetic pinning layer above its ordering temperature (Neel temperature). This deepens the energy well depth of unselected cells, and potentially will permit higher storage densities at smaller current levels.
4.4.1. ID MAGNETIC SELECTION
Selected cells receive both Ix and Iy currents, and are switched into the desired memory states. The currents must be selected so that Iy or Ix separately do not disturb the memory state of stored data. Bits on the same x line or y line that are not being written are subjected to "half-select" currents which tend to disturb the data. If very large currents are used to insure the writing of worst case cells, then the half-select currents are also large and tend to disturb the most disturb-sensitive cells.
The half-selected memory states are also not nearly as stable as stored and they provide the majority of project and implimentationed cell failures in time. In addition to half-select currents, these cells must withstand stray fields from neighboring cells and fields from leakage currents and stray environmental fields. Thus, the requirements for uniformity and design margins present challenges in manufacturing the 2D magnetic arrays.
Most magneto resistive memory schemes also use a 2D selection scheme for reading data. The original MRAM concept use magnetic 2D selection schemes for reading, which introduce further, disturb conditions. Magnetic tunnel junction memories (MTJ) use a diode or transistor to select a memory cell for reading, and thus do not have significant disturb conditions for reading, but they still have the constraints of 2D magnetic selection for writing.
"ID selection" scheme for both reading and writing a magneto resistive memory cell improves reliability. A high current of either polarity (plus current for a " 1" and negative current for a "0") is passed through a select transistor and through the memory cell to write. A lower current is used to generate a voltage across the cell which will be higher or lower depending on the data stored



lower current can be used for sensing. This would suggest large margins. After pinning, very large magnetic fields (several thousands of Oe) cannot permanently reverse the pinned direction if the temperature is significantly below the Neel (ordering) temperature of the antiferromagnet. This property could be used in many memory cells to obtain a deep energy well for stored data, and provided heat can be applied to the cell for writing, the writing currents may not have to be very large.
These were approaches for making a producible, high performance memory and approaches for extending the density of MRAM to nm dimensions. It should be noted that these techniques could be used in combination. There are undoubtedly many more possibilities for improving MRAM density, performance, and producibility that will come to light in the next few years.
4.5. CURRENT STATUS
Magnetic RAM is not an overnight technological feat. It has taken nearly three decades to develop. To give you an idea of when IBM began working on MRAM, Microsoft didn't even exist when IBM made its first breakthrough in this technology. In 1974, IBM Research developed a miniature computer component called the magnetic tunnel junction. This component was eventually used to store information.
The potential market for MRAM is big. It is expected to eventually become the memory standard for future electronics, replacing DRAM. In The potential market for MRAM is big. It is expected to eventually become the memory standard for future electronics, replacing DRAM. In MRAM has the potential to replace today's memory technologies in electronic products of the future," said Bijan Davari, IBM Vice President of Technology and Emerging Products. He added that the announcement of MRAM's impending availability is a major step in moving the technology from the research stage to product development.
By 2003, IBM and Infineon expect to have test chips in use. Initial chips will only be able to accommodate 256 megabytes of data. There are already some removable Flash Memory that can hold that much data. However, IBM researchers believe that they could increase the data-storage size by the time it reaches volume production in 2004. MRAM then will be made available to consumers in limited quantities.
It will probably take at least a decade before we see MRAM chips become a mainstream storage medium. By then, who knows what we will be looking at? Holographic memory (CDs, DVDs and magnetic storage all store bits of information on the surface of a recording medium. In order to increase storage capabilities, scientists are now working on a new optical storage method, called holographic memory that will go beneath the surface and use the volume of the recording medium for storage, instead of only the surface area. ) is project and implimentationed to be available as early as 2003. It will be able to store 125 gigabytes and produce transfer rates of about 40 megabytes per second. The combination of MRAM and holographic memory, both being developed by IBM. could result in a desktop computer than can hold tons of data, work faster and use less power than its most high¬tech predecessors.
Because MRAM is non-volatile, there is never a need to flush data to disk every time your system off .It also improves fde system data bandwidth by freeing disk from the need to handle frequent metadata accesses.

IBM researcher Stuart Parkin used this sputtering machine to create magnetic tunnel junctions, a key to MRAM technology
5. CHALLENGES FACED
While progress has been made in determining the structure and materials needed for MRAM development there are still many hurdles to jump before MRAM chips can be made production-worthy. Among the issues to tackle are architectures, materials development, submicron manufacturing, wiring, and the feasibility of integrating MRAM with logic.
Present day challenges for MRAM technology include Reducing drive currents
Eliminating cell instabilities due to magnetization vortices
Improving modes of operation at nanometer dimensions fundamental thermal instabilities Finding applications with sufficient volumes and performance advantages to make MRAM manufacturing costs competitive
To be practical, dense MRAM cells should operate with less than a few mA currents when the lithography is at the 0.2 - 0.3 micron dimensions. Two reasons are: to stay within the current carrying capability of thin, narrow metal lines, and to be compatible with the center-to-center circuit spacing at the edge of the magnetic array. Reported data shows more than 10 times the desired current densities. Several mitigating ideas have emerged. One is to coat or "keeper" the tops and edges of the strip lines used in the memory array. This is done to reduce word currents by a factor of 3. An additional idea is to reduce the rise time of pulses, which takes advantage of the gyro-magnetic nature of the magnetization. This technique has reduced the required drive currents by a factor of more than 2. Devising methods whereby required current levels scale down with size of the memory cell will continue to be a challenge for MRAM.
In the 1980's it was believed that as the memory cells approached the dimensions of a domain wall width, there would be no more problems with multi-domain magnetization in the cells, i.e. the magnetization would act as a single collection of spins with only one rest state. This myth was shown to be false by both experiment and data. Anomolies called "vortices" can occur in cells as small as a few tenths of a micron in diameter. This can be prevented but at the expense of cell area. Recently, a circumferential magnetization storage mode in round MRAM cells has been proposed. Vortices are the unanticipated problem in MRAM technology.
The stability of the MRAM cell can be looked at as an energy well problem, where the energy associated with storage is MHcV, where He is a critical field which prevents magnetization reversal, M is the saturation magnetization, and V is the volume of the magnetic material in the cell. As the volume is reduced, the ratio approaches some multiple of kT (about 20) at which the error rate in the memory becomes unacceptable. Making He ever higher does not work because of the current required to write and the resultant heating ofthe cell (raising kT). With the present modes of operating, the practical lower limit to MRAM storage area would be about 0.1 micron on a side. A new idea is to use heat to help select the cell for writing and use the Curie point of an antiferromagnet to enable writing with a low current. Then at cooler temperatures, the energy well can be very deep.
We used photo- and electron-beam lithography to create working MTJ memory cells on a silicon substrate. This is an essential first step for many aspects of our research. We are continuing to develop processes that will provide uniformly high-quality structures across the entire working surface. It is critical that all the MTJs operate with nearly identical characteristics.
We reduced the MTJ device resistance more than 10-million-fold. Because the overall resistance of a magnetic tunnel junction increases as the junction dimensions decrease, MTJs must have a proportionally lower resistance as the feature size decreases in order to make practical high-density chips. By carefully controlling the thickness and integrity of the aluminum dioxide tunnel barrier (no pinholes can be tolerated!), the resistance has been reduced from 1 billion ohm-microns-squared to 60 ohm-microns-squared. The barrier, which is as thin as 10 angstroms ” about four atomic layers - is created by depositing and then oxidizing a thin fdm of aluminum.
We increased the low-field TMR five-fold: from 10 percent to nearly 50 percent. MJTs with increased TMR produce a larger signal, which has many practical benefits, including permitting more flexibility in designing circuits. Two factors led to the increased TMR: a) Optimizing the ferromagnetic cobalt-iron alloy, and b) designing MTJs with the same sort of "anti-ferromagnetic biasing" that makes GMR heads for disk drives so successful.

We measured MTJ reading and writing times as fast as 10 nanoseconds ” some six times faster than today's fastest DRAM memory. Such an extremely fast speed results from both the high TMR and low device resistance.
We have increased the thermal stability of MTJ structures from 100 C to about 250 C. We expect to need further testing and improvements in thermal stability before we can use MTJs in applications.
The last challenge is getting MRAM into high production levels. It requires investment, and a lot of it, perhaps as much as a billion dollars. It will take commitment from one or more companies to manufacture RAM in high volume, in order to realize the tremendous potential of MRAM as a mainstream nonvolatile memory technology, but with the right investment. MRAM can be a very important mainstream memory technology.

6. ANTICIPATED APPLICATIONS
MRAM combines many of the advantages of presently available forms of memory. IBM researchers have demonstrated that MRAM can be six times faster than the industry standard's dynamic RAM (DRAM), and it is almost as fast as today's static RAM (SRAM) ” a faster, more expensive RAM used in memory caches. MRAM also has the potential to be. Extremely dense, packing more information into a smaller space. The 1,000-bit prototype is significantly denser than conventional static RAM.
The most important attribute of MRAM is its nonvolatility. In the absence of any electrical power, the magnetic moments maintain their alignment. Thus, the data is kept intact. This feature could enable instant-on computers, because the memory state would be maintained when you turned your computer off.
This instant-on ability doesn't just apply to desktop computers. "The most likely application for MRAM will be in pervasive computing devices," Parkin says. As portable wireless devices become universal, devices such as PDAs and cell phones will require the dense, fast, relatively inexpensive nonvolatile memory that MRAM can provide.
In the United States, a research program in magnetic materials and devices was launched in '94, sharing the costs with Honeywell, IBM, and Motorola. Several other U.S. companies have developed products based on GMR technology, and last winter, Hewlett-Packard said it intends to join IBM and Motorola in the TMR market. The anticipated applications of this collective effort is funding spin-electronics research in hopes of exploiting nonvolatile-memory capabilities in embedded systems for use in satellites, strategic missiles, avionics, and other mission-critical applications. For instance, coding information for satellites could be loaded on rad-hard MRAM devices that would ensure satellites remain on station.
Rebooting aircraft computers using traditional storage technologies delays operations on the flight line. Nonvolatile MRAM technology "would change the way the military operate", researchers believe.
Beyond military applications, government researchers envision MRAM technology showing up within five years in embedded applications, such as cell phones and digital cameras. The dawn of the MRAM-based laptop, which will eliminate boot-up delays, will take longer, scientists say.
"The payoff is going to be in all the mobile applications," the Naval Research Laboratory's Prinz said, particularly when gigabit MRAM chips can be integrated into cell phones to dump data onto hard drives.

HP, meanwhile, will pit its MRAMs against more-expensive flash memories. HP also plans to combine MRAMs with atomic-resolution storage technology to replace hard drives. Mike Matson, general manager of HP's Information Storage Group, said he expects the combined technology to grab half the traditional hard-drive market over time.
Parallel disk storage can have significant benefits to enabling war fighting capabilities. Military applications, including ballistic missile controls and multi-theater troop management, afford considerable challenges for rapid data storage and retrieval. Health applications, particularly biomedical research, often require similar high density, rapid access disk storage capabilities that could benefit from advances in this technology
7. CONCLUSION
If MRAM chips are to debut, the completely different architecture will make DRAM chips obsolete and issue a new era of memory chips.
MRAM solves your problem of losing data typed on your computer unless you are connected to uninterruptible power supply, as MRAM doesn't forget anything when power goes out. The difference is conventional RAM, uses electrical CELLS to store data, MRAM uses magnetic cells. This method is similar to the way your hard drive stores information. When you remove power from your computer, conventional RAM loses memory, but the data on your hard disk remains intact due to its magnetic orientation, which represents binary information. Because magnetic memory cells maintain their state even when power is removed, MRAM possesses a distinct advantage over electrical cells.
There is still a long way to go before MRAM is ready for prime time. Neither IBM nor Motorola, for instance, is expected to go into mass production until they prove that they can make 256 megabit chips”the standard memory module used today. But, as total sales of computer memory in 2000 were estimated by Semico Research Corporation to have been worth $48 billion, manufacturers have a considerable incentive to ensure that MRAM becomes a serious challenger for DRAM's crown.
8. REFERENCES
1. J. Raffel and T. Crowder IEEE Trans. Electronic Components 13.
2. M Johnson, B Bennett and M. Yang Hybrid Ferromagnetic Semiconductor NV memory
3. L. Schwee, P. Hunter, K. Restorff, and M. Shepard The Concept
And Initial Studies Of A Cross tie Random Access Memory 4 howstuffw.orks.<!om\rnrarn.html
5. csl.cse.uc.sc.edu\mrafn.html
6. crism.standford.edu\mram.html
7.
CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION 1
2.ATTRACTIONS OF THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY 2
3.HOW MRAM WORKS
3.1 INSTANT ON COMPUTING 4
3.2 MRAM ARCHITECTURE 5
3.2.1 READING DATA 6
3.2.2 WRITING DATA 6
4.DEVELOPING MRAM
4.1 BACKGROUND 8
4.2 MAGNETIC TUNNEL JUNCTIONS 9
4.3 GIANT MAGNETORESISTANCE 13
4.4 ADVANCED MRAM CONCEPTS 14
4.4.1 ID MAGNETIC SELECTIONS 15
4.4.2 NEEL PINT WRITTEN CELLS 16
4.5 CURRENT STATUS 17
5. CHALLENGES FACED 19
6. ANTICIPATED APPLICATIONS 22
7. CONCLUSION 24
8. REFERENCES 25
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theoverlord130
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#2
02-08-2010, 04:04 PM

Do you have any idea about the current status of Magnetic RAM technology??
Or is there any other new RAM technologies like nano-RAM that are more efficient than MRAM????
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Zigbee
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04-08-2010, 06:08 PM

Magnetic RAM technology still sees some developments . In june 2010, Hitachi and Tohoku Univ announced Multi-level SPRAM :
techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20100622/183658/

spacedailynews/chip-tech-05d.html
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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15-10-2010, 04:48 PM

Prepared by:
Laura Coleman &
Django Cisse


.ppt   MRAM.ppt (Size: 986 KB / Downloads: 276)


Introduction

Non-volatile
Information is saved even when there is no power
Immediate boot up
No need to wait for your computer to boot up
MRAM, SRAM and DRAM
MRAM is potentially capable of replacing both DRAM, SRAM and many advantages over technology currently used in electronic devices
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16-10-2010, 05:20 PM


.ppt   MRAM.ppt (Size: 986 KB / Downloads: 149)
Magnetic RAM: The Universal Memory


Overview


Introduction
Historical perspective
Technical Description
Challenges
Principals
Market impacts
Summary

Introduction

Non-volatile
Information is saved even when there is no power
Immediate boot up
No need to wait for your computer to boot up
MRAM, SRAM and DRAM
MRAM is potentially capable of replacing both DRAM, SRAM and many advantages over technology currently used in electronic devices

Introduction


DRAM
Advantages: cheap
Disadvantages: Comparatively slow and loses data when power is off
SRAM
Advantages: fast
Disadvantages: cost up to 4 times as much as DRAM loses data when power is off
Flash memory
Advantages: save data when power is off
Disadvantages: saving data is slow and use lot of power
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18-10-2010, 10:57 AM


.pdf   magnetic_ram.pdf (Size: 283.5 KB / Downloads: 199)

Magnetic RAM

INTRODUCTION
You hit the power button on your television and it instantly comes to
life. But do the same thing with your computer and you have to wait a
few minutes while it goes through its boot up sequence. Why can't we
have a computer that turns on as instantly as a television or radio? IBM,
in cooperation with Infineon, is promising to launch a new technology in
the next few years that will eliminate the boot-up process. Magnetic
random access memory (MRAM) has the potential to store more data,
access that data faster and use less power than current memory
technologies. The key to MRAM is that, as its name suggests, it uses
magnetism rather than electrical power to store data. This is a major leap
from dynamic RAM (DRAM), the most common type of memory in use
today, which requires a continuous supply of electricity and is terribly
inefficient. Twenty-five years ago, DRAM overtook ferrite core memory
in the race to rule the PC memory market. Now it looks like
ferromagnetic technology could be making a comeback, with IBM Corp.
and Infineon Technologies charging a joint team of 80 engineers and
scientists with the task of making magnetic RAM (MRAM) a
commercial reality within four years
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seminar class
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08-03-2011, 03:32 PM


.ppt   magnetism.ppt (Size: 455.5 KB / Downloads: 63)
Magnetism
History

à Term comes from the ancient Greek city of Magnesia, at which many natural magnets were found. We now refer to these natural magnets as lodestones (also spelled loadstone; lode means to lead or to attract) which contain magnetite, a natural magnetic material Fe3O4.
à Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD Roman) wrote of a hill near the river Indus that was made entirely of a stone that attracted iron.
à Chinese as early as 121 AD knew that an iron rod which had been brought near one of these natural magnets would acquire and retain the magnetic property…and that such a rod when suspended from a string would align itself in a north-south direction.
à Use of magnets to aid in navigation can be traced back to at least the eleventh century.
Finally, the Science
à Not until 1819 was a connection between electrical and magnetic phenomena shown. Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted observed that a compass needle in the vicinity of a wire carrying electrical current was deflected!
à In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered that a momentary current existed in a circuit when the current in a nearby circuit was started or stopped
à Shortly thereafter, he discovered that motion of a magnet toward or away from a circuit could produce the same effect.
Let This Be a Lesson!
Joseph Henry (first Director of the Smithsonian Institution) failed to publish what he had discovered 6-12 months before Faraday
The Connection is Made
SUMMARY: Oersted showed that magnetic effects could be produced by moving electrical charges; Faraday and Henry showed that electric currents could be produced by moving magnets
A Sheep in a Cow Suit?
All magnetic phenomena result from forces between electric charges in motion.
Looking in More Detail
à Ampere first suggested in 1820 that magnetic properties of matter were due to tiny atomic currents
à All atoms exhibit magnetic effects
à Medium in which charges are moving has profound effects on observed magnetic forces
Top Ten List
What We Will Learn About Magnetism

1. There are North Poles and South Poles.
2. Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.
3. Magnetic forces attract only magnetic materials.
4. Magnetic forces act at a distance.
5. While magnetized, temporary magnets act like permanent magnets.
6. A coil of wire with an electric current flowing through it becomes a magnet.
7. Putting iron inside a current-carrying coil increases the strength of the electromagnet.
8. A changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a conductor.
9. A charged particle experiences no magnetic force when moving parallel to a magnetic field, but when it is moving perpendicular to the field it experiences a force perpendicular to both the field and the direction of motion.
10. A current-carrying wire in a perpendicular magnetic field experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to both the wire and the field
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22-04-2011, 04:43 PM

Presented By
PRADARTTANA PANDA


.doc   MRAM.doc (Size: 522.5 KB / Downloads: 51)
ABSTRACT
MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory) is a method of storing data bits using magnetic charges instead of the electrical charges used by DRAM (dynamic random access memory). Scientists define a metal as magnetoresistive if it shows a slight change in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field. By combining the high speed of static RAM and the high density of DRAM, proponents say MRAM could be used to significantly improve electronic products by storing greater amounts of data, enabling it to be accessed faster while consuming less battery power than existing electronic memory. Conventional random access memory (RAM) computer chips store information as long as electricity flows through them. Once power is turned off, the information is lost unless it has been copied to a hard drive or floppy disk. MRAM, however, retains data after a power supply is cut off. Replacing DRAM with MRAM could prevent data loss and enable computers that start instantly, without waiting for software to boot up. The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has provided funding to help private industry conduct research into the potential of MRAM. Beginning in 1995, DARPA began funding three private consortia researching the viability of making MRAM a general-purpose memory with high density, high speed, and low power usage. Leading the three consortia were IBM, Motorola, and Honeywell. Hewlett-Packard, Matsushita, NEC, Fujitsu, Toshiba, Hitachi, and Siemens also have invested in MRAM research. Motorola Labs says its "universal memory" allows the integration of several memory options within a single chip, resulting in a chip that uses less power. The chip is a three-volt MRAM with an address access time of about 15 nanoseconds. IBM and Infineon Technologies AG are working on a proposed 256-megabit chip they say could be on the market in 2004. Development of MRAM basically followed two scientific schools: 1) spin electronics, the science behind giant magnetoresistive heads used in disk drives and 2) tunneling magnetic resistance, or TMR, which is expected to be the basis of future MRAM.
INTRODUCTION:-
Unlike conventional RAM chip technologies, in MRAM data is not stored as electric charge or current flows, but by magnetic storage elements. The elements are formed from two ferromagnetic plates, each of which can hold a magnetic field, separated by a thin insulating layer. One of the two plates is a permanent magnet set to a particular polarity, the other's field can be changed to match that of an external field to store memory. This configuration is known as a spin valve and is the simplest structure for a MRAM bit. A memory device is built from a grid of such "cells".
The simplest method of reading is accomplished by measuring the electrical resistance of the cell. A particular cell is (typically) selected by powering an associated transistor which switches current from a supply line through the cell to ground. Due to the magnetic tunnel effect, the electrical resistance of the cell changes due to the orientation of the fields in the two plates. By measuring the resulting current, the resistance inside any particular cell can be determined, and from this the polarity of the writable plate. Typically if the two plates have the same polarity this is considered to mean "1", while if the two plates are of opposite polarity the resistance will be higher and this means "0".
Data is written to the cells using a variety of means. In the simplest, each cell lies between a pair of write lines arranged at right angles to each other, above and below the cell. When current is passed through them, an induced magnetic field is created at the junction, which the writable plate picks up. This pattern of operation is similar to core memory, a system commonly used in the 1960s. This approach requires a fairly substantial current to generate the field, however, which makes it less interesting for low-power uses, one of MRAM's primary disadvantages. Additionally, as the device is scaled down in size, there comes a time when the induced field overlaps adjacent cells over a small area, leading to potential false writes. This problem, the half-select (or write disturb) problem, appears to set a fairly large size for this type of cell. One experimental solution to this problem was to use circular domains written and read using the giant magnetoresistive effect, but it appears this line of research is no longer active.
Another approach, the toggle mode, uses a multi-step write with a modified multi-layer cell. The cell is modified to contain an "artificial antiferromagnet" where the magnetic orientation alternates back and forth across the surface, with both the pinned and free layers consisting of multi-layer stacks isolated by a thin "coupling layer". The resulting layers have only two stable states, which can be toggled from one to the other by timing the write current in the two lines so one is slightly delayed, thereby "rotating" the field.
Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) stores bits of data by using magnetic charges. MRAM is designed for high density, high speed, and non-volatile devices. MRAM has the potential to replace dynamic random access memory (DRAM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), and Flash memory. DRAM uses small capacitors to store each bit of memory in an addressable format that consists of rows and columns. Because capacitors are unable to hold a charge indefinitely, DRAM requires a near-constant pulse of current to retain stored information. EEPROM needs electricity to be erased. Flash does not need a constant power supply to retain data.
MRAM or magnetoresistive RAM is a non-volatile random access memory (RAM) technology made from metals that change only slightly when placed within a magnetic field. To be non-volatile, these types of magnetic RAM retain the data in their memory arrays even when power is turned off. The chief advantage of MRAM over other forms of non-volatile RAM technology is its ability to combine the most commercially appealing attributes of disparate memory technologies (e.g., non-volatility, storage density, and speed) into a single memory solution. Rather than store electrical activity as magnetic charges, the actual magneto-resistive RAM properties store electrical activity as a state, or moment. This is due to the fact that the ferromagnetic material of MRAM allows the binary language of machines (0s and 1s) as polarized electrons, and permits reading of those polarizations against a transistor-type gate known as a tunnel junction.
HISTORY:-
• 2000 - IBM and Infineon established a joint MRAM development program.
• 2000 - Spintec laboratory's first Spin Torque Transfer patent.
• 2002 - NVE Announces Technology Exchange with Cypress Semiconductor.
• 2003 - A 128 kbit MRAM chip was introduced, manufactured with a 180 nm lithographic process
2004
• June - Infineon unveiled a 16-Mbit prototype, manufactured with a 180 nm lithographic process
• September - MRAM becomes a standard product offering at Freescale.
• October - Taiwan developers of MRAM tape out 1 Mbit parts at TSMC.
• October - Micron drops MRAM, mulls other memories.
• December - TSMC, NEC, Toshiba describe novel MRAM cells.
2005
• January - Cypress Semiconductor samples MRAM, using NVE IP.
• March - Cypress to Sell MRAM Subsidiary.
• June - Honeywell posts data sheet for 1-Mbit rad-hard MRAM using a 150 nm lithographic process
• August - MRAM record: memory cell runs at 2 GHz.
• November - Renesas Technology and Grandis collaborate on development of 65 nm MRAM employing spin torque transfer (STT).
• November - NVE receives an SBIR grant to research cryptographic tamper-responsive memory.[12]
• December - Sony announced the first lab-produced spin-torque-transfer MRAM, which utilizes a spin-polarized current through the tunneling magnetoresistance layer to write data. This method consumes less power and is more scalable than conventional MRAM. With further advances in materials, this process should allow for densities higher than those possible in DRAM.
HOW MRAM WORKS:-
MRAM (Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory) uses electron spin to store data. Memory cells are integrated on an integrated circuit chip, and the function of the resulting device is like a semiconductor static RAM (SRAM) chip, with potentially higher density and the added feature that the data are nonvolatile, that is data are retained with power off. Typical “classic”or “conventional” MRAM uses spin-dependent tunnel junction memory cells and magnetic row and column write lines as illustrated below:
The spin-dependent tunnel junction produces a large change in resistance depending on the predominant electron spin in a storage layer. The tunnel barrier (dark green in the figure above) is as thin as a few atomic layers--so thin that electrons can “tunnel” through the normally insulating material, causing a resistance change.
Row and column magnetic write lines allow data to be written to a selected cell in a two-dimensional array:
Data are written by small electrical currents in the write lines that create a magnetic fields, which flip electron spins in the spin-dependent tunnel junction storage layer, thus changing the junction’s resistance. Data is read by the tunneling current or resistance through the tunnel junction.
Next-generation MRAM could reduce cell size and power consumption. Potential next-generation designs include Spin-Momentum Transfer, Magneto-Thermal MRAM, and Vertical Transport MRAM. Spin-Momentum Transfer (also “Spin-Transfer,” “Spin Injection,” or “Spin Torque Transfer”) MRAM is based on changing the spin of storage electrons directly with an electrical current rather than an induced magnetic field. This method has the potential to significantly reduce MRAM write currents, especially with lithographic feature sizes less than 100 nanometers. M-T MRAM uses a combination of magnetic fields and ultra-fast heating from electrical current pulses to reduce the energy required to write data.
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24-08-2011, 02:11 PM


.doc   Copy of mram.doc (Size: 182.5 KB / Downloads: 34)
INTRODUCTION
In 1984 Drs. Arthur Pohm and Jim Daughton, both employed at that time by Honeywell, conceived of a new class of magnetoresistance memory devices which offered promise for high density, random access, nonvolatile memory. In 1989 Dr. Daughton left Honeywell to form Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc. having entered into a license agreement allowing him to sublicense Honeywell MRAM technology for commercial applications. Dr. Pohm, Dr. Daughton, and others at NVE continued to improve basic MRAM technology, and innovated new techniques which take advantage of revolutionary advances in magnetoresistive devices, namely giant magnetoresistance and spin dependent tunneling.
Today there is a tremendous potential for MRAM as a nonvolatile, solid state memory to replace flash memory and EEPROM where fast writing or high write endurance is required, and in the longer term as a general purpose read/write random access memory. NVE has a substantial patent portfolio containing 10 MRAM patents, and is willing to license these, along with 12 Honeywell MRAM patents, to companies interested in manufacturing MRAM. In addition, NVE is considering internal production of certain niche MRAM products over the next several years.
WHAT IS MRAM?
MRAM is a nonvolatile random access memory which uses magnetic storage and magnetoresistance (MR) to read the stored data. Magnetoresistive material is a resistor made of common ferromagnetic material which will change in resistance in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetoresistive property gives a small but sufficient signal to distinguish between a “1” and “0”. MRAM results from combining MR storage elements with standard semiconductor fabrication processes. The magnetic devices are integrated with support circuits on a single silicon chip to duplicate the function of a static semiconductor RAM chip. The magnetic storage elements are formed from a layer of permalloy thin film where the
intersection of the permalloy (sense line) and metal layer (word line) form a memory bit.
The general attributes of MRAM are:
• Nonvolatility
• Infinite write cycling without wearout
• Fast write (few nanoseconds for advanced modes)
• Low write energy
• Nondestructive read.
When combined with the high density of advanced GMR cells, these attributes lead to the “perfect memory” with speed, density and limited cycling of SRAM and DRAM and the nonvolatility of EEPROM, flash and other nonvolatile memories. In random access magnetoresistive memories (MRAM), storing data is accomplished by applying magnetic fields and thereby causing a magnetic material in a cell to be magnetized into either of two possible memory states. Recalling data is accomplished by sensing resistance changes in the cell when magnetic fields are applied. The magnetic fields are created by passing currents through strip lines (word lines) external to the magnetic structure, or through the magnetic structures themselves (sense lines). MRAM cells are narrow stripes etched into a multi-layer thin film stack of permalloy–copper–permalloy. Data is stored by magnetizing the stripe.
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06-02-2012, 10:28 AM

to get information about the topic magnetic ram full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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13-02-2012, 08:04 PM

I need ppt and doc. for mram..Pls help me out..
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