ox2 engine
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10-01-2011, 06:03 AM


ABSTRACT

The unique ox2 engine has been hailed as the first breakthrough technology in internal combustion engine design since the introduction of the Otto-Four Cycle Engine. Preliminary studies have shown that ox2 will either meet or exceed governmental and environmental requirement.
In October 1993, the U.S government announced on world wide media that it was to heavily subsidize consortium acting under a developmental mandate which would within fifteen years at a budget of up to one trillion dollars, produce a new design configuration and prototypes to replace the existing internal combustion engines. The firm constituted under the consortium was named ‘ADVANCED ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES’ and the ox2 engine is its product. The engine contains 8 cylinders and is currently in the prototype testing stage.
In the name ‘ox2’, the alphabet ‘o’ symbolizes oxygen of the atmospheric air, ‘x’ symbolizes the variety of fuels including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid propane and methane which can be used while the number ‘2’ symbolizes the two inlet and exhaust ports, spark plugs in the engine housing and also the two power strokes in each cylinder for one complete revolution.
The engine has only six major components of which only three are moving parts, and results in low setup and production costs, and simplicity of design that promotes a high level of quality assurance and lower maintenance costs.



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LIST OF CONTENTS



Chapter No: CONTENTS
Page No:
1. History of the engine 5
2. Introduction to ox2 engine 7
3. Basic concept of the engine 8
4. Engine parts 10
5. Working of the engine 13
6. Technical aspect of the engine 18
7. Sectional Views 22
8. Working Comparison 25
9. Developments 27
10. Applications and advantages 29
11. Conclusion 34


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure no: Figure name Page no:
3.1 Otto cycle 8
4.1 Engine 10
5.1 Exploded view of the engine
15
5.2 Exploded view of the engine
16
7.1 Sectional view of the engine 22
7.2 Sectional view of the engine 23
7.3 Sectional view of the engine 24
8.1 Working comparison 25
10.1 Applications 29

CHAPTER 1
History of the engine:



Engines are so widely used that it is very clearly reflected in our day to day lives.The concept of the engine was born in the year 1862 when a French man Mr. Beau de Roches, noted the possibility of producing useable energy from the burning of fuel in a device which came to be known as the internal combustion engine.
It was believed that to produce energy in this manner, four principal operating functions would be required for any design configuration. They are:

• Intake
• Compression
• Power
• Exhaust

The idea of engine was conceptualized in the year 1872 when Dr. Otto developed the Otto-Four Stroke Cycle Engine based on Mr. Beau de Roches original theories. This totally revolutionizing idea changed the entire face of the world.
In 142 years the internal combustion engine has undergone no significant change to the basic design configuration, most modification have been made to the external components which includes

• Fuel delivery
• Ignition
• Turbo charging
• Porting
In 142 years the internal combustion engine has gone from the theoretical stage of one man to a world wide industry, producing in excess of one hundred and fifty million new engines per year with annual earnings in trillions of dollars.

The multi dimensional nature of the world’s internal combustion engine market makes the manufacturing of engines one of the world’s largest and most dynamic industries

In the present decade all engines have one issue in common, “The Demand for Change”, Environmental protection dominates. Engine manufacturers must now comply to the world’s stringently controlled emission standards and to develop engine technology in the future capable of meeti

CHAPTER 2
Introduction to ‘ox2 engine’


The unique ox2 engine has been hailed as the first breakthrough technology in internal combustion engine design since the introduction of the Otto-Four Cycle Engine. Preliminary studies have shown that ox2 will either meet or exceed governmental and environmental requirements.
In October 1993, the U.S government announced on world wide media that it was to heavily subsidize a consortium acting under a developmental mandate which would within fifteen years at a budget of up to one trillion dollars, produce a new design configuration and prototypes to replace the existing internal combustion engines. The firm constituted under the consortium was named ‘ADVANCED ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES’ and the ox2 engine is its product. The engine contains 8 cylinders and is currently in the prototype testing stage.
In the name ‘ox2’, the alphabet ‘o’ symbolizes oxygen of the atmospheric air, ‘x’ symbolizes the variety of fuels including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid propane and methane which can be used while the number ‘2’ symbolizes the two inlet and exhaust ports, spark plugs in the engine housing and also the two power strokes in each cylinder for one complete revolution.
The engine has only six major components of which only three are moving parts, and results in low setup and production costs, and simplicity of design that promotes a high level of quality assurance and lower maintenance costs.
The initial market selection for the ox2 engine is suitably diverse so as to enable the company to demonstrate to a wide range of industries, both the market and application potential of the ox2 engine.
CHAPTER 3
Basic concept of the engine

The basic concept of the engine is based on the Four Strokes of the Otto Cycle as detailed below:




Figure 3.1: Otto Cycle



3.1 Intake stroke:
In this stroke, fresh air fuel mixture is taken into the cylinder through the inlet port by the downward movement of the piston.. The exhaust port remains closed.
3.2. Compression stroke:
In this stroke, both the ports remains closed and the piston moves upwards
Compressing the air- fuel mixture.
3.3 Power stroke or Expansion stroke:
In this stroke, the spark plug ignites the compressed air- fuel mixture producing huge volume of gasses which expands. The resulting high pressure and temperature pushes the piston downwards doing the work. Both the ports remains closed during this stroke.
3.4 Exhaust stroke:
In this stroke, the exhaust port opens and the piston moves upwards forcing the expanded gasses to escape from the cylinder. The inlet port remains closed.
After the completion of one cycle, the next cycle starts and the process continue.

CHAPTER 4
Engine parts:



Figure 4.1: Engine

4.1 The major parts:

• HOUSING
• CYLINDER BLOCK
• TOP PISTON PLATE
• LOWER PISTON PLATE
• CAM SHAFT
• DRIVE SHAFT



4.2 The moving parts:

• CYLINDER BLOCK
• TOP PISTON PLATE
• LOWER PISTON PLATE



4.3 Engine part details:


Number of Combustion Chambers

8 Cylinders

System

4 Stroke

Diameter

12.8 inches / 325 mm

Width

10 inches / 254mm

Weight

125 lbs. / 56.8 kilos

Actual Cubic Capacity

66.25 c.i. / 1086 cc

Leverage Advantage

6.6 times a conventional combustion engine

Fuel

Any combustible gas or liquid





CHAPTER 5

Working of the engine:


The ox2 engine consists of 8 cylinders which are placed in a circle. The cylinders are connected to a cylinder head which in turn is connected to the outer cylinder housing. The pistons which are moving inside the cylinders have a base support of a piston plate. There are two piston plates for this purpose which connects the alternate pistons. These two piston plates are called top and lower piston plates. The pistons are part of the piston plates. They house a constant velocity rolling bearing joint on their outer diameter/inner diameter to enable a frictionless transition from reciprocating motion to rotary motion. There is a cam track at the bottom which facilitates the reciprocatory motion of the piston inside the cylinder due to its unique design.
The piston is also independently connected to the outer engine housing with the help of rollers. For this purpose, longitudinal slits are provided on the inner periphery of the engine housing into which the piston rollers are placed. There are also rollers provided at the bottom of each piston so as to guide it through the cam track.
The engine is started with the help of a drive shaft which is connected to the cam and it provides a rotary motion for the starting. A start up motor is provided for this purpose of driving the drive shaft. This rotary motion provided to the cam would rotate the cam track which would result in the reciprocatory motion of the piston inside the cylinder. As a result, the Otto Four Stroke Cycle proceeds inside all the cylinders and the engine starts. The start-up motor then stops working.



As the pistons reciprocate, the piston rollers rotating inside the engine housing also rotates along the longitudinal slits. However, the cam track at the bottom of the pistons, force it to move forward resulting in a circular motion. The piston rollers force the engine housing to rotate along with the pistons. Since the engine housing is connected to the cylinder head, the cylinders also move along with the pistons. As a result, the entire unit of the engine rotates. So the reciprocatory motion of the piston is converted to the rotary motion of the engine housing and this motion can be transmitted to the reduction gears with the help of an axial shaft.

5.1 Exploded view of the engine






Figure 5.1: Exploded view of the engine


5.2 Visualization of working:




Figure 5.2 : Visualization of working



CHAPTER6
Technical aspect of the engine:


6.1 Pistons:
The pistons of the engine are such that it has no piston skirts on their outer periphery. The piston skirts provide the support to the piston in a conventional engine. This is because in these engines, the piston remains in contact with the engine cylinder bore through the skirts. However, in the ox2 engine, the piston support is provided by the piston plates.
And the requirement of the piston skirts is thus eliminated. As a result, there is no side loading of the pistons against the cylinder bore. In fact at no time do the pistons contact the cylinder wall. The side loading of the piston creates huge amount of unwanted frictional force to exist and is a major cause of energy loss in a conventional engine. The energy is lost in the form of the heat generated. This high temperature generated can also cause the cylinders to break when run for a long time. In the ox2 engine, there is no energy dissipation and also there is no danger of damage to the cylinder walls.

6.2 Piston speed:
The ox2 piston speed, which is controlled by the fuel burn rate, remains constant throughout the entire power stroke. The inlet and exhaust ports do not open until the exhaust and power strokes have been fully completed. The ports then remain open long enough to ensure maximum operating efficiency. This process enables a more regulated mixture to be introduced prior to firing and also allows the significantly reduced exhaust gasses to be expelled efficiently.




6.3 Combustion chambers:
The combustion chambers are only slightly longer than the stroke and the pistons need only to be thick enough to house the rings. Since there are no piston skirts, the side loading of the piston against the cylinder wall is eliminated. Hence there is no danger of damage to the walls due to long running of the engine.

6.4 Flywheels:
A flywheel is an excellent short-term energy storage device. While a flywheel could be fitted to the OX2 engine as with any engine, the mass of the rotating block would act as a flywheel and the small fluctuations in the energy is removed. Hence a flywheel is required only when huge amount of energy is generated.

6.5 Horse power and output shaft speed:
The RPM’s of the engine are dependent upon size and application. As for acceptable output shaft RPM, outboard engines typically max at 6000 RPM, run a 2 to 1 reduction to the propeller equaling 3000 RPM. Therefore in this application an acceptable output shaft speed could be 3000 RPM. Likewise a rear or front wheel of an automobile spins at a little over 1000 RPM at 100 km p/h. Therefore a higher output shaft speed is not necessary. The reason for a high RPM being achieved from a crankshaft engine is to give a better horsepower number, whereas the torque an engine can develop at a particular RPM does the actual work. Thus the OX2 engine develops very high torque at reasonably low RPM thus reducing wear and enabling better control of the combustion process thereby resulting in better economy and emissions

Also as the pistons are part of a ring, the limiting factor relative to RPM would be when the dynamic force exceeds the limits of the material being used. (At normal operating RPM this is not considered a problem.) Limitations on RPM would be dependant upon engine stroke and engine size. The engine can be easily adapted to suit any application.

6.6 Timing:
The ox2 engine design enables the timing to be adjusted sufficiently to produce the most effective burn of the combustion fuel being used irrespective of the engine RPM. This highly efficient procedure is possible as the opening and closing of the ports is controlled by electronic chips. Also since there is no ports present in the combustion chamber during the compression stroke, there is no fear of preignition. Compare this to a conventional engine in which preignition occurs if the timing is advanced too far causing combustion prior to the top of the stroke. The result of preignition is resistance against the crankshaft, which causes a loss of energy.

6.7 Torque:
A unique feature of the ox2 engine is that it achieves considerable torque at all stages through its operating range. Consequently in most of the engine applications there would be no need for the engine to work at revolutions higher than 2500rpm. This would eliminate the need of a gear box and would reduce the engine wear.






6.8 Exhaust:
The ox2 engine is designed to have a minute quantity of exhaust gas fed back in to the combusting chamber, ensuring that the engine pressure is only slightly below the atmospheric pressure thus eliminating the majority of the vacuum created. The design ensures that there is no wastage of energy fighting vacuum and also allows for optimum compression regardless of the air/fuel delivery. Thus more fuel is used driving the piston and less is wasted pressurizing the combustion chamber. Because of the minute pressure differential, the air/fuel mixture induced into the cylinder does not drop in temperature. When the heat of recirculated exhaust gas is added, the fuel remains in a gaseous form, thus ensuring an efficient burn from the ox2 engine.


CHAPTER 7
Sectional View showing:

• Underside of the piston
• Piston plate
• Bottom piston rollers



Figure 7.1 Sectional view of the engine

• Top plate
• Cylinder head
• Spark plug
• Exhaust and inlet port




Figure 7.2: Sectional view of the engine


• Engine Block
• Cylinders
• Side piston rollers
• Spark plug





Figure 7.3: Sectional view of the engine

CHAPTER 8
Working Comparison:



Figure8.1: Working comparison

Advanced Engine Technologies Firm has shown that the ox2 engine produces more torque and horse power from a smaller displacement than a 5.7 liter V8 engine.

8.1 OX2 engine:
The cylinder block, drive shaft and piston plates rotate inside the engine housing. Lobes on the cam plate push the pistons into the cylinder bores, while igniting the air/fuel mixtures. Each cylinder fires twice during each revolution. drives the pistons back out and pushes the piston plate rollers along the cam plate track to keep the engine turning. The engine housing contains two spark plugs, two intake ports and two exhaust ports. Each cylinder fires twice during each revolution.
8.2 Four-stroke Otto engine:
Pistons travel up and down in the engine block and are connected to a crankshaft to convert the vertical motion into rotary motion. Each cylinder fires once every two revolutions of the crankshaft. Air and fuel enter the cylinder via ports in the cylinder heads.

83. Rotary engine:
A rotary engine has no pistons. Instead, a triangular shaped rotar spins inside the engine casing. The points of the rotor contact the walls of the housing to create chambers for intake/compression; ignition/power strike and exhaust. Each full revolution of the rotor results in three complete combustion cycles. Rotary engines are compact with high power output, but also are less fuel efficient and produce high levels of hydrocarbons.

CHAPTER 9
Developments:

The OX2 engine has been developed till the prototype level. Three prototypes of the engine have been developed by the Advanced Engine Technologies firm. The firm has announced that it has completed the first phase of OX2 engine port re-engineering. This re-designing was done after the testing of Design Level 1, OX2 test engine #1. AET engineers have successfully advanced the OX2 engine port shape and location from its earlier design.
Through engine modeling, Flow bench analysis, and eventual real-time engine lab testing, engineers have been able to re-engineer the intake and exhaust port shape and location on Design Level 2, OX2 engine #2. This re-engineering has resulted in a 15% improvement in the OX2 engine's airflow or also known as Volumetric Efficiency. The efficiency is now in the range of 92-95%. This improvement has also yielded a 16% improvement in torque and a 23% increase in horsepower. Also during testing, OX2 test engine #2 created a high torque, resulting in 16.8 horsepower at 650 rpm which is one-third the typical operating speed of traditional internal combustion engines.
In addition, this new porting configuration has increased the exhaust velocity by 200%. This will prove to be very valuable asset for the engine in future turbo applications. The early phase testing also allowed AET to identify airflow issues with the OX2 block. Design modifications to the engine's inner block have been made to improve airflow and increase compression.


The re-cast blocks will be retro-fitted to the current OX2 engine prototypes and they are expected to result in increased overall power. Validation testing of the Design Level 3, OX2 Engine #3 is also being carried out in the University of California. Utilizing an increased bore and shorten stroke, this design is expected to yield a marked improvement in overall engine performance.


CHAPTER 10
Applications and its advantages

10.1 Applications:
The following are examples of future applications for the OX2 Engine:


Figure 10.1: Applications


10.2 Advantages:


• Fuel efficient
• Low emissions
• Smaller
• Higher power to weight ratio
• Light weight
• Multi-fuelled
• Inexpensive


10.3 Disadvantage:



• Existing engine compartment design of the vehicles is to be modified
• The cooling system design is complex

CHAPTER 11
Conclusion:


The OX2 Engine will soon prove to be a revolution in the IC engine field with its eco friendly and versatile nature allowing it to be flexible with any type of fuel along with enhanced operation, maintenance costs and a longer useful life.

REFERENCE

 ox2engine.com

 Detroit News Article - ‘New engine excites many’
21st of April 2003, pg-5, column-2

 Advanced Engine Technologies of Albuquerque Magazine
‘ox2 engine revealed’ 19th of Dec 2002,pg 8, column-3
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HAZZARTRAJ91
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#2
17-07-2011, 03:44 PM

I need the Function of ox2 engine ppt
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18-07-2011, 10:29 AM

you can refer these page details of "ox2 engine"link bellow

topicideashow-to-ox2-engine
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