space robotics full report
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21-01-2010, 11:27 PM



.doc   space robotics seminar report.doc (Size: 443 KB / Downloads: 1,201)
ABSTRACT
Robot is a mechanical body with the brain of a computer. Integrating the sensors and the actuators and with the help of the computers, we can use it to perform the desired tasks. Robot can do hazardous jobs and can reach places where itâ„¢s difficult for human beings to reach. Robots, which substitute the manned activities in space, are known as space robots. The interest in this field led to the development of new branch of technology called space robotics. Through this paper, I intend to discuss about the applications, environmental condition, testing and structure of space robots.
CONTENTS

Chapter -I
INTRODUCTION
Robot is a system with a mechanical body, using computer as its brain. Integrating the sensors and actuators built into the mechanical body, the motions are realised with the computer software to execute the desired task. Robots are more flexible in terms of ability to perform new tasks or to carry out complex sequence of motion than other categories of automated manufacturing equipment. Today there is lot of interest in this field and a separate branch of technology Ëœroboticsâ„¢ has emerged. It is concerned with all problems of robot design, development and applications. The technology to substitute or subsidise the manned activities in space is called space robotics. Various applications of space robots are the inspection of a defective satellite, its repair, or the construction of a space station and supply goods to this station and its retrieval etc. With the over lap of knowledge of kinematics, dynamics and control and progress in fundamental technologies it is about to become possible to design and develop the advanced robotics systems. And this will throw open the doors to explore and experience the universe and bring countless changes for the better in the ways we live.
1.1 AREAS OF APPLICATION
The space robot applications can be classified into the following four categories
1 In-orbit positioning and assembly: For deployment of satellite and for assembly of modules to satellite/space station.
2 Operation: For conducting experiments in space lab.
3 Maintenance: For removal and replacement of faulty modules/packages.
4 Resupply: For supply of equipment, materials for experimentation in space lab and for the resupply of fuel.
The following examples give specific applications under the above categories
Scientific experimentation:
Conduct experimentation in space labs that may include
¢ Metallurgical experiments which may be hazardous.
¢ Astronomical observations.
¢ Biological experiments.
Assist crew in space station assembly
¢ Assist in deployment and assembly out side the station.
¢ Assist crew inside the space station: Routine crew functions inside the space station and maintaining life support system.
Space servicing functions
¢ Refueling.
¢ Replacement of faulty modules.
¢ Assist jammed mechanism say a solar panel, antenna etc.
Space craft enhancements
¢ Replace payloads by an upgraded module.
¢ Attach extra modules in space.

Space tug
¢ Grab a satellite and effect orbital transfer.
¢ Efficient transfer of satellites from low earth orbit to geostationary orbit.
1.2 SPACE SHUTTLE TILE REWATERPROOFING ROBOT
TESSELLATOR

Tessellator
Tessellator is a mobile manipulator system to service the space shuttle.The method of rewaterproofing for space shuttle orbiters involves repetitively injecting the extremely hazardous dimethyloxysilane (DMES) into approximately 15000 bottom tile after each space flight. The field robotic center at Carneige Mellon University has developed a mobile manipulating robot, Tessellator for autonomous tile rewaterproofing. Its automatic process yields tremendous benefit through increased productivity and safety.
In this project and implimentation, a 2D-vehicle workspace covering and vehicle routing problem has been formulated as the Travelling Workstation Problem (TWP). In the TWP, a workstation is defined as a vehicle which occupies or serves a certain area and it can travel; a workspace is referred to as a 2D actuation envelop of manipulator systems or sensory systems which are carried on the workstation; a work area refers to a whole 2D working zone for a workstation.
The objective of the TWP is
1 To determine the minimum number of workspaces and their layout, in which, we should minimize the overlapping among the workspaces and avoid conflict with obstacles.
2 To determine the optimal route of the workstation movement, in which the workstation travels over all workspaces within a lowest cost (i.e. routing time).
The constraints of the problem are
1) The workstation should serve or cover all workareas.
2) The patterns or dimensions of each workspace are the same and
3) There some geographical obstacles or restricted areas.
In the study, heuristic solutions for the TWP, and a case study of Tessellator has been conducted. It is concluded that the covering strategies, e.g. decomposition and other layout strategies yield satisfactory solution for workspace covering, and the cost-saving heuristics can near-optimally solve the routing problem. The following figure shows a sample solution of TWP for Tessellator.

Path of tessellator on 2D workspace of space shuttle
1.3 ROBOTS TO REFUEL SATELLITES
The US department of defense is developing an orbital-refueling robot that could expand the life span of American spy satellites many times over, new scientists reported. The robotic refueler called an Autonomous Space Transporter and Robotic Orbiter (ASTRO) could shuttle between orbiting fuel dumps and satellites according to the Defense Advance Research Projects Agency. Therefore, life of a satellite would no longer be limited to the amount of fuel with which it is launched. Spy satellites carry a small amount of fuel, called hydrazine, which enable them to change position to scan different parts of the globe or to go into a higher orbit. Such maneuvering makes a satellites position difficult for an enemy to predict. But, under the current system, when the fuel runs out, the satellite gradually falls out of orbit and goes crashing to the earth. In the future the refueler could also carry out repair works on faulty satellites, provided the have modular electronic systems that can be fixed by slot in replacements.
Chapter II
SPACE ROBOT”CHALLENGES IN DESIGN AND TESTING
Robots developed for space applications will be significantly different from their counter part in ground. Space robots have to satisfy unique requirements to operate in zero Ëœgâ„¢ conditions (lack of gravity), in vacuum and in high thermal gradients, and far away from earth. The phenomenon of zero gravity effects physical action and mechanism performance. The vacuum and thermal conditions of space influence material and sensor performance. The degree of remoteness of the operator may vary from a few meters to millions of kilometers. The principle effect of distance is the time delay in command communication and its repercussions on the action of the arms. The details are discussed below
2.1 ZERO Ëœgâ„¢ EFFECT ON DESIGN
The gravity free environment in which the space robot operates possesses both advantages and disadvantages. The mass to be handled by the manipulator arm is not a constraint in the zero Ëœgâ„¢ environment. Hence, the arm and the joints of the space robot need not withstand the forces and the moment loads due to gravity. This will result in an arm which will be light in mass. The design of the manipulator arm will be stiffness based and the joint actuators will be selected based on dynamic torque (i.e.; based on the acceleration of the arm). The main disadvantage of this type of environment is the lack of inertial frame. Any motion of the manipulator arm will induce reaction forces and moment at the base which inturn will disturb the position and the altitude. The problem of dynamics, control and motion planning for the space robot is considering the dynamic interactions between the robot and the base (space shuttle, space station and satellite). Due to the dynamic interaction, the motion of the space robot can alter the base trajectory and the robot end effector can miss the desired target due to the motion of the base. The mutual dependence severely affects the performance of both the robot and the base, especially, when the mass and moment of inertia of the robot and the payload are not negligible in comparison to the base. Moreover, inefficiency in planning and control can considerably risk the success of space missions. The components in space do not stay in position. They freely float and are a problem to be picked up. Hence, the components will have to be properly secured. Also the joints in space do not sag as on earth. Unlike on earth the position of the arm can be within the band of the backlash at each joint.

2.2 VACUUM EFFECT AND THERMAL EFFECT
The vacuum in space can create heat transfer problems and mass loss of the material through evaporation or sublimation. This is to be taken care by proper selection of materials, lubricants etc., so as to meet the total mass loss (TML) of <1% and collected volatile condensable matter (CVCM) of <0.1%. The use of conventional lubricants in bearings is not possible in this environment. The preferred lubricants are dry lubricants like bonded/sputtered/ion plated molybdenum disulphide, lead, gold etc. Cold welding of molecularly similar metal in contact with each other is a possibility, which is to be avoided by proper selection of materials and dry lubricants. Some of the subsystem that cannot be exposed to vacuum will need hermetical sealing. The thermal cycles and large thermal variations will have to be taken care in design of robot elements. Low temperature can lead to embrittlement of the material, weaken adhesive bonding and increase friction in bearings. Large thermal gradients can lead to distortion in structural elements and jamming of the mechanism. This calls for the proper selection of the materials whose properties are acceptable in the above temperature ranges and the selection of suitable protective coatings and insulation to ensure that the temperature of the system is within allowable limits.
2.3 OTHER FACTORS
One of the prime requirements of space systems is lightweight and compactness. The structural material to be used must have high specific strength and high specific stiffness, to ensure compactness, minimum mass and high stiffness. The other critical environment to which the space robot will be subjected to are the dynamic loads during launch. These dynamic loads are composed of sinusoidal vibrations, random vibrations, acoustic noise and separation shock spectra.
The electrical and electronic subsystems will have to be space qualified to take care of the above environmental conditions during launch and in orbit. The components must be protected against radiation to ensure proper performance throughout its life in orbit.
The space robots will have to possess a very high degree of reliability and this is to be achieved right from the design phase of the system. A failure mode effect and critical analysis (FMECA) is to be carried out to identify the different failure modes effects and these should be addressed in the design by
¢ Choosing proven/reliable designs.
¢ Having good design margins.
¢ Have design with redundancy.
2.4 SPACE MODULAR MANIPULATORS
The unique thermal, vacuum and gravitational conditions of space drive the robot design process towards solutions that are much different from the typical laboratory robot. JSC's A&R Division is at the forefront of this design effort with the prototypes being built for the Space Modular Manipulators (SMM) project and implimentation. The first SMM joint prototype has completed its thermal-mechanical-electrical design phase, is now under construction in the JSC shops, and is scheduled for thermal-vac chamber tests in FY94.
FY93 was the SMM project and implimentation's first year, initiating the effort with a MITRE Corporation review of the existing space manipulator design efforts (RMS and FTS) and interaction with ongoing development teams (RANGER, JEM, SPDM, STAR and SAT). Below this system level, custom component vendors for motors, amplifiers, sensors and cables were investigated to capture the state-of-the-art in space robot design. Four main design drivers were identified as critical to the development process:
1. Extreme Thermal Conditions;
2. High Reliability Requirements;
3. Dynamic Performance; and
4. Modular Design.
While these design issues are strongly coupled, most robot design teams have handled them independently, resulting in an iterative process as each solution impacts the other problems. The SMM design team has sought a system level approach that will be demonstrated as prototypes, which will be tested in the JSC thermal-vacuum facilities.
The thermal-vacuum conditions of space are the most dramatic difference between typical laboratory robot and space manipulator design requirements. Manufacturing robots operate in climate controlled, \|O(+,-)2K factory environments, where space manipulators must be designed for \|O(+,) 75K temperature variations with 1500 W/m2 of solar flux. Despite these environmental extremes, the technology to model and control robot precision over a wide temperature range can be applied to terrestrial robotic operations where the extreme precision requirements demand total thermal control, such as in semiconductor manufacturing and medical robot applications.
Thermal conditions impact reliability by cycling materials and components, adding to the dynamic loading that causes typical robot fatigue and inaccuracy. MITRE built a customised thermal analysis model, a failure analysis model using FEAT, and applied the fault tolerance research funded by JSC at the University of Texas. The strategy is to layer low level redundancy in the joint modules with a high level, redundant kinematic system design, where minor joint failures can be masked and serious failures result in reconfigured arm operation. In this approach, all four design drivers were addressed in the selection of the appropriate level of modular design as a 2-DOF joint module.
The major technical accomplishments for the FY93 SMM project and implimentation are:
1 Conceptual and detailed design of first joint prototype;
2 Detailed design and fabrication of thermal-vacuum test facility;
3 Custom design of thermal-vac rated motors, bearings, sensors and cables; and
4 Published two technical papers (R. Ambrose & R. Berka) on robot thermal design.
Chapter-III
SYSTEM VERIFICATION AND TESTING
The reliability is to be demonstrated by a number of tests enveloping all the environmental conditions (thermal and vacuum) that the system will be subjected to. Verification of functions and tests will be conducted on subsystems, subassemblies and final qualification and acceptance tests will be done on complete system. The most difficult and the nearly impossible simulation during testing will be zero Ëœgâ„¢ simulation.
The commonly used simulations for zero Ëœgâ„¢ are
1 Flat floor test facility: It simulates zero Ëœgâ„¢ environments in the horizontal plane. In this system flat floor concept is based on air bearing sliding over a large slab of polished granite.
2 Water immersion: Reduced gravity is simulated by totally submerging the robot under water and testing. This system provides multi degree of freedom for testing. However, the model has to be water-resistant and have an overall specific gravity of one. This method is used by astronauts for extra vehicular activities with robot.
3 Compensation system: Gravitational force is compensated by a passive and vertical counter system and actively controlled horizontal system. The vertical system comprises the counter mechanism and a series of pulleys and cables that provide a constant upward force to balance the weight of the robot. However, the counter mechanism increases the inertia and the friction of joints of rotating mechanism.
3.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND CALIBRATION STRATEGIES FOR SPACE ROBOTS
Predictable safe and cost efficient operation of a robotic device for space applications can best be achieved by programming it offline during the preparation for the mission. Computer aided design techniques are used to assure that the movement of the robot are predictable. A software model of the robot and its work cell is made and this must be compatible with the model of the environment in which the robot must perform. Cost efficiency requirements dictate that a robot be calibrated, after which its performance must be checked against specified requirements.
Proper use of miniaturized sensing technology is needed to produce a robot of minimum size, power requirement and consumption and mass. This often requires minimizing the number and the type of sensors needed, and maximizing the information (such as position, velocity, and acceleration) which is gained from each sensor.
The study of methods of assessing the performance of a robot, choosing its sensors and performing calibration and test, ESA passed a contract with industry. Results of this work are applicable to any robot whose kinematics chain needs accurate geometrical modeling.
3.1.1 ROBOT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
The objectives of robot performance assessment are
¢ To identify the main source of error which perturb the accuracy of the arm.
¢ To decide if the arm or the work cell must be calibrated.
¢ To compare the expected improvement in accuracy in calibration.
The performance of the robot is assessed by making mathematical model of the characteristics of the error source in each of its sub system such as the joint, the robot link or its gripper. From these the effects of errors on the positioning accuracy of end effector (the functioning tip of the robot arm) can be evaluated.
Error sources are identified by a bottom up analysis, which tale account of the capabilities of state of the art production technology. For each robot subsystem error sources are identified and are sorted into three categories.
¢ Systematic error which do not vary with time, such as parallelism, concentricity and link length.
¢ Pseudo systematic error, which are time variant yet predictable such as temperature induced effects.
¢ Random errors, which vary with time and cannot be, predicted such as encoded noise.
Once the error source have been classified and its magnitude defined, various statistical methods may be used to evaluate its effects when they work in combination. Simply adding all the errors, take no account of their statistical nature and gives an estimate which is safe but unduly pessimistic; misapplication of statistics can produce an estimate, which is too optimistic.
Accuracy of some painting mechanism is frequently estimated by separately eliminating the root mean square value of each of the three error types identified above and adding them. In the case of AMTS project and implimentation, all error sources were considered as statistical variables and a single root mean square error at the end effector was of interest. The bottom up approach used to establish the contribution of each power source error source was validated taking the case of manipulator for which a worst case accuracy of 2.7mm was predicted. This was very close to its average accuracy of 2mm.
3.1.2 ROBOT CALIBRATION
If the performance prediction has shown that calibration is needed to compensate for errors, a proper calibration approach is required.
Ideally, all calibration must be done on ground. In orbit calibration procedures should be limited to crosschecking the validity of model developed on ground and if necessary correcting for errors such as microslip page or pressure gradient.
To keep the flight hardware simple, the in orbit calibration should be achieved using sensors already available in the robot.
Calibration is performed in five steps:
¢ Modeling, in which a parametric description of the robot is developed, introducing geometric parameters such as link length and non geometric parameters such as control parameters.
¢ Measurement, in which a set of robot poses (position and orientation) and encoder data are measured using real robot to provide inputs to the identification test step.
¢ Identification, which uses the parametric model and the measured data to determine the optimal set of error parameters.
¢ Model implementation, which may be done either by updating the root controller data or by correcting the robot pose with expected standard deviation of the error.
¢ Verification, that the improvement in the positioning accuracy of the robot in all three axes have been achieved.
A method for calibrating each axes independently has been successfully developed in the frame of the contract. This method uses independent measurements of motions along each of the three axes. Advantage of this approach compared to others such as those requiring all robot joints move simultaneously is that it subdivides the general problem of robot calibration into a set of problems of lower complexity, thus achieving good stability and numerical precession. The calibration software is parametric and is suitable for calibrating any open robot kinematics chain.
3.1.3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
As part of a verification procedure, specific performance tests were carried out on a robot by Krypton under contract to ESA. The first was an accuracy test in which the robot had to adapt a specified pose and aim at a point, key characteristics for predictable offline programming. The second test evaluated the repeatability with which the robot could reach a pose it had been taught to adopt. This is essential for performing repetitive and routine tasks.
Finally, the multidirectional pose accuracy was tested to establish the effect of random errors and to establish the limits of calibration procedure. The performance of the robot was measured before and after calibration.
Procedures for calibrating robots on ground and in orbit have been developed, and the performance of the robotic devices has been successfully tested. The robot calibration procedure proved to work well resulting in an improvement in performance by a factor of ten in some cases. The calibration software is versatile and it can be used to calibrate and evaluate most kinematics chains ranging from a simple two axes antenna gimbals mechanism to a ten axes manipulator. These software procedures are now used by Krypton for applications in most motor industry and elsewhere.
Chapter-IV
STRUCTURE OF SPACE ROBOTS
4.1 DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE OF SPACE ROBOT
The proposed robot is of articulated type with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF). The reason for 6 DOF system rather than one with lesser number of DOF is that it is not possible to freeze all the information about possible operations of the payload/racks in 3D space to exclude some DOF of the robot. Hence, a versatile robot is preferred, as this will not impose any constraints on the design of the laboratory payload/racks and provide flexibility in the operation of the robot. A system with more than six DOF can be provided redundancies and can be used to overcome obstacles. However, the complexities in analysis and control for this configuration become multifold.
The robot consists of two arms i.e. an upper arm and a lower arm. The upper arm is fixed to the base and has rotational DOF about pitch and yaw axis. The lower arm is connected to the upper arm by a rotary joint about the pitch axis. These 3 DOF enable positioning of the end effector at any required point in the work space. A three-roll wrist mechanism at the end of the lower arm is used to orient the end effector about any axis. An end effector connected to the wrist performs the required functions of the hand. Motors through a drive circuit drive the joint of the arm and wrist. Angular encoders at each joint control the motion about each axis. The end effector is driven by a motor and a pressure sensor/strain gauges on the fingers are used to control the grasping force on the job.
4.2 DISCRIPTION OF SUBSYSTEMS
The main subsystems in the development of the manipulator arm are
¢ Joints
¢ Arm
¢ Wrist
¢ Gripper

4.2.1 JOINTS
A joint permits relative motion between two links of a robot. Two types of joints are
1 Roll joint “ rotational axis is identical with the axis of the fully extended arm.
2 Pitch joint “ rotational axis is perpendicular to the axis of the extended arm and hence rotation angle is limited.
The main requirements for the joints are to have near zero backlash, high stiffness and low friction. In view of the limitations on the volume to be occupied by the arm within the workspace, the joints are to be highly compact and hence they are integrated to the arm structure. To ensure a high stiffness of the joint the actuator, reduction gear unit and angular encoders are integrated into the joint.
Each joint consists of
¢ Pancake type DC torque motors (rare earth magnet type) which have advantage over other types of motors with respect to size, weight, response time and high torque to inertia ratio.
¢ Harmonic gear drive used for torque amplification/speed reduction. These gear drives have near zero backlash, can obtain high gear ratios in one stage only and have high efficiency.
¢ Electromagnetically actuated friction brakes, which prevent unintentional movements to the arms. This is specifically required when the gear drive is not self-locking. In space environment, where the gravity loads are absent (zero ˜g™ environment) brakes will help to improve the stability of the joint actuator control system. i.e. the brake can be applied as soon as the joint velocity is less than the threshold value.
¢ Electro optical angular encoders at each axis to sense the position of the end of the arm. Space qualified lubricants like molybdenum disulphide (bonded film/sputtered), lead, gold etc. will be used for the gear drives and for the ball bearings.
4.2.2 ROBOT ARMS
The simplest arm is the pick and place type. These may be used to assemble parts or fit them into clamp or fixture. This is possible due to high accuracy attainable in robot arm. It is possible to hold the part securely after picking up and in such a way that the position and the orientation remains accurately known with respect to the arm. Robot arms can manipulate objects having complicated shapes and fragile in nature.
4.2.3 WRIST
Robot arm comprises of grippers and wrist. Wrist is attached to the robot arm and has three DOF (pitch, yaw, and roll). Wrist possesses the ability to deform in response to the forces and the torques and return to equilibrium position after the deflecting forces are removed.
4.2.4 GRIPPER
Gripper is attached to the wrist of the manipulator to accomplish the desired task. Its design depends on the shape and size of the part to be held.
Chapter-V
OPERATION
5.1 SPACE SHUTTLE ROBOT ARM (SHUTTLE REMOTE MANIPULATOR SYSTEM)
5.1.1 USE OF SHUTTLE ROBOT ARM

The Shuttle's robot arm is used for various purposes.
¢ Satellite deployment and retrieval
¢ Construction of International Space Station
¢ Transport an EVA crew member at the end of the arm and provide a scaffold to him or her. (An EVA crew member moves inside the cargo bay in co-operation with the support crew inside the Shuttle.)
¢ Survey the outside of the Space Shuttle with a TV camera attached to the elbow or the wrist of the robot arm.

Shuttle robot arm observed from the deck
5.1.2 ROBOT ARM OPERATION MODE
SRMS is operated inside the Space Shuttle cabin. The operation is performed from the aft flight deck (AFD), right behind the cockpit; either through the window or by watching two TV monitors. To control the SRMS, the operator uses the translational hand controller (THC) with his or her left hand and manipulates the rotational hand controller (RHC) with his or her right hand.

THC RHC
5.1.3 HOW SPACE SHUTTLE ROBOT ARM GRASPS OBJECT
How does the Space Shuttle robot arm grasp objects Many people might think of human hand or magic hand, but its mechanism is as follows.
At the end of the robot arm is a cylinder called the end effector. Inside this cylinder equipped three wires that are used to grasp objects. The object to be grasped needs to have a stick-shaped project and implimentationion called a grapple fixture. The three wires in the cylinder fix this grapple fixture at the centre of the cylinder.
However, a sight is needed to acquire the grapple fixture while manipulating a robot arm as long as 45 feet. The grapple fixture has a target mark, and a rod is mounted vertically on this mark. The robot arm operator monitors the TV image of the mark and the rod, and operates the robot arm to approach the target while keeping the rod standing upright to the robot arm. If the angular balance between the rod and the robot arm is lost, that can immediately be detected through the TV image.

End effector and grapple fixture

Robot armâ„¢s payload acquiring sequence
5.2 FREE FLYING SPACE ROBOTS
The figure below shows an example of a free flying space robot. It is called ETS VII (engineering test satellite VII). It was designed by NASDA and launched in November 1997. In a free flying space robot a robot arm is attached to the satellite base. There is a very specific control problem. When the robot arm moves, it disturbs the altitude of the satellite base.
This is not desirable because,
¢ The satellite may start rotating in an uncontrollable way.
¢ The antenna communication link may be interrupted.
One of the research objectives is to design robot arm trajectories and to control the arm motion in such a way that the satellite base remains undisturbed or that the disturbance will be minimum.


Free flying space robots
5.3 SPACE STATION MOUNTED ROBOTS
The international space station (ISS) is a sophisticated structural assembly. There will be several robot arms which will help astronauts in performing a variety of tasks.

JEMRMS
The figure shows a part of ISS including the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM). A long manipulator arm can be seen. The arm is called JEMRMS (JEM Remote Manipulating System). A small manipulator arm called SPDM (Special purpose dexterous Manipulator) can be attached to JEMRMS to improve the accuracy of operation.

SPDM
5.4 SPACE ROBOT TELEOPERATION
Space robotics is one of the important technologies in space developments. Especially, it is highly desired to develop a completely autonomous robot, which can work without any aid of the astronauts. However, with the present state of technologies, it is not possible to develop a complete autonomous space robot. Therefore, the teleoperation technologies for the robots with high levels of autonomy become very important. Currently, the technologies where an operator teleoperates a space robot from within a spacecraft are already in practical use, like the capture of a satellite with the shuttle arm. However, the number of astronauts in space is limited, and it is not possible to achieve rapid progresses in space developments with the teleoperation from within the spacecraft. For this reason, it has become highly desired to develop the technologies for the teleoperation of space robots from the ground in the future space missions.
CONCLUSION
In the future, robotics will make it possible for billions of people to have lives of leisure instead of the current preoccupation with material needs. There are hundreds of millions who are now fascinated by space but do not have the means to explore it. For them space robotics will throw open the door to explore and experience the universe.

REFERENCES
1. andrew.cmu.edu/~ycia/robot.html
2. space.mech.tohoku.ac.jp/research/overview/overview.html
3. nanier.hq.nasa.gov/telerobotics-page/technologies/0524.html
4. jem.tksc.nasda.go.jp/iss/3a/orb_rms_e.html
5. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY by R. K. JAIN
6. INTRODUCTION TO SPACE ROBOTICS by ALEX ELLERY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I thank the almighty for providing me with the strength and courage to present the seminar and presentation.
I avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards
Dr. T.N. Sathyanesan, head of mechanical engineering department, for permitting me to conduct the seminar and presentation. I also at the outset thank and express my profound gratitude to my seminar and presentation guide Mr. Bilal K. for his inspiring assistance, encouragement and useful guidance.
I am also indebted to all the teaching and non- teaching staff of the department of mechanical engineering for their cooperation and suggestions, which is the spirit behind this report. Last but not the least, I wish to express my sincere thanks to all my friends for their goodwill and constructive ideas.

MARTIN J THOMAS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. SPACE ROBOT”CHALLENGES IN DESIGN AND
TESTING 6
3. SYSTEM VERIFICATION AND TESTING 11
4. STRUCTURE OF SPACE ROBOTS 17
5. OPERATION 21
6. CONCLUSION 27
7. REFERENCES 28
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To know more about robotics,please follow the link:
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.doc   ROBOTICS DOC.doc (Size: 584.5 KB / Downloads: 276)




ABSTRACT


INTRODUCTION
Robotics is the science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture, and application. Robotics has connections to electronics, mechanics, and software.
What is a ROBOT?
Electro-mechanical device.
Performs Various tasks.
May be human controlled or automated.
It finds it’s uses in all aspects of our life.
Definitions

It is difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries, since there are different definitions of what a "robot" is. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications." This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and many national standards committees.
The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a "re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks". The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.
There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own. For example, JosephEngelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one." According to EncyclopaediaBritannica, a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner". Merriam Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".


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.pptx   International Space Station and Space Transportation System.pptx (Size: 5.72 MB / Downloads: 235)
This article is presented by:
Anirudh Vyas
IV Year ECE



INTRODUCTION

What is International Space Station??

  • Internationally developed research facility in space being assembled in Low Earth Orbit
  • Has a microgravity environment in which Astronauts conduct experiments in biology, humanbiology, physics, astronomy and meteorology
  • Unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars
  • A complete home to the humans beyond the Earth
  • Most expensive object ever constructed by man(upto72 Kharab Rs aprx.)
  • Maintained at an orbit between 278 km and 460 km altitude
  • Travels at an average speed of 27,724 km/h completing 15.7 orbits per day or 1 orbit/92min
  • Joint project and implimentation between NASA (USA), JAXA (Japan), RKA (Russia), ESA(Europe), CSA (Canada) and small contributions from others

Major Experiments include
  • Effects of long-term space exposure on the human body
  • Ultrasound scans and diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in space
  • Study on near-weightless and microgravity environment on the evolution, development, growth
  • and internal processes of plants and animals
  • Investigation of Superconductivity and the physics of fluids in microgravity
  • Study of the efficiency of burning and control of emissions and pollutants
  • Study on cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter and dark matter in the universe

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This article is presented by:
Dr. John (Jizhong) Xiao
Department of Electrical Engineering
City College of New York

Robot Motion Planning

Topics

Basics
-Configuration Space
-C-obstacles
Motion Planning Methods
-Roadmap Approaches
*Visibility graphs
*Voronoi diagram
-Cell Decomposition
*Trapezoidal Decomposition
*Quadtree Decomposition
-Potential Fields
-Bug Algorithms

The World consists of...

-Obstacles
+Already occupied spaces of the world
+In other words, robots can’t go there
-Free Space
+Unoccupied space within the world
+Robots “might” be able to go here

For more information about this article,please follow the link:
googleurl?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-ee.ccny.cuny.edu%2Fwww%2Fweb%2Fjxiao%2Fmotionplanning.ppt&ei=0VipTPieIZDGvQONm9jvDA&usg=AFQjCNGL6Ev6jZMunTXfzeLgU9ZR9OnpuQ



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.doc   space robotics seminar report.doc (Size: 58.5 KB / Downloads: 165)
space robotics seminar and presentation



space robotics seminar and presentation report.doc (Size: 443 KB / Downloads: 209)
ABSTRACT
Robot is a mechanical body with the brain of a computer. Integrating the sensors and the actuators and with the help of the computers, we can use it to perform the desired tasks. Robot can do hazardous jobs and can reach places where it’s difficult for human beings to reach. Robots, which substitute the manned activities in space, are known as space robots. The interest in this field led to the development of new branch of technology called space robotics. Through this paper, I intend to discuss about the applications, environmental condition, testing and structure of space robots.
CONTENTS

Chapter -I
INTRODUCTION
Robot is a system with a mechanical body, using computer as its brain. Integrating the sensors and actuators built into the mechanical body, the motions are realised with the computer software to execute the desired task. Robots are more flexible in terms of ability to perform new tasks or to carry out complex sequence of motion than other categories of automated manufacturing equipment. Today there is lot of interest in this field and a separate branch of technology ‘robotics’ has emerged. It is concerned with all problems of robot design, development and applications. The technology to substitute or subsidise the manned activities in space is called space robotics. Various applications of space robots are the inspection of a defective satellite, its repair, or the construction of a space station and supply goods to this station and its retrieval etc. With the over lap of knowledge of kinematics, dynamics and control and progress in fundamental technologies it is about to become possible to design and develop the advancedrobotics systems. And this will throw open the doors to explore and experience the universe and bring countless changes for the better in the ways we live.
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30-12-2010, 11:18 AM



Brian Wilcox, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Presenter)
Rob Ambrose, NASA Johnson Space Center
Vijay Kumar, University of Pennsylvania


What is Space Robotics?:
- Space Robotics is the development of machines for the space
environment that perform Exploration, or to Assemble/Construct,
Maintain, or Service other hardware in Space.
- Humans generally control space robots locally (e.g. Space Shuttle
robotic arm) or from a great distance (e.g. Mars Exploration
Rovers)

Space Robots
Importance: Perform tasks less expensively, sooner, and/or with
less risk or more delicate "touch" than with human astronauts
- Go where people can’t go (within reason), and for long durations
- Space is a hazardous environment
- Access to space is expensive
- Robots don't need to return to Earth (which can be very costly)
NASA JPL, USA NASA JSC, USA
WTEC Robotics

How? What technology is needed?
Mobility: Need to plan paths that
move quickly and accurately from A to
B without collisions or putting robot or
worksite elements at risk.
• Manipulation arms and hands: Need
to contact worksite elements safely,
quickly, and accurately without
imparting excessive forces beyond
those needed for the task.
• Time Delay: The speed-of-light delay
between humans on Earth and the
robot is seconds in the Earth-moon
vicinity and ~30 minutes to Mars.
• Extreme Environments: Radiation,
temperature, very fine dust, etc.
• Power, communications: difficult.Example of Space Robots:
Mars Exploration Rover
• Two "robotic field geologists" have explored opposite sides
of Mars since Jan '04, traversing many kilometers each,
taking over 80,000 images and 1.5 million spectra from
multiple instruments, on both unprepared and prepared rock
samples, commanded less than once per day.

Example of Space Robots:
Robonaut
• Robonaut is an "astronaut-equivalent", highly


for more, visit:

docs.googleviewer?a=v&q=cache:TCBJemv05pcJ:wtecrobotics/workshop/PDF/03-SpaceRobotics-Wilcox.pdf+equipment+that+astronauts+in+space+suits+can+use;+it+can+be+teleoperated+by+nearby+humans+(e.g.+in+a+spacecraft+or+habitat),+operate&hl=en&gl=in&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESglESdgzE4nZTqDTn6jRXLpwC_OqK7ogC8fJzKqr5Mdl4vDNxLuJH72BDweXfjr6eOnLFrXWhoVUA28Y_a4m5N3bGABY_Q-_TeZwIonhRjxCrWqKu2pEOklvQrrJzSbyX5tN6gT&sig=AHIEtbSxaB7ELG6QjeL7EFv_f2czw-NUrw
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i want to get full report on space robotics
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go through the following thread too

topicideashow-to-space-robotics--111
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.pptx   robot ppt final.pptx (Size: 1.6 MB / Downloads: 185)



APARNA .K.P
SITHARA.P.SUNDARAN
VJEC


   

   

   

   

   

Examples of space robots
Dextre
Robonaut
Mars Exploration Rovers
SmartNav


Jobs include moving small payloads,
tasks including some so delicate they have needed a human touch until now and swapping out worn or damaged parts.
Once operators get used to working with the robot, it could eliminate 6 to 12 spacewalks each year
Dextre’s utility
seven joints in each arm
High Dof
End effectors has different robotic tools
hands are two parallel clamps with a vice-like grip and an internal motorized socket wrench that can loosen or tighten standard bolts on the station
lights and black-and-white cameras on each hand, as well as pan-and-tilt color cameras on the body.

.
.
.





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to get information about the topic robotics in space full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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topicideashow-to-robotics-download-full-seminar and presentation-report

topicideashow-to-space-robotics--111

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space robotics full report


.doc   SPACE_ROBOTICS.DOC (Size: 791 KB / Downloads: 36)

. INTRODUCTION

Robot is a system with a mechanical body, using computer as its brain. Integrating the sensors and actuators built into the mechanical body, the motions are realised with the computer software to execute the desired task. Robots are more flexible in terms of ability to perform new tasks or to carry out complex sequence of motion than other categories of automated manufacturing equipment. Today there is lot of interest in this field and a separate branch of technology ‘robotics’ has emerged. It is concerned with all problems of robot design, development and applications. The technology to substitute or subsidise the manned activities in space is called space robotics. Various applications of space robots are the inspection of a defective satellite, its repair, or the construction of a space station and supply goods to this station and its retrieval etc. With the over lap of knowledge of kinematics, dynamics and control and progress in fundamental technologies it is about to become possible to design and develop the advanced robotics systems. And this will throw open the doors to explore and experience the universe and bring countless changes for the better in the ways we live.



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE

Near the end of the Apollo space program, NASA officials were looking at the future of the American space program. At that time, the rockets used to place astronauts and equipment in outer space was one-shot disposable rockets. What they needed was a reliable, but less expensive, rocket, perhaps one that was reusable. The idea of a reusable "space shuttle" that could launch like a rocket but deliver and land like an airplane was appealing and would be a great technical achievement.



. THE SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION

A typical shuttle mission lasts seven to eight days, but can extend to as much as 14 days depending upon the objectives of the mission.
A typical shuttle mission is as follows:
1. Getting into orbit
Launch – the shuttle lifts off the launching pad.
Ascent.
Orbital maneuvering burn.
2. Orbit-life in space.
3. Re-entry.
4. Landing.

The difference between space shuttle and hypersonic planes is mainly in the first function that is getting into orbit. We will study only about the first function of the space shuttle.

1. GETTING INTO ORBIT

To lift the 4.5 million pound (2.05 million kg) shuttle from the pad to orbit (115 to 400 miles/185 to 643 km) above the Earth, the shuttle uses the following components:
• Two solid rocket boosters (SRB)
• Three main engines of the orbiter
• The external fuel tank (ET)
• Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) on the orbiter
Let's look at these components closely.


Main engines

The orbiter has three main engines located in the aft (back) fuselage (body of the spacecraft). Each engine is 14 feet (4.3 m) long, 7.5 feet (2. 3 m) in diameter at its widest point (the nozzle)

Photo courtesy NASA
The main engines provide the remainder of the thrust (29 percent) to lift the shuttle off the pad and into orbit.







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space robotics



.pdf   space robotics.pdf (Size: 1.02 MB / Downloads: 61)

WHAT IS SPACE ROBOTICS?

Space robotics is the development of general purpose machines that are capable of surviving (for a time, at
least) the rigors of the space environment, and performing exploration, assembly, construction, maintenance,
servicing or other tasks that may or may not have been fully understood at the time of the design of the robot.
Humans control space robots from either a “local” control console (e.g. with essentially zero speed-of-light
delay, as in the case of the Space Shuttle robot arm (Figure 3.1) controlled by astronauts inside the
pressurized cabin) or “remotely” (e.g. with non-negligible speed-of-light delays, as in the case of the Mars
Exploration Rovers (Figure 3.2) controlled from human operators on Earth). Space robots are generally
designed to do multiple tasks, including unanticipated tasks, within a broad sphere of competence (e.g.
payload deployment, retrieval, or inspection; planetary exploration).



ISSUES IN SPACE ROBOTICS

How are Space Robots created and used? What technology for space robotics needs to be developed?
There are four key issues in Space Robotics. These are Mobility—moving quickly and accurately between
two points without collisions and without putting the robots, astronauts, or any part of the worksite at risk,
Manipulation—using arms and hands to contact worksite elements safely, quickly, and accurately without
accidentally contacting unintended objects or imparting excessive forces beyond those needed for the task,
Time Delay—allowing a distant human to effectively command the robot to do useful work, and Extreme
Environments—operating despite intense heat or cold, ionizing radiation, hard vacuum, corrosive
atmospheres, very fine dust, etc.


INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS IN SPACE ROBOTICS

Other nations have not been idle in developing space robotics. Many recognize that robotic systems offer
extreme advantages over alternative approaches to certain space missions. Figures 3.32–33 show a series of
images of the Japanese ETS-VII (the seventh of the Engineering Technology Satellites), which demonstrated
in a flight in 1999 a number of advanced robotic capabilities in space. ETS-VII consisted of two satellites
named “Chaser” and “Target.” Each satellite was separated in space after launching and a rendezvous
docking experiment was conducted twice, where the Chaser satellite was automatically controlled and the
Target was being remotely piloted. In addition, there were multiple space robot manipulation experiments
which included manipulation of small parts and propellant replenishment by using the robot arms installed on
the Chaser.


THE STATE-OF-THE-ART IN SPACE ROBOTICS

The current state-of-the-art in “flown” space robotics is defined by MER, the Canadian Shuttle and Station
arms, the German DLR experiment Rotex (1993) and the experimental arm ROKVISS on the Station right
now, and the Japanese experiment ETS-VII (1999). A number of systems are waiting to fly on the Space
Station, such as the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM, Figure 3.43) and the Japanese
Main Arm and Small Fine Arm (SFA, Figure 3.44). Investments in R&D for space robotics worldwide have
been greatly reduced in the past decade as compared to the decade before that; the drop in the U.S. has been
greater than in Japan or Germany. Programs such as the NASA Mars Technology Program (MTP) and
Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP), as well as the recent NASA
Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT) programs represent an exception to the generally low
level of investment over the past decade. However, some or all of these programs are expected to be scaled
back as NASA seeks to make funds available to pursue the Vision for Space Exploration of the moon and
Mars. Figure 3.45 shows an artist conception of a Robonaut-derived vehicle analogous to the mythical
ancient Greek Centaurs, with the upper body of a human for sensing and manipulation, but with the lower
body of a rover for mobility. Figure 3.46 shows a comparison between the first two autonomous planetary
rovers flown, Sojourner (or actually the flight spare, Marie Curie) and Spirit.
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Space Robotics


.doc   SPACE_ROBOTICS.doc (Size: 433 KB / Downloads: 13)

INTRODUCTION

Robot is a system with a mechanical body, using computer as its brain. Integrating the sensors and actuators built into the mechanical body, the motions are realised with the computer software to execute the desired task. Robots are more flexible in terms of ability to perform new tasks or to carry out complex sequence of motion than other categories of automated manufacturing equipment. Today there is lot of interest in this field and a separate branch of technology ‘robotics’ has emerged. It is concerned with all problems of robot design, development and applications. The technology to substitute or subsidise the manned activities in space is called space robotics. Various applications of space robots are the inspection of a defective satellite, its repair, or the construction of a space station and supply goods to this station and its retrieval etc. With the over lap of knowledge of kinematics, dynamics and control and progress in fundamental technologies it is about to become possible to design and develop the advanced robotics systems. And this will throw open the doors to explore and experience the universe and bring countless changes for the better in the ways we live.

TESSELLATOR

Tessellator is a mobile manipulator system to service the space shuttle.The method of rewaterproofing for space shuttle orbiters involves repetitively injecting the extremely hazardous dimethyloxysilane (DMES) into approximately 15000 bottom tile after each space flight. The field robotic center at Carneige Mellon University has developed a mobile manipulating robot, Tessellator for autonomous tile rewaterproofing. Its automatic process yields tremendous benefit through increased productivity and safety.
In this project and implimentation, a 2D-vehicle workspace covering and vehicle routing problem has been formulated as the Travelling Workstation Problem (TWP). In the TWP, a workstation is defined as a vehicle which occupies or serves a certain area and it can travel; a workspace is referred to as a 2D actuation envelop of manipulator systems or sensory systems which are carried on the workstation; a work area refers to a whole 2D working zone for a workstation.

ROBOTS TO REFUEL SATELLITES

The US department of defense is developing an orbital-refueling robot that could expand the life span of American spy satellites many times over, new scientists reported. The robotic refueler called an Autonomous Space Transporter and Robotic Orbiter (ASTRO) could shuttle between orbiting fuel dumps and satellites according to the Defense Advance Research Projects Agency. Therefore, life of a satellite would no longer be limited to the amount of fuel with which it is launched. Spy satellites carry a small amount of fuel, called hydrazine, which enable them to change position to scan different parts of the globe or to go into a higher orbit. Such maneuvering makes a satellites position difficult for an enemy to predict. But, under the current system, when the fuel runs out, the satellite gradually falls out of orbit and goes crashing to the earth. In the future the refueler could also carry out repair works on faulty satellites, provided the have modular electronic systems that can be fixed by slot in replacements.

SPACE ROBOT—CHALLENGES IN DESIGN AND TESTING

Robots developed for space applications will be significantly different from their counter part in ground. Space robots have to satisfy unique requirements to operate in zero ‘g’ conditions (lack of gravity), in vacuum and in high thermal gradients, and far away from earth. The phenomenon of zero gravity effects physical action and mechanism performance. The vacuum and thermal conditions of space influence material and sensor performance. The degree of remoteness of the operator may vary from a few meters to millions of kilometers. The principle effect of distance is the time delay in command communication and its repercussions on the action of the arms. The details are discussed below

ZERO ‘g’ EFFECT ON DESIGN

The gravity free environment in which the space robot operates possesses both advantages and disadvantages. The mass to be handled by the manipulator arm is not a constraint in the zero ‘g’ environment. Hence, the arm and the joints of the space robot need not withstand the forces and the moment loads due to gravity. This will result in an arm which will be light in mass. The design of the manipulator arm will be stiffness based and the joint actuators will be selected based on dynamic torque (i.e.; based on the acceleration of the arm). The main disadvantage of this type of environment is the lack of inertial frame. Any motion of the manipulator arm will induce reaction forces and moment at the base which inturn will disturb the position and the altitude. The problem of dynamics, control and motion planning for the space robot is considering the dynamic interactions between the robot and the base (space shuttle, space station and satellite). Due to the dynamic interaction, the motion of the space robot can alter the base trajectory and the robot end effector can miss the desired target due to the motion of the base. The mutual dependence severely affects the performance of both the robot and the base, especially, when the mass and moment of inertia of the robot and the payload are not negligible in comparison to the base. Moreover, inefficiency in planning and control can considerably risk the success of space missions. The components in space do not stay in position. They freely float and are a problem to be picked up. Hence, the components will have to be properly secured. Also the joints in space do not sag as on earth. Unlike on earth the position of the arm can be within the band of the backlash at each joint.

VACUUM EFFECT AND THERMAL EFFECT

The vacuum in space can create heat transfer problems and mass loss of the material through evaporation or sublimation. This is to be taken care by proper selection of materials, lubricants etc., so as to meet the total mass loss (TML) of <1% and collected volatile condensable matter (CVCM) of <0.1%. The use of conventional lubricants in bearings is not possible in this environment. The preferred lubricants are dry lubricants like bonded/sputtered/ion plated molybdenum disulphide, lead, gold etc. Cold welding of molecularly similar metal in contact with each other is a possibility, which is to be avoided by proper selection of materials and dry lubricants. Some of the subsystem that cannot be exposed to vacuum will need hermetical sealing. The thermal cycles and large thermal variations will have to be taken care in design of robot elements. Low temperature can lead to embrittlement of the material, weaken adhesive bonding and increase friction in bearings.
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