nanomedicines
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mona.mazaheri
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#1
10-10-2010, 02:39 PM


HELLO.please help me to get more information about nanomedicines.thanks
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seminar surveyer
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#2
22-10-2010, 03:30 PM



Abstract
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.
Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institute of Health. Of note is the funding in 2005 of a five-year plan to set up four nanomedicine centers. In April 2006, the journal Nature Materials estimated that 130 nanotech-based drugs and delivery systems were being developed worldwide.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in thepharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Further down the line, the speculative field of molecular nanotechnology believes that cell repair machines could revolutionize medicine and the medical field.
Nanomedicine is a large industry, with nanomedicine sales reaching 6.8 billion dollars in 2004, and with over 200 companies and 38 products worldwide, a minimum of 3.8 billion dollars in nanotechnology R&D is being invested every year. As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.

Medical use of nanomaterials

Drug delivery
Nanomedical approaches to drug delivery center on developing nanoscale particles or molecules to improve drug bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the presence of drug molecules where they are needed in the body and where they will do the most good. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices. It is all about targeting the molecules and delivering drugs with cell precision. More than $65 billion are wasted each year due to poor bioavailability. In vivo imaging is another area where tools and devices are being developed. Using nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound and MRI have a favorable distribution and improved contrast. The new methods of nanoengineered materials that are being developed might be effective in treating illnesses and diseases such as cancer. What nanoscientists will be able to achieve in the future is beyond current imagination. This might be accomplished by self assembled biocompatible nanodevices that will detect, evaluate, treat and report to the clinical doctor automatically.
Drug delivery systems, lipid- or polymer-based nanoparticles, can be designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drugs. The strength of drug delivery systems is their ability to alter the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug. Nanoparticles have unusual properties that can be used to improve drug delivery. Where larger particles would have been cleared from the body, cells take up these nanoparticles because of their size. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cellcytoplasm. Efficiency is important because many diseases depend upon processes within the cell and can only be impeded by drugs that make their way into the cell. Triggered response is one way for drug molecules to be used more efficiently. Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments exist, improving the solubility. Also, a drug may cause tissue damage, but with drug delivery, regulated drug release can eliminate the problem. If a drug is cleared too quickly from the body, this could force a patient to use high doses, but with drug delivery systems clearance can be reduced by altering the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Poor biodistribution is a problem that can affect normal tissues through widespread distribution, but the particulates from drug delivery systems lower the volume of distribution and reduce the effect on non-target tissue. Potential nanodrugs will work by very specific and well-understood mechanisms; one of the major impacts of nanotechnology and nanoscience will be in leading development of completely new drugs with more useful behavior and less side effects.


Reference:
en.wikipediawiki/Nanomedicine

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#3
09-03-2011, 11:31 AM


.doc   nanorobos.doc (Size: 631.5 KB / Downloads: 29)
ABSTRACT:
Like primitive engineers faced with advanced technology, medicine must ‘catch up' with the technology level of the human body before it can become really effective. Since the human body is basically an extremely complex system of interacting molecules (i.e., a molecular machine), the technology required to truly understand and repair the body is molecular machine technology. A natural consequence of this level of technology will be the ability to analyze and repair the human body as completely and effectively as we can repair any conventional machine today
Nanotechnology is “Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular levels in the length scale of approximately 1 -100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size.”
This paper will describe a micro/nano scale medical robot that is within the range of current of medical problems where accumulation of undesired organic substances interferes with normal bodily function.
NANOMEDICNE:
It is the application of nanotechnology (engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human bodys. More specifically, it is the use of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures to monitor, repair, construct and control the human biological system on a molecular level. The most elementary of nanomedical devices will be used in the diagnosis of illnesses. A more advanced use of nanotechnology might involve implanted devices to dispense drugs or hormones as needed in people with chronic imbalance or deficiency states. Lastly, the most advanced nanomedicine involves the use of Nanorobots as miniature surgeons. Such machines might repair damaged cells, or get inside cells and replace or assist damaged intracellular structures. At the extreme, nanomachines might replicate themselves, or correct genetic deficiencies by altering or replacing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.
Introduce the device into the body:
We need to find a way of introducing the nanomachine into the body, and allowing it access to the operations site without causing too much ancillary damage. We have already made the decision to gain access via the circulatory system.
The first is that the size of the nanomachine determines the minimum size of the blood vessel that it can traverse. We want to avoid damaging the walls of whatever blood vessel the device is in, we also do not want to block it much, which would either cause a clot to form, or just slow or stop the blood flow. What this means is that the smaller the nanomachine the better. However, this must
be balanced against the fact that the larger the nanomachine the more versatile and effective it can be. This is especially important in light of the fact that external control problems become much more difficult if we are trying to use multiple machines, even if they don't get in each other's way.
The second consideration is we have to get it into the body without being too destructive in the first place. This requires that we gain access to a large diameter artery that can be traversed easily to gain access to most areas of the body in minimal time. The obvious candidate is the femoral artery in the leg. This is in fact the normal access point to the circulatory system for operations that require access to the bloodstream for catheters, dye injections, etc., so it will suit our purposes.
Move the device around the body:
We start with a basic assumption: that we will use the circulatory system to allow our device to move about. We must then consider two possibilities: (a) carried to the site of operations,(b) to be propelled
The first possibility is to allow the device to be carried to the site of operations by means of normal blood flow. There are a number of requirements for this method . We must be able to navigate the bloodstream; to be able to guide the device so as to make use of the blood flow. This also requires that there be an uninterrupted blood flow to the site of operations. In the case of tumors, there is very often damage to the circulatory system that would prevent our device from passively navigating to the site. In the case of blood clots, of course, the flow of blood is dammed and thus our device would not be carried to the site without the capability for active movement. Another problem with this method is that it would be difficult to remain at the site without some means of maintaining position, either by means of an anchoring technique, or by actively moving against the current.

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