the hy-wire car full report
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ABSTRACT
Hy-Wire Car is without mechanical and hydraulic linkage end engine. Instead of these it contain a fuel cell stack and a drive by wire system. It is fully automated car it is a future car. In future it will have a wide application. The problem with fuel consumption and pollution can be minimize to certain level.
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Cars are immensely complicated machines, but when you get down to it, they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is dedicated to turning wheels, which grip the road to pull the car body and passengers along. The steering system tilts the wheels side to side to turn the car, and brake and acceleration systems control the speed of the wheels. Given that the overall function of a car is so basic (it just needs to provide rotary motion to wheels), it seems a little strange that almost all cars have the same collection of complex devices crammed under the hood and the same general mass of mechanical and hydraulic linkages running throughout. Why do cars necessarily need a steering column, brake and acceleration pedals, a combustion engine, a catalytic converter and the rest of it? According to many leading automotive engineers, they don't; and more to the point, in the near future, they won't. Most likely, a lot of us will be driving radically different cars within 20 years. And the difference won't just be under the hood -- owning and driving cars will change significantly, too. In this article, we'll look at one interesting vision of the future, General Motor's remarkable concept car, the Hy-wire. GM may never actually sell the Hy-wire to the public, but it is certainly a good illustration of various ways cars might evolve in the near future.
GM's sedan model Hy-wire

Chapter- II
HY-WIRE BASICS
Two basic elements largely dictate car design today: the internal combustion engine and mechanical and hydraulic linkages. If you've ever looked under the hood of a car, you know an internal combustion engine requires a lot of additional equipment to function correctly. No matter what else they do with a car, designers always have to make room for this equipment.
The same goes for mechanical and hydraulic linkages. The basic idea of this system is that the driver maneuvers the various actuators in the car (the wheels, brakes, etc.) more or less directly, by manipulating driving controls connected to those actuators by shafts, gears and hydraulics. In a rack-and-pinion steering system, for example, turning the steering wheel rotates a shaft connected to a pinion gear, which moves a rack gear connected to the car's front wheels. In addition to restricting how the car is built, the linkage concept also dictates how we drive: The steering wheel, pedal and gear -shift system were all designed around the linkage idea. The defining characteristic of the Hy-wire (and its conceptual predecessor, the Autonomy) is that it doesn't have either of these two things. Instead of an engine, it has a fuel cell stack, which powers an electric motor connected to the wheels. Instead of mechanical and hydraulic linkages, it has a drive by wire system -- a computer actually operates the components that move the wheels, activate the brakes and so on, based on input from an electronic controller. This is the same control system employed in modern fighter jets as well as many commercial planes.
The result of these two substitutions is a very different type of car -- and a very different driving experience. There is no steering wheel, there are no pedals and there is no engine compartment. In fact, every piece of equipment that actually moves the car along the road is housed in an 11-inch-thick (28 cm) aluminum chassis -- also known as the skateboard -- at the base of the car. Everything above the chassis is dedicated solely to driver control and passenger comfort. This means the driver and passengers don't have to sit behind a mass of machinery. Instead, the Hy-wire has a huge front windshield, which gives everybody a clear view of the road. The floor of the fiberglass-and-steel passenger compartment can be totally flat, and it's easy to give every seat lots of leg room. Concentrating the bulk of the vehicle in the bottom section of the car also improves safety because it makes the car much less likely to tip over.
But the coolest thing about this design is that it lets you remove the entire passenger compartment and replace it with a different one. If you want to switch from a van to a sports car, you don't need an entirely new car; you just need a new body (which is a lot cheaper). The Hy-wire has wheels, seats and windows like a conventional car, but the similarity pretty much ends there. There is no engine under the hood and no steering wheel or pedals inside.
Chapter III
POWER
The "Hy" in Hy-wire stands for hydrogen, the standard fuel for a fuel cell system. Like batteries, fuel cells have a negatively charged terminal and a positively charged terminal that propel electrical charge through a circuit connected to each end. They are also similar to batteries in that they generate electricity from a chemical reaction. But unlike a battery, you can continually recharge a fuel cell by adding chemical fuel -- in this case, hydrogen from an onboard storage tank and oxygen from the atmosphere.
The basic idea is to use a catalyst to split a hydrogen molecule (H2) into two H protons (H+, positively charged single hydrogen atoms) and two electrons (e-). Oxygen on the cathode (positively charged) side of the fuel cell draws H+ ions from the anode side through a proton exchange membrane, but blocks the flow of electrons. The electrons (which have a negative charge) are attracted to the protons (which have a positive charge) on the other side of the membrane, but they have to move through the electrical circuit to get there. The moving electrons make up the electrical current that powers the various loads in the circuit, such as motors and the computer system. On the cathode side of the cell, the hydrogen, oxygen and free electrons combine to form water (H2O), the system's only emission product.
In a hydrogen fuel cell, a catalyst breaks hydrogen molecules in the anode into protons and electrons. The protons move through the exchange membrane, toward the oxygen on the cathode side, and the electrons make their way through a wire between the anode and cathode. On the cathode side, the hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water. Many cells are connected in series to move substantial charge through a circuit.
In a hydrogen fuel cell, a catalyst breaks hydrogen molecules in the anode into protons and electrons. The protons move through the exchange membrane, toward the oxygen on the cathode side, and the electrons make their way through a wire between the anode and cathode. On the cathode side, the hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water. Many cells are connected in series to move substantial charge through a circuit.
One fuel cell only puts out a little bit of power, so you need to combine many cells into a stack to get much use out of the process. The fuel-cell stack in the Hy-wire is made up of 200 individual cells connected in series, which collectively provide 94 kilowatts of continuous power and 129 kilowatts at peak power. The compact cell stack (it's about the size of a PC tower) is kept cool by a conventional radiator system that's powered by the fuel cells themselves. The hydrogen tanks and fuel-cell stack in the Hy-wire .
This system delivers DC voltage ranging from 125 to 200 volts, depending on the load in the circuit. The motor controller boosts this up to 250 to 380 volts and converts it to AC current to drive the three-phase electric motor that rotates the wheels (this is similar to the system used in conventional electric cars).
The electric motor's job is to apply torque to the front wheel axle to spin the two front wheels. The control unit varies the speed of the car by increasing or decreasing the power applied to the motor. When the controller applies maximum power from the fuel-cell stack, the motor's rotor spins at 12,000 revolutions per minute, delivering a torque of 159 pound-feet. A single-stage planetary gear, with a ratio of 8.67:1, steps up the torque to apply a maximum of 1,375 pound-feet to each wheel. That's enough torque to move the 4,200-pound (1,905-kg) car 100 miles per hour (161 kph) on a level road. Smaller electric motors maneuver the wheels to steer the car, and electrically controlled brake calipers bring the car to a stop. The gaseous hydrogen fuel needed to power this system is stored in three cylindrical tanks, weighing about 165 pounds (75 kilograms) total. The tanks are made of a special carbon composite material with the high structural strength needed to contain high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tanks in the current model hold about 4.5 pounds (2 kg) of hydrogen at about 5,000 pounds per square inch (350 bars). In future models, the Hy-wire engineers hope to increase the pressure threshold to 10,000 pounds per square inch (700 bars), which would boost the car's fuel capacity to extend the driving range.
Ultimately, GM hopes to get the fuel-cell stack, motors and hydrogen-storage tanks small enough that they can reduce the chassis thickness from 11 inches to 6 inches (15 cm). This more compact "skateboard" would allow for even more flexibility in the body design.

Chapter IV
CONTROL
The Hy-wire's "brain" is a central computer housed in the middle of the chassis. It sends electronic signals to the motor control unit to vary the speed, the steering mechanism to maneuver the car, and the braking system to slow the car down.
At the chassis level, the computer controls all aspects of driving and power use. But it takes its orders from a higher power -- namely, the driver in the car body. The computer connects to the body's electronics through a single universal docking port. This central port works the same basic way as a USB port on a personal computer: It transmits a constant stream of electronic command signals from the car controller to the central computer, as well as feedback signals from the computer to the controller. Additionally, it provides the electric power needed to operate all of the body's onboard electronics. Ten physical linkages lock the body to the chassis structure.

GM's diagram of the Autonomy design

The driver's control unit, dubbed the X-drive, is a lot closer to a video game controller than a conventional steering wheel and pedal arrangement. The controller has two ergonomic grips, positioned to the left and right of a small LCD monitor. To steer the car, you glide the grips up and down lightly -- you don't have to keep rotating a wheel to turn, you just have to hold the grip in the turning position. To accelerate, you turn either grip, in the same way you would turn the throttle on a motorcycle; and to brake, you squeeze either grip.
Electronic motion sensors, similar to the ones in high-end computer joysticks, translate this motion into a digital signal the central computer can recognize. Buttons on the controller let you switch easily from neutral to drive to reverse, and a starter button turns the car on. Since absolutely everything is hand-controlled, you can do whatever you want with your feet (imagine sticking them in a massager during the drive to and from work every day).

The Hy-wire's X-drive


The X-drive can slide to either side of the vehicle.

The 5.8-inch (14.7-cm) color monitor in the center of the controller displays all the stuff you'd normally find on the dashboard (speed, mileage, fuel level). It also gives you rear-view images from video cameras on the sides and back of the car, in place of conventional mirrors. A second monitor, on a console beside the driver, shows you stereo, climate control and navigation information.
Since it doesn't directly drive any part of the car, the X- drive could really go anywhere in the passenger compartment. In the current Hy-wire sedan model, the X-drive swings around to either of the front two seats, so you can switch drivers without even getting up. It's also easy to adjust the X-drive up or down to improve driver comfort, or to move it out of the way completely when you're not driving.
One of the coolest things about the drive-by-wire system is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling without changing anything in the car's mechanical components -- all it takes to adjust the steering, accelerator or brake sensitivity is some new computer software. In future drive-by-wire vehicles, you will most likely be able to configure the controls exactly to your liking by pressing a few buttons, just like you might adjust the seat position in a car today. It would also be possible in this sort of system to store distinct control preferences for each driver in the family.
.
GM concept of the Autonomy with and without a body attached

The big concern with drive-by-wire vehicles is safety. Since there is no physical connection between the driver and the car's mechanical elements, an electrical failure would mean total loss of control. In order to make this sort of system viable in the real world, drive-by-wire cars will need back-up power supplies and redundant electronic linkages. With adequate safety measures like this, there's no reason why drive-by-wire cars would be any more dangerous than conventional cars. In fact, a lot of designers think they'll be much safer, because the central computer will be able to monitor driver input. Another problem is adding adequate crash protection to the car. The other major hurdle for this type of car is figuring out energy-efficient methods for producing, transporting and storing hydrogen for the onboard fuel-cell stacks. With the current state of technology, actually producing the hydrogen fuel can generate about as much pollution as using gasoline engines, and storage and distribution systems still have a long way to go (see How the Hydrogen Economy Works for more information). So will we ever get the chance to buy a Hy-wire? General Motors says it fully intends to release a production version of the car in 2010, assuming it can resolve the major fuel and safety issues. But even if the Hy-wire team doesn't meet this goal, GM and other automakers are definitely planning to move beyond the conventional car sometime soon, toward a computerized, environmentally friendly alternative. In all likelihood, life on the highway will see some major changes within the next few decades. Chapter -V
HY-WIRE CAR SPECIFICATION
Top speed: 100 miles per hour (161 kph)
Weight: 4,185 pounds (1,898 kg)
Chassis length: 14 feet, 3 inches (4.3 meters)
Chassis width: 5 feet, 5.7 inches (1.67 meters)
Chassis thickness: 11 inches (28 cm)
Wheels: eight-spoke, light alloy wheels.
Tires: 20-inch (51-cm) in front and 22-inch (56-cm) in back
Fuel-cell power: 94 kilowatts continuous, 129 kilowatts peak
Fuel-cell-stack voltage: 125 to 200 volts
Motor: 250- to 380-volt three-phase asynchronous electric motor
Crash protection: front and rear "crush zones" (or "crash
boxes") to absorb impact energy
Related GM patents in progress: 30
GM team members involved in design: 500+

CONCLUSION
By using Hy-Wire technology certain multi national companies like General Motors is fully intended to release a production version of the car in 2010, assuming it can resolve the major fuel and safety issues. The life on the high way will see some major changes within the next few decades.
REFERENCES
howstuffworks.com
generalmoters.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I thank the almighty for providing me with the strength and courage to present the seminar and presentation.
I avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards Dr. T.N. Sathyanesan, head of mechanical engineering department, for permitting me to conduct the seminar and presentation. I also at the outset thank and express my profound gratitude to my seminar and presentation guide Mr. Sasikumar and staff incharge Asst. Prof. Mrs. Jumailath Beevi. D., for their inspiring assistance, encouragement and useful guidance.
I am also indebted to all the teaching and non- teaching staff of the department of mechanical engineering for their cooperation and suggestions, which is the spirit behind this report. Last but not the least, I wish to express my sincere thanks to all my friends for their goodwill and constructive ideas.


RIJIL K.P.


CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. HY-WIRE BASICS 3
3. POWER 6
4. CONTROL 11
5. HY-WIRE CAR SPECIFICATION 18
6. CONCLUSION 19
7. REFERENCES 20
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ABSTRACT
In this seminar and presentation, we will look at one interesting vision of the future, General Motorsâ„¢ remarkable concept car, the Hy-wire. General Motors (GM) may never actually sell the Hy-wire to the public, but it is certainly a good illustration of various ways cars might evolve in the near future.
Instead of an engine, Hy-wire car has a fuel cell stack, which powers an electric motor connected to the wheels. Instead of mechanical and hydraulic linkages, it has a drive by wire system where a computer actually operates the components that move the wheels, activate the brakes and so on, based on input from an electronic controller. By combining fuel cell and drive by wire technology, the Hy-wire car has opened a new world of chassis architectures and customized bodies for individual expression. The development is a significant step towards a new kind of automobile that is substantially friendlier to the environment and provides consumers positive benefits in driving dynamics, and freedom of individual expression.
INTRODUCTION
Cars are immensely complicated machines, but when you get down to it, they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is decided to turning wheel, which grip the road to pull the car body and passengers along. The steering system tilts the wheel side to run the car, and brake and acceleration system control the speed of the wheel. Given that the overall function of the car is basic (it just needs to provide rotary motion to the wheel), it seems a little strange that almost all cars have the same collection of complex crammed under the hood and the same general mass of mechanical and hydraulic linkages running throughout.
Why do cars need necessarily need a steering column, brake and acceleration pedals, a combustion engine and the rest of it This question led the automotive engineers at the General Motors Company to design and develop a new breed of cars.
FIGURE 1 GM'S SEDAN MODEL HY-WIRE
HY-WIRE BASICS
The two basic elements that largely dictate car design today are: the internal combustion engine and mechanical and hydraulic linkages. If we look under the hood of a car, we can see that an internal combustion engine requires a lot of additional equipment to function correctly. The designers trying to bring out new luxurious and environment-friendly cars into the market always have to make room for this equipment.
The same is the case with the mechanical and hydraulic linkages. The basic idea of using the linkages is that the driver can maneuver the various actuators in the car more or less directly, by manipulating driving controls connected to those actuators by shafts, gears and hydraulics. For example, in a rack and pinion steering system turning the steering wheel rotates a shaft connected to a pinion gear, which moves a rack gear connected to the carâ„¢s front wheels.
The defining characteristic of the Hy-wire is that it doesnâ„¢t have either of those two things. Instead of an engine, it has a fuel cell stack, which powers an electric motor connected to the wheels. Instead of mechanical and hydraulic linkages, it has a drive by wire system where a computer actually operates the components that move the wheels, activate the brakes and so on, based on input from an electronic controller. By combining fuel cell and drive by wire technology, the Hy-wire car has opened a new world of chassis architectures and customized bodies for individual expression. The development is a significant step towards a new kind of automobile that is substantially friendlier to the environment and provides consumers positive benefits in driving dynamics, and freedom of individual expression.
FIGURE 2 THE HY-WIRE HAS WHEELS, SEATS AND WINDOWS LIKE A CONVENTIONAL CAR, BUT THE SIMILARITY PRETTY MUCH ENDS THERE. THERE IS NO ENGINE UNDER THE HOOD AND NO STEERING WHEEL OR PEDALS INSIDE.
The result of the two substitutions is a very different type of car and a very different driving experience. There is no steering wheel, there are no pedals and there is no engine compartment. In fact, every piece of equipment that actually moves the car along the road is housed in an 11-inch-thick (28 cm) aluminum Chassis”also known as the skateboard “ at the base of the car. This maximizes the interior space for five occupants and their cargo. Everything above the chassis is dedicated solely to driver control passenger comfort.
FUEL CELL “ON HY-WIRE
A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electricity and heat in the process. A fuel cell provides a DC (direct current) voltage that can be used to power motors, lights or any number of electrical appliances. One can continually recharge a fuel cell by adding chemical fuel- hydrogen for an onboard storage tank
The type of fuel cell that is used in the Hy-wire car is the Proton exchange membrane fuel cell.
Proton exchange membrane
The four basic elements of a PEM fuel cell are:-
¢ The anode, the negative post of the fuel cell, conducts the electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in an external circuit. It has channels etched into it that disperse the hydrogen gas equally over the surface of the catalyst.
¢ The cathode, the positive post of the fuel cell, has channels etched into it that distribute the oxygen to the surface of the catalyst. It also conducts the electrons back from the external circuit to the catalyst, where they can recombine with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.
¢ The electrolyte is the proton exchange membrane. This specially treated material, only conducts positively charged ions. The membrane blocks electrons.
¢ The catalyst is a special material that facilitates the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth. The catalyst is rough and porous so that the maximum surface area of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or oxygen. The platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the PEM.
The working of PEMFC
FIGURE 3 FUEL CELL
The pressurized hydrogen gas (H2) enters the fuel cell on the anode side. This gas is forced through the catalyst by the pressure. When an H2 molecule comes in contact with the platinum on the catalyst, it splits into two H+ ions and two electrons (e-). The electrons are conducted through the anode, where they make their way through the external circuit (doing useful work such as turning a motor) and return to the cathode side of the fuel cell.
Meanwhile, on the cathode side of the fuel cell, oxygen gas (O2) is being forced through the catalyst, where it forms two oxygen atoms. Each of these atoms has a strong negative charge. This negative charge attracts the two H+ ions through the membrane, where they combine with an oxygen atom and two of the electrons, from the external circuit to form a water molecule (H2O).
Chemistry of a Fuel Cell
Anode side:
2H2 => 4H+ + 4e-
Cathode side:
O2 + 4H+ +4e- => 2H2O
Net reaction:
2H2 + O2 => 2H2O
PEMFCs operate at a fairly low temperature (about 176 degrees Fahrenheit, 80 degrees Celsius), which means they warm up quickly and donâ„¢t require expensive containment structures.
FIGURE 4 THE HYDROGEN TANKS AND FUEL-CELL STACK IN THE HY-WIRE
The gaseous hydrogen fuel needed to power this system is stored in three cylindrical tanks, weighing about 165 pounds (75 kilograms) total. The tanks are made of a special carbon composite material with the high structural strength needed to contain high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tanks in the current model hold about 4.5 pounds (2kg) of hydrogen at about 5000 pounds per square inch (350 bars). In future models the Hy-wire engineers hope to increase the pressure threshold to 10000 pounds per square inch (700 bars), which would boost the carâ„¢s fuel capacity to extend the driving range.
DRIVE BY WIRE TECHNOLOGY
The Hy-wireâ„¢s brain is a central computer housed in the middle of the chassis. It sends electronic signals to the motor control unit to vary the speed, the steering mechanism to maneuver the car, and the braking system to slow the car down. The central computer is connected to an array of advanced sensors. Based on input from the driver, the computer activates the different actators to control the motion of the vehicle. The driver doesnâ„¢t actually drive the car directly: He or she gives instructions and the computer decides how to carry them out. The computer constantly makes adjustments on it to improve the driving performance the computer artificially creates a relatively smooth ride. The computer is connected to the bodyâ„¢s electronics through universal docking ports. The UDP transmits a constant stream of electronic command signals from the car controller to the central computer, as well as feedback signals from the computer to the controller. Additionally, it provides the electric power needed to operate all of the bodyâ„¢s onboard electronics.
FIGURE 5 THE HY-WIRE'S X-DRIVE
FIGURE 6 THE X-DRIVE CAN SLIDE TO EITHER SIDE OF THE VEHICLE
The driverâ„¢s control unit, dubbed the X-drive has to ergonomic groups, positioned to the left and right of a small LCD monitor. To steer the car, you glide the gripes up and down lightly, you donâ„¢t have to keep rotating a wheel to turn, and you just have to hold the grip in the turning position. To accelerate; you turn either grip, in the same way you would turn the throttle on a motor cycle; and to brake you squeeze either grip. Electronic motion sensors, translate the motion of the X-drive in to a digital signal the computer can recognize. Buttons on the controller let you switch easily from neutral to drive to rivers, and a starter buttons turns the car on. Absolutely everything is hand controlled.
The 5.8 inch (14.7 centimeter) color monitor in the center of the controller displays all the stuff youËœd normally find on the dashboard 9speed, mileage, fuel level). It also gives you rear-view images from video cameras on the sides and back of the car, in place of conventional mirrors. A second monitor, on a console beside the driver, shows you stereo, climate control and navigation information. Since it doesnâ„¢t directly drive any part of the car, the X-drive could really go anywhere in the passenger compartment. In the current Hy-wire sedan model, the X-drive swings around to either of the front two seats, so you can switch drivers without even getting up. Itâ„¢s also easy to adjust the X-drive up or down to improve driver comfort.
One of the amazing things about the drive-by-wire system is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling without changing anything in the car™s mechanical components “ all it takes to adjust the steering, accelerator or brake sensitivity is some new computer software. One fuel cell only puts out a little bit of power, so you need to combine many cells into a stack to get much use out of the process. The fuel-cell stack in the Hy-wire is made up of 200 individual cells connected in series, which collectively provide 94 kilowatts of continuous power and 129 kilowatts at peak power. The compact cell stack is kept cool by a conventional radiator system that™s powered by the fuel cells themselves. The fuel system delivers DC voltage ranging from 125 to 200 volts, depending on the load in the circuit. A transformer in motor controller boosts this up to 250 to 380 volts and converts it to AC current to drive the three-phase electric motor that rotates the wheels.
The electric motorâ„¢s job is to apply torque to the front wheel axle to spin the two front wheels. The control unit varies the speed of the car by increasing or decreasing the power applied to the motor. When the controller applies maximum power from the fuel-cell stack, the motorâ„¢s rotor spins at 12000 revolutions per minute, delivering a torque of 159 pound-feet. A single-stage planetary gear, with the wheels, thatâ„¢s enough torque to move the 4200 -pound (1905-kg) car 100 miles per hour (161 kph) on a level road. Smaller electric motors maneuver the wheels to steer the car, and electrically controlled.
FIGURE 7 GM'S DIAGRAM OF THE AUTONOMY DESIGN

ADVANTAGES:
1. Fuel efficient - Since a fuel cell propulsion system is about twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine, a fuel cell vehicle could provide twice the fuel efficiency of a comparably sized conventional vehicle, and an optimized fuel cell vehicle like Hy-wire would be even more efficient.
2. Environment friendly - Since the reaction through which the power is generated is 2H2+O2=>2H2O the only bi-product formed is water, which is a non-pollutant. Since there is no burning or other oxidation process in the releasing of energy harmful components like nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon oxides and other unburnt products are not produced. Hence these cars are highly eco-friendly.
3. High stability - As all the technical elements have been nicely blended into the chassis, most of the power train load has been evenly distributed between the front and rear of the chassis. This provides a low center of gravity, giving the architecture both a high stability and driving dynamics potential. This contributes to the overall safety of the vehicle, by enabling superior handling, while resisting rollover forces, with the tallest body attached.
4. Highly spacious - As there are no linkages and engine lot of legroom space is available for the passengers.
5. Driver friendly - As the X-drive does not have any physical linkages with the steering controller, it can be taken to anywhere inside the car. Moreover as everything that drives the car is housed in the chassis, the driver does not have to sit behind a mass of machinery. This gives the driver a clear view of the road and thus increases the drivability.
6. Freedom of individual expression - As the chassis would be common for most the Hy-wire vehicles, one can easily remove the entire passenger compartment and replace it with a different one. This leads to the freedom of individual expression. For example if one wants to switch from a van to a sports car, he does not need an entirely new car; he only needs a new body (which would be a lot cheaper).
FIGURE 8 GM CONCEPT OF THE AUTONOMY WITH AND
WITHOUT A BODY ATTACHED
DISADVANTAGES
1. Low safety - The big concern with drive-by-wire vehicles is safety. Since there is no physical connection between the driver and the carâ„¢s mechanical elements, an electrical failure would mean total loss of control. In order to make this sort of system viable in the real world, drive-by-wire cars will need back- up power supply and redundant electronic linkages.
2. Storage and transportation of hydrogen fuels - The other major hurdle for this type of car is figuring out energy-efficient method for producing, transporting and storing hydrogen for the on board fuel cell stack. With the current state of technology, actually the production of the hydrogen fuel can generate about as much pollution as using gasoline engines.
3. Pricing - With the current status of development, manufacturing of the Hy-wire cars on a mass scale would not at all be economical. According to the present accounts, the cost for manufacturing even a single Hy-wire car would be about 1 to 2 crores.
FUTURE OF HY-WIRE
Looking in to the future, Burns says he thinks fuel cells offer a promising alternative, but he recognizes that they need to be compelling, affordable, and profitable. One area GM is tackling is hydrogen storage. GM partnered with Quantum Technologies to develop a prototype tank that will give you a driving range of up to 300 miles before you have to refuel.
Burns says GM is looking into other ways it can store compressed hydrogen, Thereâ„¢s liquid for hydrogen and thereâ„¢s also metal hydrides when youâ„¢re storing hydrogen in a solid state, he said. Keebler says another solution could be to build a hydrogen reformer into the car, which would enable it to turn other fuels into hydrogen. You could also house these reforms at gas stations, he says. Burns says you could distribute the gasoline the same way you do today, but it would go through a reformer at the pump, creating hydrogen from the gas. Burns sees a world where GM overcomes those obstacles and your car becomes part of your energy solution and not the problem.
Letâ„¢s imagine a world in which you could come home at night and pull your hydrogen fuel cell vehicle into your garage. The first thing you do is connect it to some compressed hydrogen tanks that are also in your garage and you put hydrogen into your vehicle. You are refueling at home, he said. At the end of the day, if you have some leftover hydrogen in your tank, you could also use it to power your home. He says he also envisions you being able to plug your car into your cityâ„¢s electric grid and selling back fuel you donâ„¢t use. Keebler says he likes what he has seen from the Hy-wire overall. He hasnâ„¢t been able to test-drive it yet. But he said, If they can pull that off, they will have indeed leaped over the completion.
CONCLUSION
The Hy-wire concept has so profoundly brought about changes in the automotive industry that GM and other auto makers are planning to move beyond the conventional car, towards a computerized environment friendly alternative. They are actually planning to launch such a vehicle for the public usage by the year 2020, hoping that they can overcome all the drawbacks faced by the Hy-wire car.
Anyway, in all likelihood life on the highway will see some major changes within the next few decades.

REFERENCES
1. popularmechanics.com
2. gm.com
3. motortrend.com
4. fuelcellonline.com
5. avista.com
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INTRODUCTION

Cars are immensely complicated machines, but when you get down to it, they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is dedicated to turning wheels, which grip the road to pull the car body and passengers along. The steering system tilts the wheels side to side to turn the car, and brake and acceleration systems control the speed of the wheels.

Given that the overall function of a car is so basic (it just needs to provide rotary motion to wheels), it seems a little strange that almost all cars have the same collection of complex devices crammed under the hood and the same general mass of mechanical and hydraulic linkages running throughout. Why do cars necessarily need a steering column, brake and acceleration pedals, a combustion engine, a catalytic converter and the rest of it?

According to many leading automotive engineers, they don't; and more to the point, in the near future, they won't. Most likely, a lot of us will be driving radically different cars within 20 years. And the difference won't just be under the hood -- owning and driving cars will change significantly, too.



In this article, we'll look at one interesting vision of the future, General Motor's remarkable concept car, the Hy-wire. GM may never actually sell the Hy-wire to the public, but it is certainly a good illustration of various ways cars might evolve in the near future.
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24-12-2010, 11:22 AM



.pptx   Presentation1.pptx (Size: 302.5 KB / Downloads: 175)


Abstract
In this we describe about car that runs on Hydrogen.
We give in Hydrogen as source of fuel for running the vehicle.
The technology used in this is “WIRE” systems.
All the mechanical links we find in our daily car are eliminated.
So its named as “HY-WIRE” car.
In this car we doesn’t see gases as exhaust but water, it’s the only exhaust we get.
Introduction
This concept of car was developed in General Motors an US automobile company.
Its shape is just like an skateboard as it doesn’t have any body it consists only of chassis.
All the systems of the car are kept under the chassis which is only 11inch in thick.
A computer is kept under the chassis which controls the system of the car.
Due to the concept of WIRE systems we doesn’t find any mechanical and hydraulic linkages.

Chassis of Skateboard
Parts in Chassis
Fuel cell stack
By-wire system
Hydrogen storage tank
Wheel hub motor
Lithium-ion battery
Front electric motor


Design
Due to hydrogen fuel cell drive system used by the Hy-wire, the conventional car layout has been revamped.
Without the need for a conventional engine block and transmission system coupled to the steering column and pedals through mechanical linkage the car's power system and single electric motor are built into a flat skateboard configuration.
Because all propulsion and energy storage systems are housed in the skateboard, designers are free to arrange the passenger compartment however they see fit.
The skateboard itself contains crumple zones similar to those in conventional automobiles.

Control unit of Vehicle
In the control unit of the vehicle we have an computer arranged under the chassis of the vehicle.
This computer controls the speed of the vehicle.
There is connection between the parts and computer using wire system.
There are LCD screens in front of the driver as they show the road in front and behind the vehicle.

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02-04-2011, 10:00 AM

Submitted by
Karthik .S.N

The Hy-Wire Car
ABSTRACT

Cars are immensely complicated machines, but when you get down to it, they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is dedicated to turning wheels, which grip the road to pull the car body and passengers along. The steering system tilts the wheels side to side to turn the car, and brake and acceleration systems control the speed of the wheels.
According to many leading automotive engineers, they don't; and more to the point, in the near future, they won't. Most likely, a lot of us will be driving radically different cars within 20 years. And the difference won't just be under the hood -- owning and driving cars will change significantly, too.
In this article, we'll look at one interesting vision of the future, General Motor's remarkable concept car, the Hy-wire. GM may never actually sell the Hy-wire to the public, but it is certainly a good illustration of various ways cars might evolve in the near future.
Hy-Wire Basics
Two basic elements largely dictate car design today: the internal combustion engine and mechanical and hydraulic linkages. If you've ever looked under the hood of a car, you know an internal combustion engine requires a lot of additional equipment to function correctly. No matter what else they do with a car, designers always have to make room for this equipment.
The same goes for mechanical and hydraulic linkages. The basic idea of this system is that the driver maneuvers the various actuators in the car (the wheels, brakes, etc.) more or less directly, by manipulating driving controls connected to those actuators by shafts, gears and hydraulics. In a rack-and-pinion steering system, for example, turning the steering wheel rotates a shaft connected to a pinion gear, which moves a rack gear connected to the car's front wheels. In addition to restricting how the car is built, the linkage concept also dictates how we drive: The steering wheel, pedal and gear-shift system were all designed around the linkage idea.



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andrewwall
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19-04-2011, 06:21 PM

That specific characteristics of the High Wire is that it does not accept any of these things. Instead of the engine, has a ammunition corpuscle stack, which admiral an electric motor affiliated to the wheels. Instead of automated linkages and hydraulic.
Very complex Cars machines, but when you get down to it, it is the task incredibly simple. And decided most complex things in the car to turn the steering wheel, which grip the road to pull the body of the car and passengers along. Steering wheel side tends to run the car, and brake and accelerate the speed control system steering wheel.
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raviranju2311
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16-09-2011, 11:56 PM

plz send me seminar and presentation on hy-wire car.
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17-09-2011, 09:16 AM

To get more information about the topic "the hy-wire car full report " please refer the link below
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