safe handling of chlorine full presentation
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#1
28-02-2011, 10:02 AM



.ppt   safe handling of chlorine.ppt (Size: 3.87 MB / Downloads: 191)
safe handling of chlorine
Production process

Raw material = Raw salt (Nacl) + Electricity
 The salt is dissolved with water to form Brine.
 Impurities are removed by chemical treatment, settling and filtration.
 The purified Brine is pumped to electrolytic membrane cell Decomposing brine into chlorine, caustic soda and hydrogen.
 Chlorine gas leaves the cell is cooled, dried, compressed and liquefied by using refrigeration machines, collect this liquid chlorine in CPV’s and transfer in to the storage vessels located in Bottling plant.
 Filled in Tonners(900kg) and Cylinders(100kg,50kg).
Cell house reaction details
Stages of chlorine production process
Physical & Chemical properties of chlorine
Colour: Greenish yellow gas, Clear amber colour liquid
Odour: Irritating and pungent
Molecular symbol: Cl2
Molecular weight: 70.906
2.5 times heavier than air 1.5 times than H2O
Boiling point: -34.05 0 at 1 atmosphere pressure
Compressibility of liquid: 0.0118 % decrease of liquid volume per atmosphere increase of pressure
Solubility in water(25 0 C, 1 atm) : 6 Kg/m3
Maximum solubility at 9.40c : 1%
Freezing point : -100.980c at 1atm pressure.
Critical temp: 1440c.
Critical pressure :76.1atm.
Density of liquid chlorine :1.468g/cc at o0c.
Density of dry chlorine gas : 3.209g/litre at 00c and 1atm.
Specific volume of liquid chlorine : 0.6812cc/g at 00c and3.617atm.
Specific volume of dry chlorine gas : 311.7cc/g at 00c and 1 atm.
Viscosity of liquid chlorine : 0.0035g/cm-sec at 200c .
Latent heat of vaporization : 68.7g cal/g at (-34.50c).
Vapour pressure at 200c : 5.6atm.
 Chlorine has great affinity towards Hydrogen, even at ambient temperatures. A mixture of chlorine and hydrogen comprising of more than 5% of either component can react with explosive violence, forming hydrogen chloride.
 Chlorine reacts steadily with NaOH and lime to form hypochlorite.
 Chlorine reacts rapidly with Ammonia.
 Neither liquid nor gaseous chlorine is explosive or flammable
 React steadily with many organic substances usually with the evolution of heat and in some cases resulting in explosion.
 Below 1200c Iron, copper , steel , Lead, Nickel, Platinum $ Silver are resistant to dry chlorine
 Platinum, silver & titanium are resistant to wet chlorine
 Tantalum, PE & FRP are resistant to both wet and dry chlorine.
 P.V.C and polypropylene are unsuitable for wet and dry chlorine in pressure line
Key uses and application
1. As disinfectant
• Owing to its strong oxidizing properties Chlorine is very effectively used to control bacteria and viruses in drinking water.
• A small residue of chlorine is left in the water to retain the necessary antiseptic or fungicidal properties.
2. Pharmaceuticals
3. Crop protection chemicals
4. Bleaching agent
5. Manufacturing of fuels, plastics, dyes, cosmetics, coatings, clothing, electronics, Construction materials, Automotive parts, Food materials, Cosmetics, Metals etc
Hazards associated with chlorine
Physiological effects of chlorine
 Respiratory irritant.
 It causes restlessness, throat irritation, sneezing and copious salivation.
 Lung tissues may be affected, resulting in pulmonary edema.
 The persons afflicted with asthma, bronchitis and other chronic lung conditions should not be employed in areas where chlorine is handled.
 The threshold limit value of chlorine accepted at present is 2.9 mg/m3 of air.
Physiological effects of various concentrations of chlorine gas on human beings
Acute health effect
Liquid chlorine in contact with any part of the body will result in freeze burn.
Inhaling the gas causes coughing, tears and breathing difficulties
If person is trapped for a long period in high chlorine concentration atmosphere loss of consciousness and possibly death can result.
Symptoms are reversible if an exposed person quickly is removed from the contaminated area and given prompt medical attention.
Complete recovery is normal
Chronic human health effects=
No significant connection between chronic exposure to low concentrations of chlorine and adverse health effects.
No significant effects have been indicated for chlorine levels normally found in work places where chlorine is handled. Those levels typically are well below one ppm.
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#2
07-05-2011, 02:35 PM

Submitted By:-
MANOJ MUNDADAN


.doc   SEMINAR REPORT chlorine.doc (Size: 655.5 KB / Downloads: 66)
INTRODUCTION
Chlorine gas is greenish-yellow, non-flammable, and about 2.5 times heavier than air. Most chlorine is manufactured electrolytically by the diaphragm, membrane, or mercury cell process. In each process, a salt solution (sodium or potassium chloride) is electrolyzed by the action of direct electric current which converts chloride ions to elemental chlorine. Chlorine is also produced in a number of other ways, for example, by electrolysis of molten sodium or magnesium chloride to make elemental sodium or magnesium metal; by electrolysis of hydrochloric acid; and by non-electrolytic processes.
Salt +Water + Electricity → Chlorine + Caustic + Hydrogen
2NaCl + 2H2 O + e− → Cl2 +2NaOH + H2
Fig.1-Membrane Cell
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
1. Diaphragm Cell Technology
Currently in North America, most chlorine production is from diaphragm cell technology. The products of this type of cell are chlorine gas, hydrogen gas, and cell liquor composed of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride solution.
A nearly saturated sodium chloride solution (brine) enters the diaphragm cell anolyte compartment and flows through the diaphragm to the cathode section. Chloride ions are oxidized at the anode to produce chlorine gas. Hydrogen gas and hydroxide ions are produced at the cathode. Sodium ions migrate across the diaphragm from the anode compartment to the cathode side to produce cell liquor containing 10% to 12% sodium hydroxide. Some chloride ions also migrate across the diaphragm resulting in the cell liquor containing about 16% sodium chloride. The cell liquor is typically concentrated to 50% sodium hydroxide by an evaporation process. The salt recovered in the evaporation process is returned to the brine system for reuse.
2. Membrane Cell Technology
Membrane cell technology uses sheets of perfluorinated polymer ion exchange membranes to separate the anodes and cathodes within the electrolyzer. Ultra-pure brine is fed to the anode compartments, where chloride ions are oxidized to form chlorine gas. The membranes are cation selective resulting in predominantly sodium ions and water migrating across the membranes to the cathode compartments. Water is reduced to form hydrogen gas and hydroxide ions at the cathodes. In the cathode compartment, hydroxide ions and sodium ions combine to form sodium hydroxide. Membrane electrolyzers typically produce 30% to 35% sodium hydroxide, containing less than 100 ppm of sodium chloride. The sodium hydroxide can be concentrated further, typically to 50%, using evaporators.
3. Mercury Cell Technology
Mercury Cell technology uses a stream of mercury flowing along the bottom of the electrolyzer as the cathode. The anodes are suspended parallel to the base of the cell, a few millimeters above the flowing mercury. Brine is fed into one end of the cell box and flows by gravity between the anodes and the cathode. Chlorine gas is evolved and released at the anode. The sodium ions are deposited along the surface of the flowing mercury cathode. The alkali metal dissolves in the mercury, forming a liquid amalgam. The amalgam flows by gravity from the electrolyzer to the carbon-filled decomposer, where de-ionized water is added. The water chemically strips the alkali metal from the mercury, producing hydrogen and 50% sodium hydroxide. The mercury is then pumped back to the cell inlet, where the electrolysis process is repeated.
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour: Greenish yellow gas, Clear amber colour liquid
• Odour: Irritating and pungent
• Molecular symbol: Cl2
• 2.5 times heavier than air 1.5 times than H2O
• Molecular weight: 70.906
• Boiling point: -34.05 0 at 1 atmosphere pressure
• Compressibility of liquid: 0.0118 % decrease of liquid volume per atmosphere increase of pressure
• Solubility in water (25 0 C, 1 atm): 6 Kg/m3
• Maximum solubility at 9.40c : 1%
• Freezing point: -100.980c at 1atm pressure.
Critical temp: 1440c.
Critical pressure: 76.1atm.
Density of liquid chlorine: 1.468 g/cc at o0c.
Density of dry chlorine gas : 3.209g/litre at 00c and 1atm.
Specific volume of liquid chlorine : 0.6812cc/g at 00c and3.617atm.
Specific volume of dry chlorine gas: 311.7cc/g at 00c and 1 atm.
Viscosity of liquid chlorine : 0.0035g/cm-sec at 200c .
Latent heat of vaporization: 68.7g cal/g at (-34.50c).
Vapour pressure at 20 0C: 5.6atm.
• Chlorine has great affinity towards Hydrogen, even at ambient temperatures. A mixture of chlorine and hydrogen comprising of more than 5% of either component can react with explosive violence, forming hydrogen chloride.
• Chlorine reacts steadily with NaOH and lime to form hypochlorite.
• Chlorine reacts rapidly with Ammonia.
• Neither liquid nor gaseous chlorine is explosive or flammable
• React steadily with many organic substances usually with the evolution of heat and in some cases resulting in explosion.
• Below 1200c Iron, copper, steel, Lead, Nickel, Platinum $ Silver are resistant to dry chlorine
• Platinum, silver & titanium are resistant to wet chlorine
• Tantalums, PE & FRP are resistant to both wet and dry chlorine.
• P.V.C and polypropylene are unsuitable for wet and dry chlorine in pressure line.
USES AND APPLICATION
1. As disinfectant

Owing to its strong oxidizing properties Chlorine is very effectively used to control bacteria and viruses in drinking water. A small residue of chlorine is left in the water to retain the necessary antiseptic or fungicidal properties.
2. Pharmaceuticals
3. Crop protection chemicals
4. Bleaching agent
5. Manufacturing of fuels, plastics, dyes, cosmetics, coatings, clothing, electronics, Construction materials, Automotive parts, Food materials, Cosmetics, Metals etc.
Chlorine Transportation
Chlorine is normally shipped as a liquefied compressed gas. The transportation of chlorine by all modes is controlled by various regulations. It is the responsibility of each person shipping or transporting chlorine to know and to comply with all applicable regulations.
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINE
Physiological Effects Of Chlorine

Respiratory irritant. It causes restlessness, throat irritation, sneezing and copious salivation. Lung tissues may be affected, resulting in pulmonary edema. The persons afflicted with asthma, bronchitis and other chronic lung conditions should not be employed in areas where chlorine is handled. The threshold limit value of chlorine accepted at present is 2.9 mg/m3 of air.
Physiological Effects Of Various Concentrations Of Chlorine Gas On Human Beings
Acute Health Effect
Liquid chlorine in contact with any part of the body will result in freeze burn. Inhaling the gas causes coughing, tears and breathing difficulties. If person is trapped for a long period in high chlorine concentration atmosphere loss of consciousness and possibly death can result.
Symptoms are reversible if an exposed person quickly is removed from the contaminated area and given prompt medical attention. Complete recovery is normal
Chronic Human Health Effects
No significant connection between chronic exposure to low concentrations of chlorine and adverse health effects. No significant effects have been indicated for chlorine levels normally found in work places where chlorine is handled. Those levels typically are well below one ppm.
Impact On Aquatic Life
Chlorine is the best disinfectant added to water to destroy or deactivate diseases. Elevated chlorine levels can create aesthetic problem strong taste and odour and if organic matter is present, it can result in the creation of trihalomethanes , which are potentially carcinogenic with liver and kidney .Not likely to cause permanent environmental damage
Impact On Animals
No specific chronic impact on animals other than the common effects. Such as irritation on eyes and mucus membranes.
Impact On Vegetation
Chlorine bleaches leaves. Leaves may turn brown and fall off because chlorine stops the plants from producing chlorophyll. Retard the yield and growth rate. Healthy plants recover over time.
Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  PRESENTATION ON MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MATERIALS study tips 0 353 04-06-2013, 12:03 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Full Report on Nanotechnology project girl 1 554 06-02-2013, 10:27 AM
Last Post: project girl
  High-performance concrete full report seminar tips 0 442 16-01-2013, 04:29 PM
Last Post: seminar tips
  Thermodynamics full report seminar tips 0 444 09-11-2012, 04:21 PM
Last Post: seminar tips
  PRESENTATION ON WATER TREATMENT seminar class 0 3,213 28-02-2011, 03:38 PM
Last Post: seminar class
  chemisty seminar or presentation topic list (a big bundle) computer science crazy 4 11,166 28-01-2010, 08:31 AM
Last Post: computer science technology