protein memory
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shibin.sree
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19-12-2009, 09:14 AM


While magnetic storage devices have been in use since the middle 1950's, today's computers and volumes of information require increasingly more efficient and faster methods of storing data. While the speed of integrated circuit has increased steadily over the past ten to fifteen years, the limits of these systems are rapidly approaching. In response to the rapidly changing face of computing and demand for physically smaller, greater capacity, a number of alternative methods to integrated circuit information storage have surfaced recently. Protein-based optical memory storage using protein bacteriorhodopsin is a promising one amongst them. Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-harvesting protein from bacteria that live in salt marshes that has shown some promise as feasible optical data storage.Since the dawn of time, man has tried to record important events and techniques for everyday life. At first, it was sufficient to paint on the family cave wall how one hunted. Then came people who invented spoken languages and the need arose to record what one was saying without hearing it firsthand. Therefore, years later, earlier scholars invented writing to convey what was being said. Pictures gave way to letters which represented spoken sounds. Eventually clay tablets gave way to parchment, which gave way to paper. Paper was, and still is, the main way people convey information.
However, in the mid twentieth century computers began to come into general use. Computers have gone through their own evolution in storage media. In the forties, fifties, and sixties, everyone who took a computer course used punched cards to give the computer information and store data. In 1956, researchers at IBM developed the first disk storage system. This was called RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control).
Since the days of punch cards, computer manufacturers have strived to squeeze more data into smaller spaces. That mission has produced both competing and complementary data storage technology including electronic circuits, magnetic media like hard disks and tape, and optical media such as compact disks.
Today, companies constantly push the limits of these technologies to improve their speed, reliability, and throughput -- all while reducing cost. The fastest and most expensive storage technology today is based on electronic storage in a circuit such as a solid state "disk drive" or flash RAM. This technology is getting faster and is able to store more information thanks to improved circuit manufacturing techniques that shrink the sizes of the chip features. Plans are underway for putting up to a gigabyte of data onto a single chip.
Magnetic storage technologies used for most computer hard disks are the most common and provide the best value for fast access to a large storage space. At the low end, disk drives cost as little as 25 cents per and provide access time to data in ten milliseconds. Drives can be ganged to improve reliability or throughput in a Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID). Magnetic tape is somewhat slower than disk, but it is significantly cheaper per megabyte. At the high end, manufacturers are starting to ship tapes that hold 40 gigabytes of data. These can be arrayed together into a Redundant Array of Inexpensive Tapes (RAIT), if the throughput needs to be increased beyond the capability of one drive. For randomly accessible removable storage; manufacturers are beginning to ship low-cost cartridges that combine the speed and random access of a hard drive with the low cost of tape. These drives can store from 100 megabytes to more than one gigabyte per cartridge.
Standard compact disks are also gaining a reputation as an incredibly cheap way of delivering data to desktops. They are the cheapest distribution medium around when purchased in large quantities ($1 per 650 megabyte disk). This explains why so much software is sold on CD-ROM today. With desktop CD-ROM recorders, individuals are able to publish their own CD-ROMs.
With existing methods fast approaching their limits, it is no wonder that a number of new storage technologies are developing. Currently, researches are looking at protein-based memory to compete with the speed of electronic memory, the reliability of magnetic hard-disks, and the capacities of optical/magnetic storage. We contend that three-dimensional optical memory devices made from bacteriorhodopsin utilizing the two photon read and write-method is such a technology with which the future of memory lies.


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projectsofme
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11-10-2010, 09:38 AM


.doc   PROTEIN MEMORIES.doc (Size: 57 KB / Downloads: 123)
INTRODUCTION

Molecular electronics is an emerging field that lies at the interface of chemical physics, electrical engineering and solid state science. It involves encoding, manipulation and retrieval of information at the macromolecular level in contrast to current techniques which are fast approaching their practical limits.

Molecular electronics provides new methodologies for high speed signal processing, holographic associate memories and 3D optical memories. Molecular devices are reliable and competitive with semiconductor devices when monomolecular state assignment averaging can be implemented. Biomolecular electronics offers significant promise in addressing some of the inherent limitations of semiconductor architecture.

BIOMOLECULAR COMPUTERS

Is a computer based on the dynamics of bio molecular activities rather than on electronic switching. By exploiting some special properties of biological molecules, particularly proteins, components that are smaller, faster and more powerful than any electronic device can be made to function.

Since 1960’s the computer industry has been compelled to make the individual components on semiconductor chips smaller and smaller inorder to manufacture large memories and more powerful processors economically. These chips consists of array of switches, usually of the kind known as logical gates that flip between two states-0 or 1 in response to electric current passing through them. If the trends toward miniaturization continues, the size of single logic gate will approach the size of molecules in the year 2030.

A serious roadblock to miniaturization is the increase in cost of manufacturing a chip. At some point the search for even smaller electronic devices may be limited by economics rather than physics. So the use of biological molecules as the active components in computer circuitry may offer an alternative approach that is more economical.

Molecules can potentially serve as computers switches because their atoms are mobile and change position in a predictable way. If we can direct the atomic motion and thereby constantly generate two discrete states in a molecule, we can use each state to represent either 0 or 1.This results in reduction of size, that is, a biomolecular computer in principle is one-fifth of the size of the present day semiconductor computer. This theoretically makes it thousand times modern computers.

Researchers have introduced parallel processing architecture which allows multiple rows of data to be manipulated simultaneously. In order to expand memory capacities, they are devising hardware that stores data in 3D instead of usual ways. So scientists have built nueral networks that mimic the leasing by association capabilities of the brain. The ability of creating proteins to change their properties in response to light should simplify the hardware required for its implementations.

Although no computer components made from proteins are in the market yet, ongoing international research efforts are making enticing headway. Several molecules are under consideration for the use in computers. Bacteriorhodopsin has generated the most interest.

ORIGIN IN SALT MARSH

Bacteriorhodopsin is a light harvesting protein in the purple membrane of a micro organism called Halobacterium halobium .Bacterior-hodopsin , the bacterial protein , is the basic unit of protein memory and is the key protein in Halobacterial photosynthesis .It functions like a light –driven photo pump. Under exposure to light it transports photons from the halobacterial cell to another medium, changes its mode of operation from photosynthesis to respiration, and converts light energy to chemical energy. The response of this molecule to light energy can be utilised to frame prutein memories.

Bacteriorhodopsin grows in salt marshes ,where temperature can exceed 150 degree F for the extended time period and the salt concentration is approximately six times that of sea water. Survival in such an environment implies that this protein can resist thermal and photochemical damages. Upon absorption of light it generates a chemical and osmotic potential that serves as energy source. It has the ability to form thin films that exhibit excellent optical characteristics and offer long term stability .

ORIGIN IN SALT MARSH

Bacteriorhodopsin is a light harvesting protein in the purple membrane of a micro organism called Halobacterium halobium .Bacterior-hodopsin , the bacterial protein , is the basic unit of protein memory and is the key protein in Halobacterial photosynthesis .It functions like a light –driven photo pump. Under exposure to light it transports photons from the halobacterial cell to another medium, changes its mode of operation from photosynthesis to respiration, and converts light energy to chemical energy. The response of this molecule to light energy can be utilised to frame prutein memories.

Bacteriorhodopsin grows in salt marshes ,where temperature can exceed 150 degree F for the extended time period and the salt concentration is approximately six times that of sea water. Survival in such an environment implies that this protein can resist thermal and photochemical damages. Upon absorption of light it generates a chemical and osmotic potential that serves as energy source. It has the ability to form thin films that exhibit excellent optical characteristics and offer long term stability .
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suresh.kopella
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#3
18-02-2011, 08:21 PM

i want ppt for protein memory seminar and presentation
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seminar addict
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06-02-2012, 11:59 AM

to get information about the topic PROTEIN MEMORIES full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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