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.doc   NETWORK SECURITY full report.DOC (Size: 818.5 KB / Downloads: 758)

NETWORK SECURITY


ABSTRACT

John, sitting desperately in front of his system tries to hack his friend Williamâ„¢s bank account. But after a tiresome job, all he could succeed in getting was an encrypted code, which did not make any sense to him and would take a lifetime to decode making use of the concept of probability. Thanks! to the advanced techniques of security which saved William from getting bankrupt and losing his lifetime savings. In the present day scenario, where the earth is shrinking rapidly, such that the entire world is now on your desktop, security is gaining much significance consequently. Cryptography, authentication and access control mechanisms play a very important role in secured communication as they form the major disciplines of network security.

INTRODUCTION
What is security?
Freedom from danger, fear or ensuring safety is security. Measures adopted to prevent the authorized use, misuse, modification or denial of use of knowledge or facts, data or capabilities. Network security is an issue of great significance today where a single problem can change the fate of the companies and organizations.
Orange Book: -
The National Computer Security Center (NCSC), an agency of the U.S government published an official standard called Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria universally known as the Orange Book. The Orange Book defines a series of ratings a computer system can have based on itâ„¢s security features and the care that went into itâ„¢s design, documentation and testing. This rating is intended to give government agencies and commercial enterprises an objective assessment of a systemâ„¢s security and to goad computer manufacturers into placing more emphasis on security. The official categories are D, C1, C2, B1, B2, B3, and A1 ranging from minimal protection or unrated to most secure. When computers are networked together, new security problems occur which can prove to be great threats to major companies. The orange book did not address the issue of networked computers. The Red Book took all the requirements of the Orange book and attempted to address a networked environment of computers, thus creating the concept of network security A single layer of security cannot ensure good security. Effective security is achieved by the combination of all security disciplines. The prominent security technologies and product categories used today are anti-virus software, firewalls, smart cards, biometrics, intrusion detection, policy management, vulnerability scanning, encryption etc.
COMMON ATTACKS AGAINST NETWORK ASSETS
Attacks may occur through technical means such as specific tools designed for attacks or exploitation of vulnerabilities in a computer system, or they may occur through social engineering, which is the use of non-technical means to gain unauthorized access.

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.ppt   NETWORK SECURITY.ppt (Size: 1,023.5 KB / Downloads: 460) This article is presented by:NITIN Kr. BANSAL
(EC/06/66)IV YR. ECE



INTRODUCTION


1. Freedom from risk or danger; safety.
2. Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence.
3. Something that gives or assures safety, as:
1. A group or department of private guards: Call building security if a visitor acts suspicious.
2. Measures adopted by a government to prevent espionage, sabotage, or attack.
3. Measures adopted, as by a business or homeowner, to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault: Security was lax at the firm's smaller plant.

Why do we need security?
Protect vital information while still allowing access to those who need it
Trade secrets, medical records, etc.
Provide authentication and access control for resources
Ex: AFS
Guarantee availability of resources
Ex: 5 9’s (99.999% reliability)


Sad
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.doc   NETWORK SECURITY.doc (Size: 432 KB / Downloads: 252)
NETWORK SECURITY

ABSTRACT

Network security is a complicated subject, historically only tackled by well-trained and experienced experts. However, as more and more people become ``wired'', an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. This document was written with the basic computer user and information systems manager in mind, explaining the concepts needed to read through the hype in the marketplace and understand risks and how to deal with them.

Some history of networking is included, as well as an introduction to TCP/IP and internetworking . We go on to consider risk management, network threats, firewalls, and more special-purpose secure networking devices.

This is not intended to be a ``frequently asked questions'' reference, nor is it a ``hands-on'' document describing how to accomplish specific functionality.

It is hoped that the reader will have a wider perspective on security in general, and better understand how to reduce and manage risk personally, at home, and in the workplace.

A ``network'' has been defined as ``any set of interlinking lines resembling a net, a network of roads || an interconnected system, a network of alliances.'' This definition suits our purpose well: a computer network is simply a system of interconnected computers. How they're connected is irrelevant, and as we'll soon see, there are a number of ways to do this.
The ISO/OSI Reference Model


Introduction
The International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Reference Model defines seven layers of communications types, and the interfaces among them. (See Figure 1.) Each layer depends on the services provided by the layer below it, all the way down to the physical network hardware, such as the computer's network interface card, and the wires that connect the cards together.

An easy way to look at this is to compare this model with something we use daily: the telephone. In order for you and I to talk when we're out of earshot, we need a device like a telephone. (In the ISO/OSI model, this is at the application layer.) The telephones, of course, are useless unless they have the ability to translate the sound into electronic pulses that can be transferred over wire and back again. (These functions are provided in layers below the application layer.) Finally, we get down to the physical connection: both must be plugged into an outlet that is connected to a switch that's part of the telephone system's network of switches.

If I place a call to you, I pick up the receiver, and dial your number. This number specifies which central office to which to send my request, and then which phone from that central office to ring. Once you answer the phone, we begin talking, and our session has begun. Conceptually, computer networks function exactly the same way.
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09-10-2010, 03:00 PM


.ppt   network security.ppt (Size: 293 KB / Downloads: 209)
This article is presented by:
Nikunj Kabariya

NETWORK SECURITY



SECURITY SOLUTIONS

Confidentiaity
Integrity
Availability
Authenticity
Non_Repudiability
Auditability


SECURITY SOLUTIONS
A simple encryption scheme could be one in which all Alphabetic and
numerical characters are shifted by fixed number of positions in thee
encryption text. If the characters are to be shifted by say 5 places
then result would be follows.
SYMMETRIC CRYPTOSYSTEMS
In the symmetric system the secret key is shared between two
persons or entities it is very important to be able to ensure the
secure exchange of secret key.Fig. Illustrate use of symmetric key.

ASYMMETRICAL CRYPTOSYSTEMS
Asymmetric or public key cryptosystems are built around the possession of a
Pair of keys –public key & a private key by each entity wishing to engage in secure communication.
ENCRYPTION METHOD

Substitution cipher
Transition cipher




.




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24-02-2011, 03:29 PM

presentrd by:
V.KARTHIKA


.ppt   NETWORK SECURITY.PPT (Size: 192 KB / Downloads: 184)
NETWORK SECURITY
DIFFERENT KINDS OF THREATS

 Physical breakdowns
 Operating mistakes
 Planning mistakes
 Intentional attacks for fun and profit
 Own personnel is usually considered the largest security threat
EAVES DROPPING
 Requires access to the network media
 Getting access to Internet backbone networks is more difficult but not impossible
 Traffic can be selected based on IP and port addresses
TOOLS FOR EAVES DROPPING
 Some operating systems include tools
 Commercial and freely available tools from the net
SPOOFING
 Fake E-mail
 IP sender address forgery (IP spoofing)
Man in the Middle
 A.k.a. bucket brigade attack
 Attacker gets full access to the traffic
FAULTS IN SOFTWARE
 Both in operating system’s TCP/IP stack and in application servers
 Attacker can get full or partial control of software
CAUSES OF SOFTWARE VULNERABILITIES
 Design mistakes and unforeseen requirements
 Programming mistakes
 Installation and configuration mistakes
 Software component interaction




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.ppt   network security.ppt (Size: 266 KB / Downloads: 147)
NETWORK SECURITY
INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK SECURITY

• Concept of Computer Networks
• Importance of Network Security
• Technologies associated with network security
NETWORK SECURITY TOOLS
• Audit/test/assessment tools
 Network Reconnaissance & Network Mapping:
 Passive Vulnerability Assessment:
 Active Penetration Testing & Gaining Access
• Defence/detection tools
 Firewalls (network & personal)
 Antivirus
 Honeypots
THREATS TO NETWORK SECURITY
• Computer and network security address three requirements:
 confidentiality
 integrity
 Availability
• Attacks on Network Security
 Passive attack
 Active attack
METHODS OF NETWORK SECURITY
 Encryption Methods
 Private key encryption - symmetric cryptography
 Public Key encryption - Asymmetric Encryption
 Extensible Authentication Protocol
 Authentication and Access Control Measures
APPLICATION OF NETWORK SECURITY
 Digital Certificates
 Smart Cards
 Kerberos
FIREWALL
• A firewall is simply a group of components that collectively form a barrier between two networks.
• Types:
 Application Gateways
 Packet Filtering
 Hybrid Systems
ADVANTAGES OF NETWORK SECURITY
• Simplified Implementation and Maintenance.
• Extended Reach.
• Increased Worker Mobility.
• Reduced Total Cost of Ownership and Operation.
CONCLUSION
• Evolution of Network security
• Vision
• Technologies implemented in Network security
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09-03-2011, 11:07 AM

Presented by:
Maaz bin ahmad.


.ppt   lect#1_2.ppt (Size: 308.5 KB / Downloads: 86)
Network Security
• Computer Security - generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect data and to thwart hackers
• Network Security - measures to protect data during their transmission
• Internet Security - measures to protect data during their transmission over a collection of interconnected networks
Aim of Course
• our focus is on Internet Security
• consists of measures to prevent, detect, and correct security violations that involve the transmission of information.
Attacks, Services and Mechanisms

• Security Attack: Any action that compromises the security of information.
• Security Mechanism: A mechanism that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack.
• Security Service: A service that enhances the security of data processing systems and information transfers. A security service makes use of one or more security mechanisms.
Services, Mechanisms, Attacks
• need systematic way to define requirements
• consider three aspects of information security:
– security attack
– security mechanism
– security service
• consider in reverse order
• Security Service
– is something that enhances the security of the data processing systems and the information transfers of an organization.
– intended to counter security attacks.
– make use of one or more security mechanisms to provide the service.
• Security Services
• Authentication - assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed
• Access Control - prevention of the unauthorized use of a resource
• Data Confidentiality –protection of data from unauthorized disclosure
• Data Integrity - assurance that data received is as sent by an authorized entity
• Non-Repudiation - protection against denial by one of the parties in a communication
Security Services
• Confidentiality (privacy)
• Authentication (who created or sent the data)
• Integrity (has not been altered)
• Non-repudiation (the order is final)
• Access control (prevent misuse of resources)
• Availability (permanence, non-erasure)
– Denial of Service Attacks
– Virus that deletes files
Security Mechanism
• a mechanism that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack
• no single mechanism that will support all functions required
• however one particular element underlies many of the security mechanisms in use: cryptographic techniques
• hence our focus on this area
• Security Mechanism
• specific security mechanisms:
– encipherment, digital signatures, access controls, authentication exchange, traffic padding, routing control etc..
Security Attack
• any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization
• information security is about how to prevent attacks, or failing that, to detect attacks on information-based systems
• have a wide range of attacks
• can focus of generic types of attacks
• note: often threat & attack mean same
Security Attacks
• Interruption: This is an attack on availability
• Interception: This is an attack on confidentiality
• Modification: This is an attack on integrity
• Fabrication: This is an attack on authenticity
• Classify Security Attacks as
• passive attacks - eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions to:
– obtain message contents, or
– monitor traffic flows
• active attacks – modification of data stream to:
– masquerade of one entity as some other
– replay previous messages
– modify messages in transit
– denial of service
Model for Network Security
• using this model requires us to:
– design a suitable algorithm for the security transformation
– generate the secret information (keys) used by the algorithm
– develop methods to distribute and share the secret information
– specify a protocol enabling the principals to use the transformation and secret information for a security service
Model for Network Access Security
• using this model requires us to:
– select appropriate gatekeeper functions to identify users
– implement security controls to ensure only authorised users access designated information or resources
Summary
• have considered:
– computer, network, internet security def’s
– security services, mechanisms, attacks
-- models for network (access) security
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30-03-2011, 04:47 PM

PRESENTED BY
B.NAGESWARA RAO
N.SATISH CHANDRA


.doc   ADVANCED NETWORK SECURITY.DOC (Size: 2.34 MB / Downloads: 86)
ABSTRACT
“SECURITY” in this contemporary scenarios has become a more sensible issue either it may be in the “REAL WORLD” or in the “CYBER WORLD”. In the real world as opposed to the cyber world an attack is often preceded by information gathering. Movie gangsters “case the joint”; soldiers “scout the area”. This is also true in the cyber world. Here the “bad guys” are referred to as intruders, eavesdroppers, hackers, hijackers, etc. The intruders would first have a panoramic view of the victims network and then start digging the holes. Today the illicit activities of the hackers are growing by leaps and bounds, viz., “THE ATTACK ON THE DNS SERVERS HAS CAUSED A LOT OF HAVOC ALL OVER THE WORLD”. However, fortunately, the antagonists reacted promptly and resurrected the Internet world from the brink of prostration.
Since the inception of conglomerating Computers with Networks the consequence of which shrunk the communication world, hitherto, umpteen ilks of security breaches took their origin. Tersely quoting some security ditherers – Eavesdropping, Hacking, Hijacking, Mapping, Packet Sniffing, 1Spoofing, DoS & DDoS attacks, etc.
Newton’s law says “Every action has got an equal but opposite reaction”. So is the case with this. Nevertheless the security breaches and eavesdroppers, the technological prowess has been stupendously developed to defy against each of the assaults. Our paper covers the ADVANCED technical combats that have been devised all through the way, thus giving birth to the notion of “NETWORK -SECURITY”. Various antidotes that are in fact inextricable with security issues are – Cryptography, Authentication, Integrity and Non Repudiation, Key Distribution and certification, Access control by implementing Firewalls etc.
To satiate the flaws in the network security more and more advanced security notions are being devised day by day. Our paper covers a wide perspective of such arenas where the contemporary cyber world is revolving around viz., , THE DMZ ZONE, PALLADIUM CRYPTOGRAPHY & KERBEROS AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM.
Palladium is a content protection concept that has spawned from the belief that the PC, as it currently stands, is not architecturally equipped to protect a user from the pitfalls and challenges that an all-pervasive network such as the Internet poses. In the course of this paper the revolutionary aspects of palladium are discussed in detail.
A case study to restructure the present data security system of JNTU examination system using palladium is put forward.
PREFATORY REMARKS
Network security is indeed the crux of discussion amongst all computer enthusiasts and it has also become a major concern in boardrooms across the globe. Companies have started taking computer security very seriously and now have dedicated technical teams who maintain and secure the company’s sensitive information round the clock. However, the bottom line is that computer criminals have always been two steps ahead of crime fighting agencies, and the targeted individuals who eventually end up feeling defenseless. “Most computer criminals thrive not on knowledge but instead blossom due to ignorance on the part of system administrators”.
In an age where the unprecedented increase in the number of people entering the field of computer security has divided the earlier solitary enemy(computer criminals) into a number of more specific, entirely distinct, disgruntled employees, etc., it has now become imperative for every one to be proficient in the art of “Hacker Profiling”. Every system administrator must try and put himself in the shoes of the attacker and try to predict the moves that a particular attacker will make, even before he can strike.
In an era, where a single click of mouse is potent enough to lead a full- fledged attack, the increased security of one’s network is no longer a luxury that every one enjoys, but it has now become a necessity.
Palladium is the code name for a revolutionary set of “features” for the “windows” operating system. The code name of this initiative –“palladium”, is a moniker drawn from the Greek mythological goddess of wisdom and protector of civilized life.
Till date most forms of data security have been software oriented with little or no hardware involvement. Palladium can be touted as the first technology to develop software-hardware synchronization for better data security. Hardware changes incorporated by palladium are reflected in the key components of the CPU, a motherboard chip (cryptographic co-processor), input and output components such as the graphics processor etc.
When combined with a new breed of hardware and applications, these “features” will give individuals and groups of users greater data security, personal privacy, and system integrity. In addition, palladium will offer enterprise consumers significant new benefits for network security and content protection.
Core principles of the palladium initiative:
 Palladium is not a separate operating system. It is based in architectural enhancements to the windows kernel and to computer hardware, including the CPU, peripherals and chipsets, to create a new trusted execution subsystem.(see figure 1).
 Palladium will not eliminate any features of windows that users have come to rely on; everything that runs today will continue to run with palladium.
 It is important to note that while today’s applications and devices will continue to work in “palladium”, they will gain little to no benefit from “palladium” environment or new applications must be written.
 In addition, palladium does not change what can be programmed or run on the computing platform. Palladium will operate with any program the user specifies while maintaining security.
ASPECTS OF PALLADIUM
Palladium comprises two key components: hardware and software.
Hardware components
Engineered for ensuring the protected execution of applications and processes, the protected operating environment provides the following basic mechanisms:
 Trusted space (or curtained memory): This is an execution space that is protected form external software attacks such as a virus. Trusted space is set up and maintained by the nexus and has access to various services provided by palladium, such as sealed storage. In other words it is protected R.A.M.
 Sealed storage: Sealed storage is an authenticated mechanism that allows a program to store secrets that cannot be retrieved by un trusted programs such as a virus or Trojan horse. Information in sealed storage cann’t be read by other un trusted programs (sealed storage cannot be read by unauthorized secure programs, for that matter, and cannot be read even if another operating system is booted or the disk is carried to another machine.) these stored secrets can be tied to the machine, the nexus of the application. Palladium will also provide mechanisms for the safe and controlled backup and migration of secrets to other machines. In other words it is a secured and encrypted part of the hard disk.
 Secure input and output:A secure path from the keyboard and mouse to palladium applications and a secure path from palladium applications to the screen ensure input-output security.
 Attestation: Attestation is a mechanism that allows the user to reveal selected characteristics of the operating environment to external requestors. In reality it takes the form of an encryption co-processor. It is entrusted with the job of encryption and decryption of data “to and from” the “sealed storage”.
These basic mechanisms provide a platform for building distributed trusted software
Software components:
The following are the software components of palladium:
 Nexus(a technology formerly referred to as the “trusted operating root (TOR)”): This component manages trust functionality for palladium user-mode processes (agents). The nexus executes in kernel mode in the trusted space. It provides basic services to trusted agents, such as the establishment of the process mechanisms for communicating with trusted agents and other applications, and special trust services such as attestation of requests and the sealing and unsealing of secrets.
 Trusted agents: A trusted agent is a program, a part of a program, or a service that runs in user mode in the trusted space. A trusted agent calls the nexus for security-related services and critical general services such as memory management. A trusted agent is able to store secrets using sealed storage and authenticates itself using the attestation services of the nexus. One of the main principles of trusted agents is that they can be trusted or not trusted by multiple entities, such as the user, an IT department, a merchant or a vendor. Each trusted agent or entity controls its own sphere of trust and they need not trust or rely on each other.
Together, the nexus and trusted agents provide the following features:
 Trusted data storage, encryption services for applications to ensure data integrity and protection.
 Authenticated boot, facilities to enable hardware and software to authenticate itself.
WORKING OF PALLADIUM:
Palladium is a new hardware and software architecture. This architecture will include a new security computing chip and design changes to a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), chipsets, and peripheral devices, such as keyboards and printers. It also will enable applications and components of these applications to run in a protected memory space that is highly resistant to tempering and interference.
The pc-specific secret coding within palladium makes stolen files useless on other machines as they are physically and cryptographically locked within the hardware of the machine. This means software attacks can’t expose these secrets. Even if a sophisticated hardware attack were to get at them, these core system secrets would only be applicable to the data within a single computer and could not be used on other computes.


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31-03-2011, 10:39 AM

presented by:
N.SRESHTA
N. PUJITHA


.doc   network security it.doc (Size: 2.39 MB / Downloads: 73)
ABSTRACT
“SECURITY” in this contemporary scenarios has become a more sensible issue either it may be in the “REAL WORLD” or in the “CYBER WORLD”. In the real world as opposed to the cyber world an attack is often preceded by information gathering. Movie gangsters “case the joint”; soldiers “scout the area”. This is also true in the cyber world. Here the “bad guys” are referred to as intruders, eavesdroppers, hackers, hijackers, etc. The intruders would first have a panoramic view of the victims network and then start digging the holes. Today the illicit activities of the hackers are growing by leaps and bounds, viz., “THE RECENT ATTACK ON THE DNS SERVERS HAS CAUSED A LOT OF HULLABALOO ALL OVER THE WORLD”. However, fortunately, the antagonists reacted promptly and resurrected the Internet world from the brink of prostration.
Since the inception of conglomerating Computers with Networks the consequence of which shrunk the communication world, hitherto, umpteen ilks of security breaches took their origin. Tersely quoting some security ditherers – Eavesdropping, Hacking, Hijacking, Mapping, Packet Sniffing, 1Spoofing, DoS & DDoS attacks, etc.
Newton’s law says “Every action has got an equal but opposite reaction”. So is the case with this. Nevertheless the security breaches and eavesdroppers, the technological prowess has been stupendously developed to defy against each of the assaults. Our paper covers the ADVANCED technical combats that have been devised all through the way, thus giving birth to the notion of “NETWORK SECURITY”. Various antidotes that are in fact inextricable with security issues are – Cryptography, Authentication, Integrity and Non Repudiation, Key Distribution and certification, Access control by implementing Firewalls etc.

To satiate the flaws in the network security more and more advanced security notions are being devised day by day. Our paper covers a wide perspective of such arenas where the contemporary cyber world is revolving around viz., THE DMZ ZONE, PALLADIUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, IP Sec
Palladium is a content protection concept that has spawned from the belief that the PC, as it currently stands, is not architecturally equipped to protect a user from the pitfalls and challenges that an all-pervasive network such as the Internet poses. In the course of this paper the revolutionary aspects of palladium are discussed in detail.
A case study to restructure the present data security system of JNTU examination system using palladium is put forward.
PREFATORY REMARKS
Network security is indeed the crux of discussion amongst all computer enthusiasts and it has also become a major concern in boardrooms across the globe. Companies have started taking computer security very seriously and now have dedicated technical teams who maintain and secure the company’s sensitive information round the clock. “Most computer criminals thrive not on knowledge but instead blossom due to ignorance on the part of system administrators”.
In an age where the unprecedented increase in the number of people entering the field of computer security has divided the earlier solitary enemy (computer criminals) into a number of more specific, entirely distinct, disgruntled employees, etc., it has now become imperative for every one to be proficient in the art of “Hacker Profiling”.
Palladium is the code name for a revolutionary set of “features” for the “windows” operating system. The code name of this initiative –“palladium”, is a moniker drawn from the Greek mythological goddess of wisdom and protector of civilized life.
Hardware changes incorporated by palladium are reflected in the key components of the CPU, a motherboard chip (cryptographic co-processor), input and output components such as the graphics processor etc.When combined with a new breed of hardware and applications, these “features” will give individuals and groups of users greater data security,personal privacy, and system integrity. In addition, palladium will offer enterprise consumers significant new benefits for network security and content protection.
Core principles of the palladium initiative:
 Palladium is not a separate operating system. It is based in architectural enhancements to the windows kernel and to computer hardware, including the CPU, peripherals and chipsets, to create a new trusted execution subsystem.(see figure 1).
 Palladium will not eliminate any features of windows that users have come to rely on; everything that runs today will continue to run with palladium.
 It is important to note that while today’s applications and devices will continue to work in “palladium”, they will gain little to no benefit from “palladium” environment or new applications must be written.
 In addition, palladium does not change what can be programmed or run on the computing platform. Palladium will operate with any program the user specifies while maintaining security.
ASPECTS OF PALLADIUM
Palladium comprises two key components: hardware and software.
Hardware components
The protected operating environment provides the following basic mechanisms:
 Trusted space (or curtained memory). This is an execution space that is protected form external software attacks such as a virus.
 Sealed storage. Sealed storage is an authenticated mechanism that allows a program to store secrets that cannot be retrieved by untrusted programs such as a virus or Trojan horse. Information in sealed storage can’t be read by other un -trusted programs these stored secrets can be tied to the machine, the nexus of the application. Palladium will also provide mechanisms for the safe and controlled backup and migration of secrets to other machines. In other words it is a secured and encrypted part of the hard disk.
 Secure input and output. A secure path from the keyboard and mouse to palladium applications and a secure path from palladium applications to the screen ensure input-output security.
 Attestation. Attestation is a mechanism that allows the user to reveal selected characteristics of the operating environment to external requestors. In reality it takes the form of an encryption co-processor. It is entrusted with the job of encryption and decryption of data “to and from” the “sealed storage”.
These basic mechanisms provide a platform for building distributed trusted software.
Software components.
The following are the software components of palladium:
 Nexus (a technology formerly referred to as the “trusted operating root (TOR)”) This component manages trust functionality for palladium user-mode processes (agents). The nexus executes in kernel mode in the trusted space. It provides basic services to trusted agents, such as the establishment of the process mechanisms for communicating with trusted agents and other applications, and special trust services such as attestation of requests and the sealing and unsealing of secrets.
 Trusted agents. A trusted agent is a program or a service that runs in user mode in the trusted space. A trusted agent calls the nexus for security-related services and critical general services such as memory management. A trusted agent is able to store secrets using sealed storage and authenticates itself using the attestation services of the nexus. One of the main principles of trusted agents is that they can be trusted or not trusted by multiple entities, such as the user, an IT department, a merchant or a vendor.
Together, the nexus and trusted agents provide the following features:
 Trusted data storage, encryption services for applications to ensure data integrity and protection.
 Authenticated boot, facilities to enable hardware and software to authenticate itself.
WORKING OF PALLADIUM:
Palladium is a new hardware and software architecture. This architecture will include a new security computing chip and design changes to a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), chipsets, and peripheral devices, such as keyboards and printers. It also will enable applications and components of these applications to run in a protected memory space that is highly resistant to tempering and interference.
PROTECTION USING PALLADIUM:
Palladium prevents identity theft and unauthorized access to personal data on the user’s device while on the internet and on other networks. Transactions and processes are verifiable and reliable through the attestable hardware and software architecture and they cannot be imitated.
With palladium, a system’s secrets are locked in the computer and are only revealed on terms that the user has specified. In addition, the trusted user interface prevents snooping and impersonation. The user controls what is revealed and can separate categories of data on a single computer into distinct realms. Like a set of vaults, realms provide the assurance of reparability. With distinct identifiers, policies and categories of data for each, realms allow a user to have a locked-down work environment and fully open surfing environment at the same time, on the same computer.
Finally, the “ palladium” architecture will enable a new class of identity service providers that can potentially offer users choices for how their identities are represented in online transactions. These service providers can also ensure that the user is in control of policies for how personal information is revealed to others. In addition, palladium will allow users to employ identity service providers of their own choice.
Allowing multiple parties to independently evaluate and certify “palladium” capable systems means that users will be able to obtain verification of the system’s operation from organizations that they trust. In addition, this will form the basis for a strong business incentive to preserve and enhance privacy and security. Moreover, palladium allows any number of trusted internal or external entities to interact with a trusted component or trusted platform.
SHORTCOMINGS AND PIT FALLS OF PALLADIUM:
Though palladium can provide a higher degree of much needed data security it is not without its share of problems like:
1. Software and applications have to be rewritten to synchronize with palladium or new applications must be written.
2. Changes are to be made to the existing computer hardware to support palladium.
3. It would be a long time before this technology became commonplace.


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01-04-2011, 03:31 PM

Presented by:
Barkat Amirali Jiwani
R. Sandeep


.doc   rajesh.doc (Size: 166.5 KB / Downloads: 58)
ABSTRACT
The common problem faced today by all the computer professionals around the world is the security of their computers. Now, why do they need security? What are they afraid of? The answer is very simple and well known, a “HACKER”.
Hacking is a perennial concern for anyone who is into computer technology, either as a novice or as an expert. ‘Hacking’ and ‘Hackers’ are terms that generally tend to have a negative effect on people. Most people straightaway start associating ‘Hackers’ with computer criminals or people who cause harm to systems, release viruses etc .Now a days the media has been wrongly and outrageously referring to computer criminals as ‘Hackers’.
We on the other hand do not go with the media and people who refer computer criminals as ‘Hackers’. We at the same time do not blame them for holding such a negative opinion. The fact is that one tends to accept what is being fed to him. Well ‘Hackers’ in reality are actually good, pleasant and extremely intelligent people, who by using their knowledge in a constructive manner help organizations to secure documents and company secrets, help the government to protect national documents of strategic importance and even sometimes help justice to meet its ends by ferreting out electronic evidence. Rather, these are the people who help to keep computer criminals on the run. And that is why we insist that each and everybody who is somehow involved in computer technology need to know the hacking skills to protect his/her system from other hackers. After all a soldier who is well equipped with weapons is sent to war and not a farmer. We mean computer security starts with an educated user.
WHO’S THE CRACKER ANYWAYS????
What people should understand here is that there is a lot of difference between a ‘Cracker’ and a ‘Hacker’. A cracker on the other hand breaks into other systems and does the unwanted things, which are illegal .The reason they do this because they want to get quick popularity. But they fail to understand that this popularity is negative. Besides, cyber crime has become punishable under law, and is considered a serious offence. In fact the most successful people in computer technology are well worse with hacking skills.
SECURITY AND WINDOWS
Now a days all the computers, which we use, are operated by windows OS.We also use Unix OS. Unix is considered to be the most secured OS. Whenever the two words ‘Security’ and ‘Windows’ come in a same sentence it would force any hacker (and naughty crackers too) to laugh because every hacker starts learning hacking skills from Windows only. Here’s one universal way that would work on all systems. To do this reboot the system and wait for the message:
“Starting windows 9x”
When you see this on the screen, press F8. The boot menu will come up, select option 7, to boot into DOS. Then go to windows directory by typing:
C:/>cd windows
Then, rename all files with the extension .pwl by typing the following command:
C:/>cd windows>ren*.pwl*.xyz
Now, when the windows password login pops up, you can write anything in the place where the password has got to be typed. As you have renamed the password files, windows cannot find that file so when you enter a password. Windows just takes it as the original password.
There’s another way to crack the Windows login password. The Windows (9X) password is passed through a very weak algorithm and is quiet easy to crack. Windows stores this login password in *.pwl files in the c:\windows directory, as we mentioned earlier. The .pwl files have the filename, which the username corresponding to the password stored by it. We have taken a .pwl file from a Win 98 machine running IE5.0 and is as follows:
Now going through the contents of this .pwl file, we are not sure what the first five lines signifies, but the last two lines are the password but in an encrypted form. To actually crack the password, one needs a simple cracker coded in C.
PROTECTION (IT’S A BEGINNING………)
Now if Windows login password can be hacked so easily then where is the security for our system? Well only a hacker or a person with hacking skills can make his/her machine safer. He/she would (we did the same to our systems) probably disable the F8 key or the boot up key. They need to follow a simple procedure. They just need to edit the msdos.sys file by making it writeable and opening it in WordPad. Then by just adding the following:
Bootkeys=0
Bootdelay=0
makes the machine safer. Then save msdos.sys.
Unix is considered to be the most secure OS. The method used to store password is definitely more safe and secure in Unix systems. In most Unix systems, one will find that the passwords are stored in file called ‘passwd’ which is located at /etc/passwd. The password file has many lines of the following basic structure:
Brains: RqX6dqOZsf4BI: 2:3: Priyanka:/ home/priyanka:/bin/bash
The above line can be broken and arranged as follows:
User name : Brains
Encrypted password : RqX6dqOZsf4BI
User number : 2
Group number : 3
Actual name : Priyanka
Home directory : /home/priyanka:
Type of shell : /bin/bash
Now with the help of password cracker the above password can be cracked. Here also the security is breached easily.
THE FOUR CORNERS OF SECURITY
Security breach can happen from either inside or outside the network. Outside threats can come in either through the Internet gateway or e-mails. Inside threats can be from a disgruntled hacker or an imposter gaining access to a vulnerable system. The imposter could be a human being or a malicious code like a worm or Trojan that infects an unpatched system. Given the sources of threats, one need to consider four aspects when implementing network security:
FIREWALLS:- When someone enters a building, the security guard usually greets them. If they have an appropriate identification badge, they show it to the guard or swipe it through a reader. If all is OK, they pass through the guard’s checkpoint. However, if something’s wrong or if they are a visitor, they must first stop at the guard desk.
On a computer, the firewall acts much like a guard when it looks at network traffic destined for or received from another computer. The firewall determines if that traffic should continue on to its destination or be stopped. The firewall “guard” is important because it keeps the unwanted out and permits only appropriate traffic to enter and leave the computer.
To do this job, the firewall has to look at every piece of information – every packet – that tries to enter or leave a computer. Each packet is labeled with where it came from and where it wants to go. Some packets are allowed to go anywhere (the employee with the ID badge) while others can only go to specific places (visitors for a specific person). If the firewall allows the packet to proceed (being acceptable according to the rules), it moves the packet on its way to the destination. In most cases, the firewall records where the packet came from, where it’s going, and when it was seen. For people entering a building, this is similar to the ID card system keeping track of who enters or the visitor signing the visitor’s log.
PATCH MANAGEMENT If one of our appliances broke, we’d probably try to have it repaired. We’d call a repairperson whom we hope could do the job. What do we do when a software “appliance” – a program – or the operating system itself breaks? How do we restore the functions that they provide? Most vendors provide patches that are supposed to fix bugs in their products. Frequently these patches do what they’re supposed to do. However, sometimes a patch fixes one problem but causes another. For example, when a repairperson fixes an appliance they might have scratched the floor or damaged a countertop. For a computer, the repair cycle might have to be repeated until a patch completely fixes. Vendors often provide free patches on their web sites. They also provide a recall-like service. We can receive patch notices through email by subscribing to mailing lists operated by the programs’ vendors. Some vendors have gone beyond mailing lists. They provide programs bundled with their systems that automatically contact their web sites looking for patches specifically for our home computer.
ANTI VIRUS/ANTI-SPAM: If someone rang our doorbell and wanted to come into our living space to sell us something or to use our telephone, we’d need to make a decision whether or not to let them in. If they were a neighbor or someone we knew, we’d probably let them in. If we didn’t know them but believed their story and found them to be otherwise acceptable, say they were neat and clean and not threatening, we’d probably also let them in, but we’d watch them closely while they were in our space. Anti-virus programs work much the same way. These programs look at the contents of each file, searching for specific patterns that match a profile – called a virus signature – of something known to be harmful. For each file that matches a signature, the anti-virus program typically provides several options on how to respond, such as removing the offending patterns or destroying the file.
INTRUSION-DETECTION SYSTEM (IDS):-
Our network is being scanned for vulnerabilities. This may happen only once a month or twice a day, regardless, there are people out there probing our network and systems for weaknesses. If we have a system or network connected to the Internet, we become a target. By taking some of the basic measures we will be better prepared to log and identify these attempts. Once identified, we can track these probes and gain a better understanding of the threats to our network and react to these threats.
As far as Internet is concerned, a cracker can easily crack into anybody’s system from anywhere. The only way the victim can protect his/her system is by knowing hacking skills. As already mentioned, we insist that everybody should know the basics of hacking skills at least. Well have you ever wondered where Windows stores the Internet connection password when you have enabled the ‘save password’ option in the ‘connect to’ dialogue box of the dial up connection?


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20-04-2011, 01:33 AM

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30-04-2011, 02:22 PM


.ppt   17NWseccrypt.ppt (Size: 1.46 MB / Downloads: 56)
BANKING
SHOPPING
FILING TAX RETURNS
MILIATARY
N/W SECURITY IS LOOMING ON THE HORIZON AS A POTENTIALLY MASSIVE PROBLEM
SECRECY
AUTHENTICATION
NONREPUDIATION
INTEGRITY CONTROL

Encryption: only the authorized party can understand the encrypted message.
Data authentication: Ascertain that information exchanged is indeed the one from the sender.
Signature: allow people to verify the authenticity of the message or authenticate the peer user.
Cryptography
Cryptography

symmetric-key cryptography
public-key cryptography
Used for
authentication,
integrity protection,
encryption,
key management
C=E[P]
P=D[C]
DIFFERENT PUBLIC KEY AND PRIVATE KEY.
Sender A does the following:
Creates a message digest of the information to be sent.
Represents this digest as an integer ‘m’ between 0 and n-1.
Uses her private key(n,d) to compute the signatures=m^d mod n.
Sends this signature s to the recipient B.
Recipient B does the following:
Uses sender A’s public key(n,e) to compute integer v=s^e mod n.
Extracts the message digest from this integer.
Independently computes the message digest of info yhat has been signed.
If both message digests are identical,the signature is valid
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23-01-2012, 01:15 PM

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#14
27-06-2012, 01:41 PM

network security


.pdf   Network Security.pdf (Size: 1.54 MB / Downloads: 28)


Attacks, Services and Mechanisms


Security Attack: Any action that
compromises the security of information.
• Security Mechanism: A mechanism that is
designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a
security attack.
• Security Service: A service that enhances
the security of data processing systems and
information transfers. A security service
makes use of one or more security mechanisms.


Security Attacks


Interruption: This is an attack on
availability
• Interception: This is an attack on
confidentiality
• Modification: This is an attack on
integrity
• Fabrication: This is an attack on
authenticity



Security Services

• Confidentiality (privacy)
• Authentication (who created or sent the data)
• Integrity (has not been altered)
• Non-repudiation (the order is final)
• Access control (prevent misuse of resources)
• Availability (permanence, non-erasure)
– Denial of Service Attacks
– Virus that deletes files


Internet standards and RFCs

• The Internet society
– Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
– Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
– Internet Engineering Steering Group
(IESG)



Private-Key Cryptography

• traditional private/secret/single key cryptography
uses one key
• Key is shared by both sender and receiver
• if the key is disclosed communications are
compromised
• also known as symmetric, both parties are equal
– hence does not protect sender from receiver forging a
message & claiming is sent by sender


Public-Key Applications


• can classify uses into 3 categories:
– encryption/decryption (provide secrecy)
– digital signatures (provide authentication)
– key exchange (of session keys)
• some algorithms are suitable for all uses,
others are specific to one
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