terahertz transistor design
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30-09-2009, 07:58 AM

The terahertz transistor design -- a terahertz is a thousand gigahertz, or one trillion cycles a second an evolution of current designs, using new materials such as zirconium dioxide. Smaller transistors go faster but also leak more current when turned off and need a higher voltage to work, zirconium dioxide is a superior insulator that reduces this leakage and thus reduces power consumption while maintaining speed and low voltages. Intel says that the new design will work down to around 0.6v before long. According to Intel, the combined benefits of the TeraHertz transistor as the device will permit up to 25 times more transistors in processors than currently possible, each running at 10 times present speeds, with no overall increase in overall processor power requirements.

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04-05-2013, 03:22 PM

Terahertz transistor

.pdf   Terahertz transistor.pdf (Size: 554.24 KB / Downloads: 12)


Transistors are basic building blocks in analog circuit
applications like variable-gain amplifiers, data converters,
interface circuits, and continuous-time oscillators and filters.
The design of the transistor has undergone many changes
since it debut in 1948. Not only have they become smaller, but
also their speeds have increased along with their ability to
conserve power. Transistor research breakthroughs will allow
us to continue Moore’s Law through end of decade. IC Industry
is making transition from Planar to Non-Planar Transistors. This
development has potential to enable products with higher
performance that use less power. Effective transistor
frequency scaling is an ever present problem for integrated
circuit manufacturers as today's designs are pushing the limits
of current generation technology. As more and more
transistors are packed onto a sliver of silicon, and they are run
at higher and higher speeds, the total amount of power
consumed by chips is getting out of hand. Chips that draw too
much power get too hot, drain batteries unnecessarily (in
mobile applications) and consume too much electricity.


The IC was invented in February 1959 by Jack Kilby
of Texas Instruments. The planner version of IC was developed
independently by Robert Noyce at Fairchild in July 1959. Since
then, the evolution of this technology has been extremely first
paced. One way to gauge the progress of the field is to look at
the complexity of the ICs as a function of time. Moore's law
describes a long-term trend in the history of computing
hardware. The number of transistors that can be placed
inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled
approximately every two years. The trend has continued for
more than half a century and is not expected to stop until
2015 or later.


A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify
and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of
semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied
to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current
flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the
controlled (output) power can be much more than the
controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification
of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually,
but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern
electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic
systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor
revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for
smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers,
amongst other things.


In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell
Labs in the United States observed that when electrical
contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, the output
power was larger than the input. Solid State Physics Group
leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, and over the
next few months worked to greatly expand the knowledge of
semiconductors. The term transistor was coined by John R.
Pierce. According to physicist/historian Robert Arns, legal
papers from the Bell Labs patent show that William Shockley
and Gerald Pearson had built operational versions from
Lilienfeld's patents, yet they never referenced this work in any
of their later research papers or historical articles. The first
silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in 1954.
This was the work of Gordon Teal, an expert in growing
crystals of high purity, who had previously worked at Bell Labs.
The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla
at Bell Labs in 1960.

Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET), sometimes called a
unipolar transistor, uses either electron (in N-channel FET) or
holes (in P-channel FET) for conduction. The four terminals of
the FET are named source, gate, drain, and body (substrate).
On most FETs, the body is connected to the source inside the
package, and this will be assumed for the following
In FETs, the drain-to-source current flows via a
conducting channel that connects the source region to the
drain region. The conductivity is varied by the electric field
that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate
and source terminals; hence the current flowing between the
drain and source is controlled by the voltage applied between
the gate and source. As the gate–source voltage (Vgs) is
increased, the drain–source current (Ids) increases
exponentially for Vgs below threshold.

Simplified Operation

The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its
ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its
terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of
terminals. This property is called gain. A transistor can control
its output in proportion to the input signal; that is, it can act as
an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn
current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch,
where the amount of current is determined by other circuit
elements. The two types of transistors have slight differences
in how they are used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has
terminals labeled base, collector, and emitter. A small current
at the base terminal (that is, flowing from the base to the
emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between
the collector and emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor,
the terminals are labeled gate, source, and drain, and a
voltage at the gate can control a current between source and
drain. The image to the right represents a typical bipolar
transistor in a circuit. Charge will flow between emitter and
collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Since
internally the base and emitter connections behave like a
semiconductor diode, a voltage drop develops between base
and emitter while the base current exists. The amount of this
voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from,
and is referred to as VBE.


Intel’s researchers have developed a new type of transistor
that it plans to use to make microprocessors and other logic
products (such as chip sets) in the second half of the decade.
The so-called “TeraHertz” transistors will allow the
continuation of Moore‟s Law, with the number of transistors
doubling every two years, each one capable of running at
multi-TeraHertz speeds, by solving the power consumption
issue. This will allow twenty-five more transistors than today's
microprocessors, at ten times the speed. The transistors will
also decrease in size with no additional power consumption.
There will be approximately one billion transistors, which will
be small enough to apply around ten million of them on the
head of a pin. This transistor uses two brand new concepts.
The TeraHertz transistor uses a depleted substrate transistor
and a high k gate dielectric. By using this technology, we can
create lot of real time functioning and powerful computing
techniques such as grid computing, nano-computing and other

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