suspension bridge presentation
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01-05-2010, 11:33 PM



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Seminar Report On Suspension Bridge

Submitted By:-
Ashis Kumar Jain
0601220299, 7th Sem.

Contents

What???
Types of Bridges
Arch Bridge
Beam Bridge
Cable-stayed Bridge
Cantilever Bridge
Truss Bridge
Suspension Bridge “ An Introduction
Terms related to Suspension Bridge
Structural Analysis
Structural Failure
Quality Control in Suspension Cable
Advantages & Limitations
Load Distribution in Different Types of Bridges
Conclusion
Some Famous Suspension Bridges



Bridge

A bridge is a structure built to span a valley, road, body of water, or other physical obstacle, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge and the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed.


Types of Bridge

There are six main types of bridges:-
Arch Bridge
Beam Bridge
Cable-stayed Bridge
Cantilever Bridge
Truss Bridge
Suspension Bridge


Arch Bridge

Arch bridges are arch-shaped and have abutments at each end.
An arch bridge doesn't need additional supports or cables. In fact itâ„¢s the shape of the structure that gives it its strength.
Arch bridges are designed to be constantly under compression.
The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side.
Usually they are made for short span range but often set end-to-end to form a large total length.


Beam Bridge

Beam bridges are the simplest kind of bridge today.
Bridges consist of one horizontal beam with 2 supports usually on either ends.
It is frequently used in pedestrian bridges and for highway overpasses & flyovers.
They are constructed for short span requirements.
The weight of the bridge and any traffic on it is directly supported by the piers.
The top side of the deck is under compression while the bottom side of the deck is under tension.
To increase the bridgeâ„¢s strength designers introduce truss to the bridgeâ„¢s beam.


Cable-stayed Bridge

A bridge that consists of one or more pylons with cables.
There are two major classes of cable-stayed bridges such as a harp design & a fan design.
The cable-stay design is best suited for a medium span range.
The towers form the primary load-bearing structure.
It has greater stiffness.
The cables act as both temporary & permanent supports to the bridge-deck.
The tower in a cable-stayed bridge is responsible for absorbing and dealing with the compression forces while the cables are under tension.


Cantilever Bridge

A bridge built using cantilevers, structures that project and implimentation horizontally into space, supported on only one end.
For small footbridges, the cantilevers may be simple beams; however, large cantilever bridges are designed using trusses.
These are constructed for short to medium span ranges.
Cantilevers support loads by tension of the upper members & compression of the lower ones.


Truss Bridge

A bridge composed of straight connected elements which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads.
A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials.
These are usually constructed for short to medium span range.
In India truss bridges are generally constructed for rail traffic.
Vertical members are in tension, lower horizontal members in tension, shear, and bending, outer diagonal and top members are in compression, while the inner diagonals are in tension.
Suspension Bridge
Nowadays these are the pioneers in bridge technology.
Of all the bridge types in use today, the suspension bridge allows for the longest span ranging from 2,000 to 7,000 feet.
This type of bridge has cables suspended between towers & the cables support vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below. This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to arc upward for additional clearance.
The suspension cables are anchored at each end of the bridge.
They are ideal for covering busy waterways.


Terms related to Suspension Bridge

Side span: segment between two pylons at the ends of a bridge.
Centre span: segment between two pylons at the centre of a bridge.
Side pylon: tower-like vertical construction situated at the side. usually supporting the cables of a suspension bridge.
Foundation of a pylon: very durable lower part of a tower.
Suspender: support cable.
Suspension cable: set of braided wire that supports a bridge.
Pylon: tower-like vertical support that usually supports the cables of a suspension bridge or a cable-stayed bridge.
Stiffening girder: tightener beam.


Structural Analysis

The main forces in a suspension bridge are tension in the main cables and compression in the pillars. Since almost all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are also stabilized by the main cables, they can be made quite slender.
In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck. The weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground.
Most of the weight or load of the bridge is transferred by the cables to the anchorage systems. These are imbedded in either solid rock or huge concrete blocks. Inside the anchorages, the cables are spread over a large area to evenly distribute the load and to prevent the cables from breaking free.


Structural Analysis
Structural Failure

Some bridges have in the past suffered from structural failure due to combination of poor design and severe weather conditions.
Collapse of the bridge also depends upon a phenomenon called resonance. It is the phenomenon when a body vibrates at its natural frequency & it shatters.
To avoid these types of failures today all new bridges prototypes have to be tested in a wind tunnel before being constructed.


Quality Control in Suspension Cable

The main suspension cable in older bridges was often made from chain or linked bars, but modern bridge cables are made from multiple strands of wire. This contributes greater redundancy; a few flawed strands in the hundreds used pose very little threat, whereas a single bad link or eyebar can cause failure of the entire bridge.
Another reason is that as spans increased, engineers were unable to lift larger chains into position, whereas wire strand cables can be largely prepared in mid-air from a temporary walkway.
The cables are made of thousands of individual steel wires bound tightly together. Steel, which is very strong under tension, is an ideal material for cables; a single steel wire, only 0.1 inch thick, can support over half a ton without breaking.


Quality Control in Suspension Cable
Advantages over other bridge types

Longer main spans are achievable than with any other type of bridge.
May be better able to withstand earthquake movements than can heavier and more rigid bridges.
The center span may be made very long in proportion to the amount of materials required, allowing the bridge to economically span a very wide canyon or waterway.
It can be built high over water to allow the passage of very tall ships.


Limitations compared to other bridge types

Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds.
The relatively low deck stiffness compared to other types of bridges makes it more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high concentrated live loads occur.
Under severe wind loading, the towers exert a large torque force in the ground, and thus require very expensive foundation work when building on soft ground.


Load distribution in different types of bridges


Conclusion

These are the pinnacles in modern days bridge technology.
Longer spans of up to 2000 ft-7000 ft is possible.
They are ideal for covering busy waterways such as Gulf, Strait, Lake, etc.
These bridges are mainly meant for light & heavy roadways rather than railways.
The main forces in a suspension bridge are tension in the main cables and compression in the pillars.
Some Famous Suspension Bridges


Bibliography

answers.com
howstuffworks.com
inventionfactory.com
spiritus-temporis.com
thevisualdictionary.com
wikipedia.org
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27-09-2010, 01:24 PM


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suspension bridge presentation
abstract



This type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to arc upward for additional clearance. Like other suspension bridge types, this type often is constructed without falsework.
The suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, and further continue to connections with anchors in the ground. The roadway is supported by vertical suspender cables or rods, called hangers. In some circumstances the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will usually have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection. In the latter case there will be very little arc in the outboard main cables.




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06-01-2011, 02:31 PM




.docx   suspension_bridges.docx (Size: 508.71 KB / Downloads: 133)

Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum.

Abstract:
Bridge is a structure built to span across a valley, road, body of water, or other physical resistance, for the purpose of providing passage over an obstacle. Bridges are those marvel in civil engineering tool kit which help in connecting the places located on other side of bank. Varieties of bridges have evolved from history. Of them one is suspension bridge. It is constructed to span across water body or valley. Nowadays these are the pioneers in bridge technology. Of all the bridge types in use today, the suspension bridge allows for the longest span ranging from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. Also they have quite attractive view which has added to the gloom of suspension bridges.


INTRODUCTION
There are six main types of bridges:-
1. Arch Bridge
2. Beam Bridge
3. Cable-stayed Bridge
4. Cantilever Bridge
5. Truss Bridge
6. Suspension Bridge

Suspension bridge is most commonly built to span across water body. It is built by suspending the roadway from cables attached to a master cable which runs above the length of the bridge. In addition to being strong and lightweight, suspension bridges are also beautiful. The design of a suspension bridge is simple and straightforward, and takes advantage of several techniques to distribute the weight of the bridge safely and evenly.
The main forces in a suspension bridge are tension in the main cables and compression in the pillars. Since almost all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are also stabilized by the main cables, they can be made quite slender.
In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck. The weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground.
Most of the weight or load of the bridge is transferred by the cables to the anchorage systems. These are imbedded in either solid rock or huge concrete blocks. Inside the anchorages, the cables are spread over a large area to evenly distribute the load and to prevent the cables from breaking free.





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12-04-2012, 03:35 PM

SUSPENSION BRIDGE


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A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Outside Tibet and Bhutan, where the first examples of this type of bridge were built in the 15th century, this type of bridge dates from the early 19th century. Bridges without vertical suspenders have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world.


EARLY PRECURSOR
The Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo originated the use of iron chains in his version of primitive suspension bridges. In 1433, Gyalpo built eight bridges in eastern Bhutan. The only surviving chain-linked bridge of Gyalpo's was the Thangtong Gyalpo Bridge in Duksum enroute to Trashi Yangtse, which was finally washed away in 2004. Gyalpo's iron chain bridges did not include a suspended deck bridge which is the standard on all modern suspension bridges today. Instead, both the railing and the walking layer of Gyalpo's bridges used wires.



FIRST SUSPENSION BRIDGES
The first design for a bridge resembling the modern suspension bridge is attributed to Fausto Veranzio, whose 1595 book “Machinae Novae” included drawings both for a timber and rope suspension bridge, and a hybrid suspension and cable-stayed bridge using iron chains.



WIRE-CABLE
The first wire-cable suspension bridge was the Footbridge at Falls of Schuylkill (1816), a modest and temporary structure built following the collapse of James Finley's Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill (1808), shown above. The footbridge's span was 124 m, although its deck was only 0.45 m wide.


STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR
Structural analysis
The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Since almost all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are also stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, as on the Severn Bridge, on the Wales-England border.


ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER BRIDGE TYPES

A suspension bridge can be made out of simple materials such as wood and common wire rope.
• Longer main spans are achievable than with any other type of bridge
• Less material may be required than other bridge types, even at spans they can achieve, leading to a reduced construction cost
• Except for installation of the initial temporary cables, little or no access from below is required during construction, for example allowing a waterway to remain open while the bridge is built above


DISADVANTAGES COMPARED WITH OTHER BRIDGE TYPES
• Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds
• The relatively low deck stiffness compared to other (non-suspension) types of bridges makes it more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high concentrated live loads occur
• Some access below may be required during construction, to lift the initial cables or to lift deck units. This access can often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction




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